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3 1822024585846 

Soc,al Sciences & Humanities Library 

University of California, San Diego 
''ease Note: This item is subject to recall. 

Date Due 

1 2 2QQ 

Cl 39 (5/97) 

UCSD Lib. 












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French Love . . 

Italian Love ... '4 

Spanish Love . . 1 9 

German Love ... .25 

English Love .... -37 

American Love ... -47 


Love is an Illusion .... .60 

Individuals Sacrificed to the Species . . 60 

Sources of Love . . . ! . .62 

(1) Physical Beauty . . .62 

(2) Psychic Traits . ... -63 

(3) Complementary Qualities . .64 

I. Health . . . . -74 

Greek Beauty . . . .-- . 77 

Mediaeval Ugliness . . . . .80 

Modern Hygiene . . . . .82 

II. Crossing . . . ''."' 85 

III. Romantic Love . . . . , . 9 2 

IV. Mental Refinement . . . . -95 
EVOLUTION OF TASTE . . . . . . 101 

Savage Notions of Beauty . . . . 101 

Non-esthetic "Ornamentation" . .''. .103 

Personal Beauty as a Fine Art . . . 103 

vi Contents 


Negative Tests of Beauty . . . . .106 

(a) Animals ...... 106 

(b) Savages . . . . . .no 

(f)\ Degraded Classes . . . . . in 

(d) Age and Decrepitude . . , .112 

(e) Disease . . . . . .112 


(a) Symmetry . . . . . .118 

(i>) Gradation . . ! . . . .120 

(c) Curvature . . . . . .123 

Masculine and Feminine Beauty . . 125 

(cf) Delicacy . . . . . .127 

(<?) Smoothness . . . . . .129 

(f) Lustre and Colour . . . . .130 

(g) Expression, Variety, Individuality . . . 134 
THE FEET ....... 140 

Size ........ 140 

Fashionable Ugliness . . , . . 141 
Tests of Beauty ...... 145 

A Graceful Gait . . . . . 149 

Evolution of the Great Toe . . . . .152 

National Peculiarities . . . . .156 

Beautifying Hygiene . . . . . 157 

Dancing and Grace . . . . . .160 

Dancing and Courtship . . . . .161 

Evolution of Dance Music . . . . . 166 

The Dance of Love ...... 169 

Ballet-Dancing . . . . . .170 

THE LOWER LIMBS . . . . . .171 

Muscular Development . . , . . . 171 

Beautifying Exercise . . . . . 174 

Fashionable Ugliness . . . . .178 

The Crinoline Craze . . . . . 179 

THE WAIST . . . . . . . 183 

The Beauty-Curve . . . . . .183 

The Wasp- Waist Mania .. . . . . .184 

Hygienic Disadvantages . . . .186 

Contents vii 


^Esthetic Disadvantages . . . .188 

Corpulence and Leanness . . . . .190 

The Fashion Fetish Analysed . . . 195 

Individualism -versus Fashion .... 201 

Masculine Fashions ...... 204 

CHEST AND BOSOM . . . .--.. 208 

Feminine Beauty . . . . ' . . 208 

Masculine Beauty . . . . . -213 

Magic Effect of Deep Breathing . . . .214 

A Moral Question . . . . . .217 

NECK AND SHOULDER . . . .' . . 219 

ARM AND HAND . . . . . . . 221 

Evolution and Sexual Differences . . . .221 

Calisthenics and Massage . . . . 224 

The Second Face ...... 226 

Finger Nails . . . - . . . . 228 

Manicure Secrets ...... 230 

JAW, CHIN, AND MOUTH ..... 232 

Hands versus Jaws ...... 232 

Dimples in the Chin . . . . . . 238 

Refined Lips ...... 240 

Cosmetic Hints . . .... . . 252 

THE CHEEKS . . . . . . . 255 

High Cheek Bones . . . . . . 255 

Colour and Blushes ...... 259 

THE EARS . . . . . . . 266 

A Useless Ornament . . . ..... 266 

Cosmetics and Fashion . . , . . . 270 

Physiognomic Vagaries -. - r^ . ~ . 272 

Noise and Civilisation . . . . . 273 

A Musical Voice . . . . . . 276 

THE NOSE . . . . . . .277 

Size and Shape . . . . . . 277 

Evolution of the Nose ..... 279 

Greek and Hebrew Noses . . . ... 283 

Fashion and Cosmetic Surgery . . . . . 287 

Nose-Breathing and Health ..... 291 

viii Contents 

Cosmetic Value of Odours ..... 292 

THE FOREHEAD ....... 296 

Beauty and Brain . . . . ' . . 29*1 

Fashionable Deformity . . '. . .- . 299 

Wrinkles ..... .: . 301 

THE COMPLEXION . . . .... 304 

White versus Black . . . . . . 304 

Cosmetic Hints . . . . . . 315 

Freckles and Sunshine . . . . . 319 

THE EYES . . . . - . . 323 

Colour . ' . . . . . . . 324 

Lustre ....... 331 

Form . .- . 335 

Expression ....... 339 

(a) Lustre . . . . . . 341 

(3) Colour of Iris . . . . . 345 

(c) Movements of the Iris . . . . 347 

(d) Eyeball ..... 348 
00 Eyelids . . . .352 
(/) Eyebrows .... 356 

Cosmetic Hints . ... . . . . . 357 

THE HAIR . . . . . . 358 

Cause of Man's Nudity ..... 358 

Beards and Moustaches ... . . 362 

Baldness and Depilatories . . . . . . 367 

^Esthetic Value of Hair . . . . 371 


Blonde versus Brunette . . , t , 37 1 ? 

Brunette versus Blonde . . .j 777 

Why Cupid Favours Brunettes . . . 280 


FRENCH BEAUTY ..... 390 


SPANISH BEAUTY . . . 40 - 


ENGLISH BEAUTY . . , . 2 - 



ROMANTIC Love commonly considered immut- 
able not only displays countless individual vari- 
ations in regard to duration and degrees of intensity, 
but has a sort of " local colour " in each country ; 
or, to keep up our old metaphor, a varying clang- 
tint, depending on the greater or less prominence 
of certain " overtones." 

To describe all these varieties of Love would 
require a separate volume. And since all the most 
interesting forms of the romantic passion are to be 
met with in France, Italy, Spain, Germany, England, 
and America, it will suffice to briefly characterise 
Love in those countries. 


As literary luck would have it, the subject of 
French Love follows naturally upon the subject of 
the last chapter, the Remedia Amoris. 

The French are too clever a nation to leave to 
individual effort the difficult task of curing the mind 
of such an obstinate thing as Love. All the papas 
and mammas in the land have put their heads together 
(, VOL. n. B 

2 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

and devised two methods of killing Love wholesale, 
compared with which all the remedies named in the 
last chapter are mere fly-bites. 

These two methods are Chaperonage and Pa- 
rental Choice, as opposed to Courtship and Individual 
Sexual Selection. 

Paradoxical as it may seem, there is in the midst 
of modern Europe a nation which, in the treatment 
of women, Love, and marriage, stands on the same 
low level of evolution as the ancient, mediaeval, and 
Oriental nations. 

This is not *a theory, but a fact patent to all, and 
attested by the best English, German, and French 

One of the deepest of French thinkers, whose eyes 
were opened by travel and comparison, De Stendhal, 
in 1842, says in his book De V Amour: "Pour 
comprendre cette passion, que depuis trente ans la 
peur du ridicule cache avec tant de soin parmi nous, 
il faut en parler comme d'une maladie " " To under- 
stand this passion, which during the last thirty years 
has been concealed among us with so much solicitude, 
from fear of ridicule, it is necessary to speak of it as 
a malady." 

But Stendhal greatly understates the case. It was 
not only within thirty years from the time when he 
wrote, and by means of ridicule, that the French had 
tried hard to kill Love. They have never really 
emancipated themselves from mediaeval barbarism. 
Pure Romantic Love between two young unmarried 
persons has never yet flourished in France because 
it has never been allowed to grow. To-day, as in the 
days of the Troubadours, the only form of Love cele- 

French Love 

brated in French plays and romances is the form 
which implies conjugal infidelity. 

" Marriage, as treated in the old French epics," 
says Ploss, " is rarely based on love ; " the woman 
marries for protection, the man for her wealth or 
social affiliations. In the eighteenth century girls 
were compelled from their earliest years to live only 
for appearance sake : " The most harmless natural 
enjoyment, every childish ebullition, is interdicted as 
improper. Her mother denies her the expression of 
tender emotion as too bourgeois, too common. The 
little one grows up in a dreary, heartless vacuum ; 
her deeper feelings remain undeveloped. . . . Real 
love would be too ordinary a motive of marriage, 
and therefore extremely ridiculous. It is not offered 
her, accordingly, nor does she feel any." 

Heine wrote from Paris in 1837 that "girls never 
fall in love in this country." " With us in Germany, 
as also in England and other nations of Germanic 
origin, young girls are allowed the utmost possible 
liberty, whereas married women become subjected to 
the strict and anxious supervision of their husbands. 

" Here in France, as already stated, the reverse is 
the case : young girls remain in the seclusion of a 
convent until they either marry or are introduced to 
the world under the strict eye of a relative. In the 
world, i.e. in the French salon, they always remain 
silent and little noticed, for it is neither good form 
here nor wise to make love to an unmarried girl. 

" There lies the difference. We Germans, as well 
as our Germanic neighbours, bestow our love always 
on unmarried girls, and these only are celebrated by 
our poets ; among the French, on the other hand, 

4 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

married women only are the object of love, in life as 
well as in literature." 

The difficulty of becoming acquainted with a 
young lady, Mr. Hamerton tells us, is greatest "in 
what may be called the ' respectable ' classes in 
country - towns and their vicinities. In Parisian 
society young ladies go out into le monde, and 
may be seen and even spoken to at evening-parties." 

" And even spoken to " is good, is very good. 
What a privilege for the young men ! The iron 
bars which formerly separated them from the young 
ladies have actually been removed, and they are 
allowed to speak to them in presence of a heart- 
chilling, conversation -killing dragon. No wonder 
Parisian society is so corrupt ! 

Mr. Hamerton has given in Round My House the 
most realistic and fascinating account of French court- 
ship and marriage-customs ever written. He is a great 
admirer of the French, always ready to excuse their 
foibles, and his testimony is, therefore, doubly valu- 
able as that of an absolutely impartial witness. He 
had an opportunity for many years of studying French 
provincial life with an artist's trained faculties ; and 
here are a few sentences culled from his descriptions : 

" It is not merely difficult, in our neighbourhood, 
for a young man in the respectable classes to get 
acquainted with a young lady, but every conceivable 
arrangement is devised to make it absolutely im- 
possible. Balls and evening-parties are hardly ever 
given, and when they are given great care is taken 
to keep young men out of them, and young 
marriageable girls either dance with each other 
or with mere children." 

French Love 5 

Whereas in England " a young girl may go 
where she likes, without much risk to her good 
name," a French girl " may not cross a street alone, 
nor open a book which has not been examined, nor 
have an opinion about anything." " The French 
ideal of a well-brought-up young lady is that she 
should not know anything whatever about love and 
marriage, that she should be both innocent and 
ignorant, and both in the supreme degree both to 
a degree which no English person can imagine." 

" The young men are not to blame ; they would 
be ready enough, perhaps, to fall in love if they had 
the chance, like any Englishman or German, but the 
respectable parents of the young lady take care that 
they shall not have the chance of falling in love." 

The only opportunity a young man has of seeing 
a girl is at a distance, at church or in a religious 
procession. Here he may see her face ; her 
character he can only ascertain through gossip, a 
lady friend, or the parish priest. It is much more 
respectable, however, to show no such curiosity, for 
its absence implies the absence of such a ridiculous 
thing as Love. " There is nothing which good 
society in France disapproves of so much as the 
passion of Love, or anything resembling it." " When 
Ccelebs asks for the hand of a girl he has seen for 
a minute, he may just possibly be in love with her, 
which is a degrading supposition ; but if he has 
never seen her, you cannot even suspect him of a 
sentiment so unbecoming." 

There is but one way for the young man to gain 
admission to a house where there is a marriageable 
young lady : " He must first, through a third party, 

6 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

ask to marry the young lady, and, if her parents 
consent, he will then be admitted to see her and 
speak to her, but not otherwise. The respectable 
order of affairs is that the offer and acceptance should 
precede and not follow courtship? 

Would it be possible to conceive a more diabol- 
ically ingenious social machinery for massacring 
Romantic Love en gros ? 

" Marriages in France are generally arranged by 
the exercise of reason and prudence, rather than by 
either passion or affection." Mr. Hamerton gives 
an amusing account of how he was asked to be 
matrimonial ambassador by a young man who had 
never seen the girl he wanted to marry. Mr. 
Hamerton obliged the young man, but was told by 
the mother that if the young man would wait two 
years he might have a fair chance, provided a richer 
or nobler suitor did not turn up in the meantime. 

Money and Rank -versus Love. French mammas 
have at least one virtue. They are not hypocrites. 

The Countess von Bothmer, who lived in France 
a quarter of a century, says in her French Home 
Life : " Where we so ordinarily listen to what we 
understand by love to the temptations of the young 
heart in all their forms (however transitory), to our 
individual impressions and our own opinions the 
French consult fitness of relative situation, recipro- 
cities of fortune and position, and harmonies of 
family intercourse." 

To annihilate the last resource of Love elope- 
ment the Code Napotion forbids all marriages 
without either the consent of the father and mother, 
or proof that they are both dead. " It is very 

French Love 7 

troublesome to get married in France ; the operation 
is surrounded by difficulties and formalities which 
would make an Englishman stamp with rage." 

Social life, of course, suffers as much from this 
idiotic system as Romantic Love. French hospi- 
tality "does not extend beyond the family circle," 
we are informed by M. Max O'Rell, who also gives 
this amusing instance of the imbecility or mental 
slavery (he does not use these words) produced by 
the French system of education and chaperonage : 

" I remember I was one day sitting in the Champs 
Elysees with two English ladies. Beside us was a 
young French girl with her father and mother. The 
person on the right of papa rose and went away, and 
we heard the young innocent say to her mother : 
'Mamma, may I go and sit by papa?' It was a 
baby of about eighteen or twenty. Those English 
ladies laugh over the affair to this day." 

Boys suffer as well as girls. As the author of 
an article on " Parisian Psychology " remarks : " There 
are no mothers in France ; it is a nation of ' mammas,' 
who, in the most unlimited sense of the word, spoil 
their boys, weaken them in body and soul, dwarf 
their thought, dry their hearts, and lower them to 
below even their own level, hoping thereby to rule 
over them through life, as they too often do. French- 
women having been at best but half-wives, regard 
their children as a sort of compensation for what 
they have themselves not had ; and after the mis- 
chievous fashion of weak ' mammas,' prolong baby- 
hood till far into mature life." 

The French, in fact, are a nation of babies. Their 
puerile conceit, which prevents them from learning 

8 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

to read any language but their own, and thus finding 
out what other nations think of them, is responsible 
in part for the mediaeval barbarism of their matri- 
monial arrangements. The Parisian is the most 
provincial animal in the world. In any other 
metropolis be it London, New York, Vienna, or 
Berlin people understand and relish whatever is 
good in literature, art, and life, be it English, American, 
French, German, or Italian. But the Parisian under- 
stands only what is narrowly and exclusively French. 
And this is the dictionary definition of Provincialism. 
The consequences of this mediaevalism and pro- 
vincialism in modern France are thus eloquently 
summed up by a writer in the Westminster Review 


" Such education as girls receive is not only 
not a preparation for the wedded state, it is a 
positive disqualification for it. They are not taught 
to read, they are not taught to reason ; they are 
launched into life without a single intellectual interest. 
The whole effort of their early training goes to fill 
their mind with puerilities and superstitions. As 
regards God, they are instructed to believe in relics 
and old bones ; as regards man, they are instructed 
to believe in dress, in mannerisms, and coquetry. 
Their love of appreciation, after being enormously 
developed, is bottled up and tied down until a hus- 
band is found to draw the cork. What else, then, 
can we look for but an explosion of frivolity ? Can 
we expect that such a provision of coquettishness 
will be reserved for the husband's exclusive use? 
He will be tired of it in three months unless it is 
tired of him before ; and then the pent-up waters 

French Love 9 

will forsake their narrow bed and overflow the 
country far and wide." 

No wonder Napoleon remarked that " Love does 
more harm than good." And right he was, most 
emphatically, for the only kind of Love possible in 
France does infinite harm. It poisons life and 
literature alike. 

We can now understand the fierceness of Dumas's 
attacks on manages de convenance : " The manifest 
deterioration of the race touches him ; it does not 
touch us. Nor do we at all realise the next to im- 
possibility of a man ever marrying for love in France. 
There are those who have tried to do it, but they 
can never get on in life ; they are reputed of ' bad 
example ' " (St. James's Gazette}. 

And now we come upon a paradox which has 
puzzled a great many thinkers. The Countess von 
Bothmer, while deploring the absence of Love in 
French courtship, endeavours to show that domestic 
happiness and conjugal affection are, nevertheless, not 
rare in France. French husbands "are ordinarily 
with their wives, accompany them wherever they can, 
and share their friendships and distractions." Mr. 
Hamerton likewise bears witness that French girls 
" become excellent wives, faithful, orderly, dutiful, 
contented, and economical. They all either love 
their husbands, or conduct themselves as if tJiey did 
so." He says the notion fostered by novels " that 
Frenchmen are always occupied in making love to 
their neighbours' wives " is nonsense ; that there is 
no more adultery than elsewhere. " There exists in 
foreign countries, and especially in England, a belief 
that Frenchwomen are very generally adulteresses. 

i o Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

The origin of the belief is this, the manner in which 
marriages are generally managed in France leaves 
no room for interesting love-stories. Novelists and 
dramatists must find love-stories somewhere, and so 
they have to seek for them in illicit intrigues." 

This is all very ingenious, but the argument is 
not conclusive. Even granted for a moment that 
Mr. Hamerton is right in his defence of French con- 
jugal life, is it not a more than sufficient condem- 
nation of the French system of " courtship " that one- 
half of the nation are prevented from reading its 
literature because it is so foul and filthy because 
Love has been made synonymous with adultery ? 

But Mr. Hamerton's assertion loses its probability 
when viewed in the light of the following considera- 
tions. He himself admits that the French are 
anxious to read about Love, that the novelists and 
dramatists must find stories of Love somewhere 
mind you, not of conjugal but of Romantic Love 
and the Paris Figaro not long ago denounced the 
French novelists of the period for devoting their 
stories to Love almost exclusively, whereas Balzac, 
Dumas, Thackeray, and Scott, at least introduced 
various other matters of interest. Now French novels 
have the largest editions of any books published ; and 
if so vast an interest is displayed by the French in 
reading about Love, is it likely that their interest is 
purely literary ? Certainly not. They will seek it 
in real life. And in real life it can only be found in 
one sphere, which elsewhere is protected against such 
invasions, by the young being allowed to meet one 
another. " It is to be feared that they who marry 
where they do not love, will love where they do not 

French Love i r 

marry." In this respect human nature is the same 
the world over. The testimony of scores of unpre- 
judiced authors on this head cannot be ignored. 

This, however, is only one of the evils following 
from the French suppression of pre- matrimonial 
Love. The parents may or may not suffer through 
conjugal jealousy and infidelity, one thing is certain, 
that the children suffer from it, in body and mind. 
It is leading to the depopulation of France. It was 
M. Jules Rochard who called attention to the fact 
that " France, which two centuries ago included one- 
third of the total population of Europe, now contains 
but one-tenth ;" although the death-rate is smaller 
in France than in most European countries, and 
although there has been a gradual increase of wealth 
throughout the country. 

That the suppression of Romantic Love and of 
all opportunities for courtship is the principal cause 
of the decline of France, is apparent from the fact 
that the countries in which population increases most 
rapidly as America and Great Britain are those 
in which Romantic Love is the chief motive to 

Romantic Love goes by complementary qualities, 
the defects of the parents neutralising one another 
in the offspring ; so that the children who are the 
issue of a love-match are commonly more beautiful 
than their parents. In France there is no selection 
whatever, except with reference to money and rank. 
Not even Health is considered, the sine qua non of 
Love as well as Beauty. Hence the absence of 
Love in France has led to the almost absolute 
absence of beauty. And it would be nothing short 

i 2 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

of a miracle if the offspring of a young maiden, still 
in her teens, and an old broken-down sinner, chosen 
by her parents for his wealth or social position, were 
any different from the puny, hairy men and coarse- 
featured, vulgar women that make up the bulk of 
the French nation. 

In Paris one does occasionally see a fine figure 
and a rather pretty face, but they almost always 
belong to the lower classes. As the lower classes 
allow the young considerable freedom, it would seem 
as if beauty in this class ought to be as common an 
article as in England or the United States. But the 
incapacity of the young women for feeling and 
reciprocating Love neutralises these opportunities. 
For of what use is it for a man to feel Love if the 
woman invariably bases her choice on money ? 
This matter is most clearly brought out by Mr. 
Hamerton : 

" Amongst the lower classes, the peasantry and 
workmen . . . girls have as much freedom as they 
have in England. The great institution of the 
parlement gives them ample opportunities for be- 
coming acquainted with their lovers ; indeed the 
acquaintance, in many cases, goes further than is 
altogether desirable. A peasant girl requires no 
parental help in looking after her own interests. 
She admits a lover to the happy state of parlement, 
which means that he has a right to talk with her 
when they meet, and to call upon her, dance with 
her, etc. The lover is always eager to fix the 
wedding-day, the girl is not so eager. She keeps 
him on indefinitely until a richer one appears, on 
which No. I has the mortification of seeing himself 

French Love 1 3 

excluded from parlement, whilst another takes his 
place. In this way a clever girl will go on for several 
years, amusing herself by torturing amorous swains, 
until at length a sufficiently big fish nibbles at the 
bait, when she hooks him at once, and takes good 
care that he shall not escape. Nothing can be more 
pathetically ludicrous than the condition of a young 
peasant who is really in love, especially if he is able 
to write, for then he pours forth his feelings in in- 
numerable letters full of tenderness and complaint. 
On her part the girl does not answer the letters, and 
has not the slightest pity for the unhappy victim of 
her charms. After seeing a good deal of such love- 
affairs I have come to the conclusion that in humble 
life young men do really very often feel 

" ' The hope, the fear, the jealous care, 
The exalted portion of the pain 
And power of love.' 

And they ' wear the chain ' too. Young women, on 
the other hand, seem only to amuse themselves with 
all this simple-hearted devotion 

" ' And mammon wins his way where seraphs might despair.' " 

Schopenhauer pointed out that the French lack 
the Gefuhl fiir das Innige the tenderness and 
emotional depth which characterise the Germans and 
Italians. It is this that accounts for the inability 
of the French to appreciate Love, and for the fact 
that even vice is coarser in France than elsewhere, as 
remarked by Mr. Lecky, who, in his History of 
European Morals, contrasts " the coarse, cynical, 
ostentatious sensuality, which forms the most repul- 
sive feature of the French character," with " the 

1 4 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

dreamy, languid, and aesthetical sensuality of the 
Spaniard or Italian." And it remained for the 
French to attempt to deify vice as in that over-rated 
and repulsive story of Manon Lescaut. 

Mme. de Stael, who suffered so much from the 
provincialism (alias patriotism) of her countrymen, 
saw clearly the immorality of the French system 
of marrying girls without consulting their choice. 
Brandes relates the following anecdote of her : 
" One day, speaking of the unnaturalness of marriages 
arranged by the parents, as distinguished from those 
in which the young girls choose for themselves, she 
exclaimed, ' I would compel my daughter to marry 
the man of her choice ! ' " 

An attempt is being made at present in Paris to 
introduce the Anglo-American feminine spirit into 
society. The word flirter has been adopted, and 
the thing itself experimented with. But the French 
girl does not know how to draw the line between 
coquetry and flirtation. She needs a better educa- 
tion before she can flirt properly. This education 
the Government is trying to give her at present ; but 
it meets with stubborn resistance from the priests, 
and from the old notion that intellectual culture is 
fatal to feminine charms and the capacity for 
affection. If this book should accomplish nothing 
else than prove that without intellect there can be no 
deep Love, it will not have been written in vain. 


In Italy, in the sixteenth century, women were 
kept in as strict seclusion as to-day in France ; and 
with the same results, conjugal infidelity and a 

Italian Love 15 

great lack of Personal Beauty, as noted by Mon- 
taigne, who remarks at the same time that it was 
regarded as something quite extraordinary if a young 
lady was seen in public. 

Byron wrote in 1817 that "Jealousy is not the 
order of the day in Venice ; " and that the Italians 
" marry for their parents, and love for themselves." 

In Crowe and Cavalcaselle's Life and Times of 
Titian we read that " Though chroniclers have left 
us to guess what the state of society may have been 
in Venice at the close of the fifteenth century, they 
give us reason to believe that it was deeply influ- 
enced by Oriental habit. The separation of men 
from women in churches, the long seclusion of un- 
married females in convents or in the privacy of 
palaces, were but the precursors to marriages in 
which husbands were first allowed to see their wives 
as they came in state to dance round the wedding 

But even at this early period when women were 
still treated as babies unable to take care of themselves, 
we find at least one trace of the Gallantry which 
is so essential an element in modern love. It was 
customary for the men, on festive occasions, to stand 
behind their wives' chairs at table and serve them. 

Extremely ungallant, on the other hand, are 
some of the Italian proverbs about women of this 
and other periods. " A woman is like a horse- 
chestnut beautiful outside, worthless inside." "Two 
women and a goose make a market." " Married 
man bird in cage." " In buying a horse and 
taking a wife shut your eyes and commend your 
soul to heaven." 

1 6 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

Her exuberant health makes an Italian woman 
naturally prone to Love ; but though she falls in 
love most readily, the passion is apt to be fugitive 
and superficial. She rarely loves with the passionate 
ardour of a Spanish woman. " What we notice 
especially in Italian women," says Schweiger-Ler- 
chenfeld, " is the absence of that alternation between 
those extremes of temperament which are so con- 
spicuous in other Southern women. Energy is 
almost as unknown to her as the moral power of 
resignation and sacrifice. Hence it can hardly 
surprise us that Italian history records so few 
heroic women or pious female martyrs. Italy has 
produced neither a Jeanne d'Arc nor an Elizabeth 
of Thuringia ; the crowns were too oppressive to be 
borne by these beauties, and life too enchanting for 
them to invite to tragic self-sacrifice." 

Probably the most realistic, and certainly the 
most fascinating, account of Italian love-making 
ever given is to be found in Mr. Howells's Venetian 
Life. As it is too long to quote, I will attempt to 
condense it, though at some sacrifice of that literary 
" bouquet," as an epicure would say, which constitutes 
the unique charm of Mr. Howells's style : 

" The Venetians have had a practical and strictly 
businesslike way of arranging marriages from the 
earliest times. The shrewdest provision has always 
been made for the dower and for the good of the 
state ; private and public interest being consulted, 
the small matters of affection have been left to the 
chances of association. 

" Herodotus relates that the Assyrian Veneti sold 
their daughters at auction to the highest bidder ; 

Italian Love 17 

and the fair being thus comfortably placed in life, 
the hard-favoured were given to whomsoever would 
take them, with such dower as might be considered 
a reasonable compensation. The auction was dis- 
continued in Christian times, but marriage-contracts 
still partook of the form of a public and half-mer- 
cantile transaction. 

" These passionate, headlong Italians look well to 
the main chance before they leap into matrimony, 
and you may be sure Todaro knows, in black and 
white, what the Biondina has to her fortune before 
he weds her." 

"With the nobility and with the richest com- 
moners marriage is still greatly a matter of contract, 
and is arranged without much reference to the 
principals, though it is now scarcely probable in any 
case that they have not seen each other. But with 
all other classes, except the poorest, who cannot or 
will not seclude the youth of either sex from each 
other, and with whom, consequently, romantic con- 
trivance and subterfuge would be superfluous, love is 
made to-day in Venice as in the Capa y espada 
comedies of the Spaniards, and the business is carried 
on with all the cumbrous machinery of confidants, 
billets-doux, and stolen interviews." 

The " operatic method of courtship " thence re- 
sulting commonly assumes this form : 

" They follow that beautiful blonde, who, march- 
ing demurely in front of the gray-moustached papa 
and the fat mamma, after the fashion in Venice, is 
electrically conscious of pursuit. They follow during 
the whole evening, and, at a distance, softly follow 
her home, where the burning Todaro photographs 


1 8 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

the number of the house upon the sensitised tablets 
of his soul. This is the first step in love : he has 
seen his adored one, and she knows that he loves 
her with an inextinguishable ardour." 

The next step consists in his frequenting the caffe, 
where she goes with her parents, and feasting his eyes 
on her beauty. After some time he may possibly 
get a chance to speak a few words to her under her 
balcony ; or, what is more likely, he will bribe her 
servant-maid to bring her a love-letter. Or else he 
goes to church to admire her at a convenient 

" It must be confessed that if the Biondina is not 
pleased with his looks, his devotion must assume the 
character of an intolerable bore to her ; and that to 
see him everywhere at her heels to behold him 
leaning against the pillar near which she kneels at 
church, the head of his stick in his mouth, and his 
attitude carefully taken with a view to captivation 
to be always in deadly fear lest she shall meet him 
in promenade, or turning round at the caffe encounter 
his pleading gaze that all this must drive .the 
Biondina to a state bordering upon blasphemy and 
finger-nails. Ma, come si fa ? Ci vuol pazienza ? 
This is the sole course open to ingenuous youth in 
Venice, where confessed and unashamed acquaintance 
between young people is extremely difficult ; and so 
this blind pursuit must go on till the Biondina's 
inclinations are at last laboriously ascertained." 
Then follow the inquiries as to her dowry, after 
which nothing remains but " to demand her in 
marriage of her father, and after that to make her 

Spanish Love 19 

Topsy-turvy as this last arrangement may seem 
to Anglo-American notions, here at least Love has 
some chance to bring about real Sexual Selection, 
for a Southerner's passions are momentarily inflamed, 
and the Italian Cupid needs but a moment to fix his 
choice. And what distinguishes Italy still more 
favourably from France is that, whereas the French 
consider Love ridiculous, and have made the most 
ingenious contrivances for annihilating it, the Italians 
worship it, revel in it, and are inclined rather to 
make too many concessions to it than to ignore it. 

The result is patent to all eyes. For every 
attractive Frenchwoman there are to-day a hundred 
beautiful Italians. And were Anglo-American 
methods of courtship introduced in Italy, beauty 
would again be doubled in amount. It must not be 
forgotten, however, that Love, as a beautifier of man- 
kind, has in Italy very strong allies in the balmy air 
and sunshine, tempting to constant outdoor life, 
which mellows the complexion, brightens the eyes, 
and fills out the figure to those full yet elegant pro- 
portions which instantaneously arouse the romantic 



Spanish veins contain more Oriental blood than 
those of any other European nation; and to the 
present day Eastern methods of treating women cast 
their shadow on Spanish life. But the shadow is 
so light, and so much mitigated by the rosy hue of 
romance, that the " local colour " of Love in Spain 
presents an unusually fascinating spectacle, which 
countless literary artists have attempted to depict. 

During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries 

2O Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

the Oriental shadow was much darker, and kept the 
women in extreme subjection and ignorance. " Their 
life," says Professor Scherr, speaking even of the 
queens, " passed away in a luxurious tedium which 
dulled the sentiments to the point of idiocy. They 
were only crowned slaves. As an instance of their 
absolute deprivation of liberty may be cited the case 
of Elizabeth, wife of Philip II., who, when in 1565 
she went to Bayonne to meet her mother, had to 
wait three days before the gates of Burgos before it 
was possible to ascertain the king's decision whether 
the queen should pass through the city or around it." 

" Women of rank," he continues, " lived in a 
seclusion bordering on that of a convent, if not sur- 
passing it. For nuns were at least allowed to speak 
to male visitors behind bars, whereas married women 
were strictly forbidden to receive the visit of a man, 
except with the special permission of the husband. 
And only during the first year of their wedded life 
were they allowed to frequent public drives in open 
carriages by the side of their husband ; subsequently 
they were only allowed to go out in closed carriages. 
Of cosy, family life not a trace. . . . Even the table 
did not unite the husband and wife ; the master took 
his meal alone, while his wife and children sat re- 
spectfully on the floor on carpets, with their legs 
crossed in Oriental fashion. 

"The poor women, excluded from every refined 
social diversion, were confined to manual work, gossip 
with their duennas, mechanical praying, playing with 
their rosaries, and intriguing. For the greater the 
subjection of women, the more does their cunning 
grow, the more passionate becomes their desire to 

Spanish Love 21 

avenge themselves on their tyrants. The Spaniards 
found this out to their cost. The most inexorable 
spirit of revenge, all the parade of ' Spanish honour/ 
bordering in its excess on clownishness, could not 
prevent the Spanish dames from loving and being 

In course of time this Oriental despotism, with 
its fatal consequences to conjugal fidelity as in 
France has been greatly mitigated in Spain. In 
Pepys's Diary, 1667, we read of an informant who 
told the writer " of their wooing [in Spain] by 
serenades at the window, and that their friends do 
always make the match ; but yet they have oppor- 
tunities to meet at masse at church, and there they 
make love." 

In an interesting book on Spain, written almost 
two and a quarter centuries after Pepys's Diary Mr. 
Lathrop's Spanish Vistas we still read concerning 
this ecclesiastic Love-making, in the Seville Cathe- 
dral : " Every door was guarded by a squad of the 
decrepit army, so that entrance there became a 
horror. These sanctuary beggars serve a double 
purpose, however. The black-garbed Sevillan ladies, 
who are perpetually stealing in and out noiselessly 
under cover of their archly-draped lace veils losing 
themselves in the dark, incense -laden interior, or 
emerging from confession into the daylight glare 
again are careful to drop some slight conscience- 
money into the palms that wait. Occasionally, by 
pre- arrangement, one of these beggars will convey 
into the hand that passes him a silver piece, a 
tightly-folded note from some clandestine lover. It 
is a convenient underground mail, and I am afraid 

22 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

the venerable church innocently shelters a good 
many little transactions of this kind." 

How greatly the facilities for falling in love and 
for making love have been increased in modern 
Spain is vividly brought out in the following citation 
from Schweiger-Lerchenfeld regarding the scenes to 
be witnessed every evening on the crowded prome- 
nade or Rambla at Barcelona : 

" Are these elegantly-attired ramblers one and all 
suitors, since they put no limit nor restraint on their 
whispered flatteries ? No, that is simply the custom 
in Barcelona. The women and girls are beautiful, 
and though they are well aware of it, they neverthe- 
less allow their charms to be whispered in their ears 
hundreds of times every evening a freedom of 
intercourse which is only possible on Spanish soil. 
. . . And thus one of these adored beauties walks 
up and down in the glare of the lamps, and sweet 
music is wafted to her ears : ' Your beauty dazzles 
me,' whispers one voice ; and another, ' Happiness and 
anguish your eyes are burning into my soul.' One 
compliments the chosen one on her hair, another on her 
figure, a third on her graceful gait. Young adorers feel 
a thrill running down their whole body if her mantilla 
only touches them ; while mature lovers are contented 
with nothing less than a pressure of the hand. It is 
a picture that is possible, conceivable only in Spain." 

The same writer quotes some specimens of Span- 
ish Love-songs, one of which may be transferred to 
this page 

" Echame, nina bonita, 
Lagrimas en tu panuelo, 
Y los llevare a Madrid 
Que los engarce un platero." 

Spanish Love 23 

" Show me, my little charmer, the tear in your 
handkerchief; to Madrid will I take it and have it 
set by a jeweller." 

What a contrast between this modern compli- 
mentary and poetic form of Gallantry and the form 
prevalent in the good old times when lovers en- 
deavoured to win a maiden's favour by flagellating 
themselves under her window until the blood ran 
down their backs ; and when, as Scherr adds, " it 
was regarded as the surest sign of supreme gallantry 
if some of the blood bespattered the clothes of the 
beauty to whom this crazy act of devotion was 
addressed ! " 

Nevertheless, the Spanish still have much to 
learn from England and America regarding the 
proper methods of Courtship ; for, according to a 
writer in Macmillaris Magazine (1874), the un- 
married maiden of the higher classes, " like her 
humbler sister, can never have the privilege of see- 
ing her lover in private, and very rarely, indeed, if 
ever, is he admitted into the sala where she is sitting. 
He may contrive to get a few minutes' chat with 
her through the barred windows of her sala; but 
when a Spaniard leads his wife from the altar, he 
knows no more of her character, attainments, and 
disposition than does the parish priest who married 
them, and perhaps not so much." 

In one respect Spanish lovers have a great ad- 
vantage over their unfortunate colleagues in France. 
There marriage is impossible without parental con- 
sent, whereas in Spain a law exists concerning which 
the writer just quoted says : 

" Should a Spanish lad and lassie become attached 

24 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

to one another, and the parents absolutely forbid the 
match, and refuse their daughter liberty and per- 
mission to marry, the lover has his remedy at law. 
He has but to make a statement of the facts on 
paper, and deposit it, signed and attested, with the 
alcalde or mayor of the township in which the lady's 
parents dwell. The alcalde then makes an order, 
giving the young man the right of free entry into 
the house in question, within a certain number of 
days, for the purpose of wooing and carrying off his 
idol. The parents dare not interfere with the office 
of the alcalde, and the lady is taken to her lover's arms. 
From that moment he, and he alone, is bound to provide 
for her : by his own act and deed she has become his 
property." Should he prove false "the law comes upon 
him with all its force, and he is bound to maintain 
her, in every way, as a wife, under pain of punishment." 

Thus a Spanish girl is protected against perfidious 
lovers as well as is an English and American girl 
through the possibility of suing for breach of pro- 
mise. If the short stories told in Don Quixote may 
be taken as examples, faithless lovers were very 
common in Spain at that time ; which, doubtless, 
accounts for the origin of this law. The girls on 
their part erred by yielding too easily to the pro- 
mises of the men ; though they are partially excused 
by the great strength of their passions. 

In his work on Suicide, Professor Morselli has 
statistics showing that more women take their life 
in Spain than in any other country ; and he at- 
tributes this to the force of their passions, which is 
greater than in Italy, where the number of female 
suicides is considerably lower. 

German Love 25 

Thus Love has a more favourable ground in 
Spain than either in Italy or in France, notwith- 
standing certain restrictions. And the result shows 
itself in this, that all tourists unite in singing the 
praises of Spanish Beauty. Spain, indeed, unites 
in itself all the conditions favourable to Beauty : a 
climate tempting to outdoor life ; a considerable 
amount of intellectual culture and aesthetic refine- 
ment ; a mixture of nationalities, fusing ethnic 
peculiarities into a harmonious whole ; and Love, 
which fuses individual complementary qualities into 
a harmonious ensemble of beautiful features, grace- 
ful figure, amiable disposition, and refined manners. 


When Tacitus penned his famous certificate of 
good moral character for the Germans of his time, 
he little suspected how many thousand times it 
would be quoted by the grateful and proud descend- 
ants of those early Teutons, and pinned to the 
lapels of their coats as a sort of prize medal in the 
competition for ancestral virtue. The more candid 
historians, however, admit that the Roman historian 
somewhat overdrew his picture in order to teach his 
own profligate countrymen a sort of Sunday school 
lesson, by the vivid contrast presented by these in- 
habitants of the northern virgin forests. 

There is no question that women were held in 
considerable honour among these early Germans. 
Many of them served as priestesses, and adultery 
was punished with death. Polygamy existed only 
among the chiefs, and even among them it was not 
common. Yet the men did not treat the women as 

26 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

their equals. " They had more duties than privi- 
leges," says Schweiger-Lerchenfeld. Their husbands 
were addicted to excessive drinking and gambling 
when not engaged in war or the chase, leaving the 
hard domestic and field labour to the women : and 
all this cannot have tended to refine the women. 

" Marriage in the old Germanic times," says 
Ploss, " was mostly an affair of expediency. ... In 
the choice of a wife beauty was of less moment than 
property and good social antecedents. Love before 
the betrothal rarely occurs." 

Gustav Freytag, in his Pictures of German Life, 
during the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth 
centuries, remarks : " Marriage was considered by 
our ancestors less as a union of two lovers than 
as an institution replete with duties and rights, not 
only of married people towards one another, but 
also towards their relatives, as a bond uniting two 
corporate bodies. . . . Therefore in the olden time 
the choice of husband and wife was always an affair 
of importance to the relatives on both sides, so that 
a German wooing from the oldest times, even ^mtil 
the last century, had the appearance of a business 
transaction, which was carried out with great regard 
to suitability." 

And a business transaction it is, unfortunately, 
to the present day, in the vast majority of cases. A 
certain amount of dower or property on the bride's 
part is the first and most essential requisite. Second 
in importance is the desirability of not descending 
even a step in the social ladder, though an extra 
lump of gold commonly suffices to pull down social 
Pride to a lower level. Health, temper, Personal 

German Love 27 

Beauty, and mutual suitability these are the trifles 
which, other things being equal, come in as a third 
consideration. And thus is the order of Sexual 
Selection, as ordained by Love, commonly reversed. 

What would an English or American youth of 
twenty-two say to his father if the latter should 
undertake to write to all his relatives, asking them 
to ld*ok about for an eligible partner for his son, 
and capping the climax by starting himself on a 
trip in search of a bride for his son ? Would he 
accept without a murmur the girl thus found, and 
would an English or American girl thus allow her- 
self to be given away like a cat in a bag, not know- 
ing whither she was going ? I have seen several such 
cases with my own eyes. One of them was most 
pathetic. For when the blooming bride, a sweet 
and refined girl, was introduced to the bridegroom 
selected for her by her parents a repulsive-looking 
brute, twice her age she conceived a perfect loath- 
ing for him, and almost wept out her eyes before the 
wedding-day. But the man was rich, and that settled 
the matter. 

What aggravated this outrage was the fact that 
the bride's father also was rich. And herein, in fact, 
lies the canker of the German system. Money is 
such a comfortable thing to have that it is useless 
to preach against it. There are money-marriages 
enough in England and America. But in these 
countries it is generally considered sufficient if one 
party has the money. Not so in Germany. It is 
not so much the comfort ensured by a certain amount 
of money that is aimed at as the superior social 
influence ensured by a large amount of wealth. 

28 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

Hence the rich marry the rich, regardless of other 
consequences, and poor Cupid is left shivering in 
the cold. So that, after all, the silly pride of social 
position is a greater enemy of Romantic Love than 

And the consequences of such a matrimonial 
system ? They have been most eloquently set 
forth by the blind old philosopher, Dr. Diihring : 

" The amalgamation of fortunes, and the re- 
sulting enervating luxury of living, are the ruling 
matrimonial motives ; and the want of mutual 
adaptation of the individuals becomes the cause 
of the degenerate appearance of the offspring. 
The loathsome products of such marriages then 
walk about as ugly embodiments and witnesses 
of such a degraded system of legalised prostitution 
(Kuppelwirthschaff). They bear the stamp of in- 
congruity on body and mind ; for their appearance 
shows them to be the offspring of disharmonious 
parents, blindly associated, or even, in many cases, 
of parents who themselves are already products of 
this new matrimonial method. This degeneracy 
necessarily continues from one generation to another, 
and in this manner maltreated Nature avenges her- 
self by leading to personal decrepitude and the 
formation of a new sort of idiocy." 

" It is true," he adds, " that love is not an 
infallible sign of mutual suitability ; but when it 
is absent, or even replaced by aversion, it is certain 
that it is useless to expect a specially harmonious 
composition of the offspring." 

Is this one of the reasons why Personal Beauty 
is so rare, comparatively, in Germany ? 

German Love 29 

But Individual Preference is not the only element 
of Love which thus suffers in Germany through false 
Pride and parental tyranny. Gallantry is another 
factor which needs mending. German women are 
sweet and amiable. In fact, they are too sweet and 
good-natured. They have spoiled the men, who in 
consequence are excessively selfish in their relations 
to women the most selfish men in the world, out- 
side of Turkey or China. True, the German officer 
in a ballroom seems to be the very essence of 
officious Gallantry. But his motives are too trans- 
parently Ovidian : it is not true Anglo-American 
politeness of the heart that inspires his conduct. 
He is either after forbidden sweets or parading his 
uniform and his vanity. Take the same man and 
watch him at home. His wife has to get him his 
chair, move it up to the fire, bring him his slippers, put 
the coffee in his hand, and do errands for him. When 
he goes out she puts on his overcoat and buttons it up 
carefully for him as if he were a helpless big baby. 
This would be all very well for why should not 
women be gallant too ? if he would only retaliate. 
But he never dreams of it. Even if it comes to a 
task which calls for masculine muscular power the 
carrying of bundles, etc. he makes the wife do it. He 
is, in fact, matrimonially considered, not only a big 
baby but also a big brute, the very incarnation of 
masculine selfishness. 

In former centuries it was customary in Germany, 
as it is now with us, for women to bow first to men. 
The modern German has reversed this. Woman 
has no right to bow until her lord and superior has 
invited her to do so by doffing his hat. 

3O Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

The German girl, says the Countess von Bothmer 
in German Home Life, " is taught that to be womanly 
she must be helpless, to be feminine she must be 
feeble, to endear herself she must be dependent, to 
charm she must cling." " To keep carefully to the 
sheep-walk, to applaud in concert and condemn in 
chorus, is the only behaviour that can be tolerated." 
" They have one bugbear and one object of idolatry, 
these monotonous ladies, a fetish which they worship 
under the name of Mode ; a monster between public 
opinion and Mrs. Grundy. To say a thing is not 
' Mode ' here, is to condemn it as if by all the laws 
of Media and Persia. It is not her centre [sic], but 
the system of her social education, that renders 
the German woman so hopelessly provincial." 

Of course it is the men who are responsible for 
this social education and this feminine ideal of 
absolute dependence. It suits their selfish pleasure 
to be worshipped and obeyed by the women without 
any efforts at gallant retaliation on their part. 

A native writer tells us that " a true German philo- 
sophises occasionally whilehe embraces his sweetheart; 
while kissing even, theories will sprout in his mind." 

No wonder, therefore, that one of the German 
metaphysicians, Fichte, should have made a sophistic 
attempt to reduce masculine selfishness to a system. 
He proves to his own satisfaction that it is woman's 
duty to sacrifice herself in man's behalf ; while man, 
on his part, has no such obligations. His reasoning 
is too elaborate to quote in full ; but is too amus- 
ingly nai've to be omitted, so I will translate the 
summary of it given by Kuno Fischer in his History 
of Philosophy : 

German Love 31 

" What woman's natural instincts demand is self- 
abandonment to a man ; she desires this aban- 
donment not for her own sake, but for the man's 
sake ; she gives herself to him, for him. Now 
abandoning oneself for another is self-sacrifice, 
and self-sacrifice from an instinctive impulse is 
LOVE. Therefore love is a kind of instinctive 
impulse which the sexual instinct in woman neces- 
sarily and involuntarily assumes. She feels the 
necessity of loving. . . . This impulse is peculiar to 
woman alone; woman alone loves [!!!]; only through 
woman does love appear among mankind. . . . The 
woman's life should disappear in the man's without 
a remnant, and it is this relation that is so beautifully 
and correctly indicated in the fact that the wife no 
longer uses her own name, but that of her husband [!]." 

The latest (and it is to be hoped the last) of the 
German metaphysicians, the pessimist Hartmann, 
goes even a step beyond Fichte in arrogating for man 
special privileges in Love. If Fichte makes Love 
synonymous with Self-Sacrifice feminine, mind you, 
not masculine Hartmann tries to prove that man 
may love as often as he pleases, but woman only 
once. And what aggravates the offence, he does it 
in such a poetic manner. " Though it may be 
doubtful," he says, "whether a man can truly love 
two women at the same time, it is beyond all doubt 
that he can love several in succession with all the 
depth of his heart ; and the assertion that there is 
only one true love is an unwarranted generalisation 
to all mankind of a maxim which is true of woman 
alone. . . . Woman can learn but once by experience 
what love is, and it is painful for the lover not to 

32 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

be the one who teaches her first. True it is that a 
tree nipped by a spring frost brings forth a second 
crown of leaves, but so rich and luxuriant as the 
first it will not be ; thus does a maiden-heart pro- 
duce a second bloom, if the first had .to wither before 
maturity, but its full and complete floral glory is 
unfolded only where love, aroused for the first time, 
passes in full vigour through all its phases." 

Yet it is not ungallant selfishness alone that 
prompts German men to bring up their women 
so that they shall be mere playthings at first 
and drudges after marriage, never real soul-mates. 
They have the same old stupid continental fear 
that culture of the intellect weakens the feelings. 
This fear is based on slovenly reasoning on the 
inference that because a few blue -stockings have 
at all ages made themselves ridiculous by assuming 
masculine attributes and parading their lack of ten- 
derness and feminine delicacy, therefore intellectual 
training must be fatal to feminine charms. As if 
there were not plenty of masculine blue-stockings, or 
pedants, without disproving the fact that the men of 
the greatest intellectual power men of genius 
are also the most emotional and refined of all men ; 
or the fact proved by this whole monograph, that 
Love and general emotional refinement grow with 
the general intellectual culture of women. 

A typical illustration of German feeling on the 
subject of female education is to be found in 
Schweiger-Lerchenfeld's Franenleben der Erde, p. 
530. Referring to the attempts now being made in 
France to give young girls a rational education, he 
quotes the opinion of a French legislator that a 

German Love 33 

girl thus brought up would not love less deeply 
than heretofore, while she would love more intelli- 
gently ; and then comments as follows : " How far 
this anticipation may be realised cannot be decided 
now or in the near future. At any rate we must leave 
to the French themselves the task of getting along 
with this classical female generation of the future. 
Certain it is that their experiment will hardly be imi- 
tated, and that the old Romans and Greeks may eventu- 
ally become more dangerous to masculine supremacy 
(Autoritat) than the pilgrimage stories of Lourdes." 

It is time for German woman to rise in revolt 
against this mediaeval masculine selfishness. Not 
in active revolt, for a warlike woman is an abomina- 
tion. But in passive revolt. Let them cease to 
spoil the men, and these bears will become more 
gallant. Germany is later in almost every phase of 
literary and social culture than England. It was 
not an accident that Shakspere came before Heine, 
the English before the German poet of Love ; for 
Love is much less advanced in Germany than in 
England. It has not even passed the stage where a 
harsh sort of Coyness is still in place. German 
women want to learn the cunning to be strange. 
They are too deferential to the men, too easily won. 
They want to learn to indulge in harmless flirtation, 
and they want the education which will give them wit 
enough to flirt cleverly and make the men mellow. 

It must be admitted, however, notwithstand- 
ing all these strictures, that there is much genuine 
Romantic Love in Germany, often differing in no 
wise from Anglo-American Love. At first sight it 
seems, indeed, as if chaperonage were as strict as in 


34 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

France ; and no doubt many German girls are brought 
up on the spring- chicken -coyness system which re- 
gards every man as a hawk, and a signal for hiding 
away in a corner. But in general German girls have 
much more freedom than French girls. They may 
walk alone in the street in the daytime, go alone 
to the conservatory to attend a music -lesson. 
They meet the young men freely at evening- 
parties, dances, musical entertainments, etc. ; and the 
chaperons are not nearly so obtrusive and offensive 
as in France. The mothers appear to have taken 
to heart Jean Paul's saying that "in the mother's 
presence it is impossible to carry on an edifying 
conversation with the daughter." So that there is 
plenty of opportunity for falling in love ; and were 
it not for parental dictation, Love-matches would 
perhaps be as common as in England. But the 
girls lack independence of spirit to defy parental 
tyranny, which it is their moral duty to defy where 
money or rank are pitted against Love. For the health 
and happiness of the next generation are at stake. 

German girls also enjoy an advantage over the 
French in having a literature which is pure and 
wholesome ; and by reading about Romantic Love 
they train and deepen their feelings. It is often 
said that Heine's influence has been chiefly negative. 
The truth is, Heine is tJte greatest emotional educator 
Germany has ever had. More young men and girls 
have wept over his pathetic lyrics than over any other 
poetry. His Buck der Lieder has done more to 
foster the growth of Romantic Love in Germany 
than all other collections of verse combined ; not 
only by their own unadorned beauty, but through 

German Love 35 

the soulful music wedded to these poems by Schubert, 
Schumann, and other magicians of the heart. The 
fact that the copyright on Heine's works was soon 
to expire, and the country to be flooded with cheap 
editions, has long caused Master Cupid to rub his 
hands in gleeful anticipation of brisk business ; 
and he has just given orders in his arsenal for one 
hundred thousand new golden arrows. 

Heine indeed fathomed the secrets of Love much 
more deeply than Goethe. Whereas Heine sang of 
Love in every major and minor key, Goethe appears 
to have emphasised chiefly its transitoriness. " Love, 
as Goethe knows it," says Professor Seeley, " is very 
tender, and has a lyric note as" fresh as that of a 
song-bird. In his AutobiograpJiy one love-passage 
succeeds another, but each comes speedily to an end. 
How far in each case he was to blame is a matter of 
controversy. But he seems to betray a way of 
thinking about women such as might be natural to 
an Oriental sultan. ' I was in that agreeable phase,' 
he writes, ' when a new passion had begun to spring 
up in me before the old one had quite disappeared.' 
About Frederika he blames himself without reserve, 
and uses strong expressions of contrition ; but he 
forgets the matter strangely soon. In his distress of 
mind he says he found riding, and especially skating, 
bring much relief. This reminds us of the famous 
letter to the Frau von Stein about coffee. He is 
always ready in a moment to shake off the deepest 
impressions and receive new ones ; and he never 
looks back. . . . Goethe was a man of the old 
regime. . . . Had he entered into the reforming 
movement of his age, he might have striven to 

36 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

elevate women. . . . He certainly felt at times that 
all was not right in the status of women ('woman's 
fate is pitiable '), and how narrowly confined was their 
happiness (wie enggebunden ist des Weibes Gltick) 
. . . but he was not a reformer of institutions." 

A reformer of institutions, however, has appar- 
ently just arisen in Berlin. For we read that at a 
private female seminary the girls received the fol- 
lowing subject for an essay : " There is from the 
Ideas of Plato, the atoms of Democritus, the Sub- 
stance of Spinoza, the monads of Leibnitz, and from 
the subjective mental forms of Kant, the proof to 
bring, that the philosophy it never neglected has 
the to-be-calculated 'results of their hypotheses with 
their into-perception-falling effects to compare." 

Such subjects, so elegantly expressed, are no 
doubt eminently calculated to bring out the latent 
possibilities of feminine feeling and culture. 

To close this chapter with a sweet, soothing con- 
cord major triad, horns and 'cellos, smorzando it 
must be admitted that the Germans have one in- 
gredient of Romantic Love which all other nations 
must envy them. They have one more thrill in the 
drama of Love, in the ascending scale of familiarities, 
than we have, namely, the word Du, which is some- 
thing very different from the stilted Thou, because 
still a part of everyday language. The second 
person singular is used in Germany towards pet 
animals and children, between students, intimate 
friends, relatives, and lovers. French " lovers " do 
not say tu to each other till after marriage, and even 
then they do not use it in public. But the German 
lover has the privilege, as soon as he is engaged, of 

English Love 37 

exchanging the formal Sie for the affectionate Du ; 
and the first Du that comes from her lips can hardly 
be less sweet than the first kiss. 

There is a game of cards, popular among young 
folks in Germany, during which you have to ad- 
dress every one with Du whom you otherwise would 
have to call Sie, and vice versd ; cards have to be 
called spoons, white black, etc. If there is a young 
man in the company secretly in love with a young 
lady, you can always " spot " him by the eagerness he 
shows to speak to her, and the fact that he always 
gets the Du right and everything else wrong ; while 
she, strange to say, appears to have never heard of 
such a thing at all as a personal pronoun. 


Concerning Romantic Love in England and 
America, there is less to be said under the head of 
National Peculiarities than in case of the con- 
tinental nations of Europe, for the simple reason that 
almost everything said in the pages on Modern 
Love refers especially to these two countries. Anglo- 
American Love is Romantic Love, pure and simple, 
as first depicted by Shakspere, and after him, with 
more or less accuracy, by a hundred other poets and 
novelists. There is no lack of colour in this Love 
colour warm and glowing but it is no longer a 
mere local colour, a national or provincial peculiarity, 
but Love in its essence, its cosmopolitan aspect ; 
Love such as will in course of time prevail through- 
out the world, when the Anglisation of this planet 
which is only a question of time shall have been 

38 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

England has many a bright jewel in the crown 
of her achievements in behalf of civilisation, but the 
brightest of all is this, that she was the first country 
in the world ancient, mediaeval, or modern that 
removed the bars from woman's prison -windows, 
opened every door to Cupid, and made him 
thoroughly welcome and comfortable. And grateful 
Cupid has retaliated by setting up English manners 
and customs as a model which all other nations are 
slowly but surely copying. Eighteen million souls 
in the United States, or almost two persons in every 
five, are not of English origin ; yet of these there 
are not one million who have not given up their old 
country methods of courtship as antiquated, and 
adopted the Anglo-American style. The Germans 
in America make love not after the German but 
after the English fashion. So do the French, though 
somewhat more reluctantly and tardily. In San 
Francisco and Chicago it is said that but one name 
in ten is of English origin ; yet who ever heard of a 
San Franciscan or Chicagoan making love in foreign 
style ? During the last hundred years the majority 
of the immigrants to America have come from non- 
English countries ; yet, though the parents enter the 
country as adults with all their national traditions 
stamped on their memories, they invariably allow 
their sons and daughters to court and be courted in 
American style. And now that England is gradually 
extending her influence to every one of the five 
continents, Romantic Love to whose sway, quite as 
much as to their outdoor active life, the English owe 
the fact that they are to-day the handsomest and 
most energetic race in the world is also rapidly 

English Love 39 

extending its sphere, and will finally oust the last 
vestiges of Oriental despotism, feminine suppression, 
and mediaeval masculine barbarism. 

For some centuries woman has been more favoured 
by law, and especially by national custom, in Eng- 
land than in any other European state. It is true 
that the Englishman who beats his wife is the most 
brutal savage on the face of the globe, but he is to 
be found only among the lowest classes. Nor has 
wife-selling ever been quite such a universal custom 
in England as foreigners imagine ; although cases 
are on record as far back as 1302 and as late as 
1884. In an article in All the Year Round (Dec. 
20, 1884) more than twenty cases are enumerated 
with full details, the price of a wife varying from 
twenty-five guineas to a pint or half a pint of beer, 
or a penny and a dinner ; and the Times of July 22, 
1797, remarks sarcastically: "By some mistake or 
omission, in the report of the Smithfield market, we 
have not learned the average price of wives for the 
week. The increasing value of the fair sex is 
esteemed by several eminent writers the certain 
criterion of increasing civilisation. Smithfield has, 
on this ground, strong pretensions to refined im- 
provement, as the price of wives has risen in that 
market from half a guinea to three guineas and 
a half." 

That these cases occurred only among the lowest 
classes is self-evident ; yet even the lowest classes 
often resented the brutal transaction by pelting the 
offenders with stones and mud ; whereas, as far as 
the women were concerned, the offence was mitigated 
by the fact that in all cases on record they appear 

4O Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

to have been only too glad to be sold, so as to get 
rid of their tyrants. 

It cannot be said that English women are all 
exempt from the hardest manual labour even to-day ; 
but the tendency to relieve them of tasks unsuited 
to feminine muscular development has existed longer 
in England than elsewhere. The difference can be 
best observed with regard to agricultural labour. 
Any one who travels through Italy, Switzerland, 
France, or Germany in the autumn, gets the im- 
pression that most of the harvesting is done by the 
women ; whereas in England, as shown by statistics, 
there are twenty-two men to every woman engaged 
as field-labourers. Yet even at that rate there are 
still 64,840 women in England engaged in agricul- 
tural labour unsuited to their sex. 

On the other hand, English women, like American 
women, are manifesting a great disposition at present 
to try their hand or brain at almost every employ- 
ment heretofore considered exclusively masculine. 
The census enumerates 349 different classes of work, 
and of these all but about 70 have been invaded by 
women ; including 5 horse-dealers, 1 4 bicycle makers 
and dealers, 1 6 sculptors, I 8 fence makers, 1 9 fossil 
diggers, etc. ; whereas there are as yet no female 
pilots, dentists, police officers, shepherds, law students, 
architects, cab-drivers, commercial travellers, barristers, 
etc. [Full list in Pall Mall Gazette, Oct. 3, 1884.] 

Inasmuch as there are almost a million more 
women than men in England, it is not surprising 
that women should thus seek to extend their sphere 
of usefulness. We live in an experimental epoch, 
when it is to be ascertained what is and what is 

English Love 41 

not becoming to woman regarded as a labourer. It 
is therefore of the utmost importance that there 
should be some standard by which each employment 
is to be judged. And this standard, fortunately, is 
supplied by Romantic Love. 

We have seen that the tendency of civilisation 
has been to differentiate the sexes more and more in 
appearance, character, and emotional susceptibilities, 
and that on this differentiation depends the existence 
and power of Love, because it individualises man 
and woman, and Love is the more intense the more 
it is individualised. 

Hence every employment which tends to make 
woman masculine in appearance or habits is to be 
tabooed by her because antagonistic to Love. If 
she, nevertheless, persists in it, Love will have its 
revenge by eliminating her through Sexual Selection. 
No man will marry a masculine woman, or fall in 
love with her, so that her unnatural temperament 
will not be transmitted to the next generation and 

But what is to be accepted as the standard of 
femininity ? The answer is given us by Nature. 
Throughout the animal world, with a few insignificant 
exceptions, the sexes are differentiated distinctly ; 
and the female is the more tender and gentle of the 
two, the more devoted to domestic affection and the 
care and education of the young, the more amiable, 
and, above all, less aggressive, bold, and pugnacious 
than the male. " Any education which women 
undergo," says the Spectator, " should be an education 
not for the militant life of war against evil, but for 
the spiritual life inspiring a persuasive or patient 

42 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

charity. . . . Even in a field properly suited to them 
the field of charitable institutions, of poor-law 
work, of educational representation women no 
sooner take up the cudgels than they lose their 
appropriate influence, and are either unsexed or 

According to Mr. Ruskin, "woman's work is 
(i) To please people. (2) To feed them in dainty 
ways. (3) To clothe them. (4) To keep them 
orderly. (5) To teach them." 

Statistics concerning the employments instinc- 
tively sought by the majority of women bear out Mr. 
Ruskin's table quite well. Woman's first duty is to 
please people by being beautiful, amiable, and fas- 
cinating in conversation and manners. No man 
would marry a woman unless she pleased him in 
one way or another ; hence matrimony is the most 
successful female profession, which in England in- 
cludes 4,437,962 women. But there are other ways 
in which women seek to please and prosper ; hence 
there are in England 2368 actresses as against 
2197 actors, and 11,376 women whose profession 
is music, as against 14,170 men. 

Domestic service, which includes the " feeding in 
dainty ways " (though too often the " dainty " must 
be omitted), employs 1,230,406 women in England 
about 30,000 fewer than industrial employments, 
which are somewhat more popular owing to the 
greater individual liberty they allow the employed. 
Yet domestic service is a much better preparation 
for married life than labour in a manufactory ; so 
that, other things being equal, a labouring man 
looking for a wife would be apt to select one who 

English Love 43 

has learned how to take care of his home. This 
thought ought to help to render domestic service 
more popular. 

" To clothe them." Dressmaking, staymaking 
(alas !), and millinery, employ 357,995 women in 

" To keep them orderly." Bathing and washing 
service employ 176,670 women; medicine and 
nursing, almost 50,000; missions, 1660. 

"To teach them." This, one of woman's special 
vocations, eminently suited to her capacity, employs 
123,995 females. 

If I have failed in correctly interpreting Mr. Rus- 
kin's oracle, I stand subject to correction from that 
earnest labourer in the task of finding for woman 
her proper sphere a work for which he has not yet 
received the recognition and thanks he deserves. 

That marriage, and not miscellaneous employ- 
ment, is woman's true destiny, is shown by the way 
in which Cupid influences statistics. Thus there are 
in England about 29,000 school-mistresses aged 15- 
20, and 28,500 aged 25-45 ; but the time from 20- 
25, the period of courtship and marriage, has only 
21,000. In the case of dressmakers this fact is 
brought out still more strikingly : I 5-20 84,000; 20- 
25 76,000; 25-45 129,000, in round numbers. 

Although, therefore, as Emerson remarks, " the 
circumstances may be easily imagined in which 
woman may speak, vote, argue cases, legislate, and 
drive coaches, if only it comes by degrees ;" facts 
show that there is more philosophy of the future in 
Mrs. Hawthorne's remark that " Home, I think, is 
the great arena for women, and there, I am sure, 

44 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

she can wield a power which no king or emperor 
can cope with." 

A consideration of all the foregoing facts shows 
that Love may be safely accepted as a guiding-star 
in making a proper division of the world's labour 
between men and women. And the reason why 
England and America have made so much more 
progress than other nations in ascertaining woman's 
true capacity and sphere, is because she has been 
educated to a point where she can assert her inde- 
pendence, and where she can inspire as well as feel 
Love thus making man humble, gallant, gentle, 
ready to make concessions and remove restrictions. 
It is in England and America alone that Love plays 
a more important rdle in marriage than money and 
social position ; that the young are generally per- 
mitted to consult their own heart instead of parental 
command ; and that the opportunities for courtship 
are so liberal and numerous that the young are 
enabled to fall in love with one another not only 
for dazzling qualities of Personal Beauty, viewed for 
a moment, but for traits of character, emotional 
refinement, and a cultured intellect. 

These two nations alone have fully taken to 
heart and heeded Addison's maxim that "Those 
marriages generally abound most with love and 
constancy that are preceded by a long courtsJiip. The 
passion should strike root and gather strength 
before marriage be grafted on it. A long course 
of hopes and expectations fixes the idea in our 
minds, and habituates us to a fondness of the person 

There is, however, a difference between English 

English Love 45 

and American Love which shows that we have 
learned Addison's lesson even better than his own 
countrymen. As Mr. Robert Laird Collier remarks 
in English Home Life : " The American custom, 
among the mass of the people, of leaving young 
men and young women free to associate together 
and to keep company with each other for an in- 
definite length of time, without declaring their 
intentions, is almost unknown in any country of 
Europe. It is not long after a young man begins 
to show the daughter attentions before the father 
gives intimation that he wishes to know what it 
means, and either the youth declares his intentions 
or is notified to 'cut sticks.'" "Courtships in 
England are short, and engagements are long." 

The London Standard doubtless exaggerates the 
difference between English and American girls and 
their attitude toward men in the course of an article, 
part of which may, nevertheless, be cited : " American 
girls offer a bright example to their English sisters 
of a happy, unclouded youth, and instances seem to 
be few of their abusing the liberty which is accorded 
to them. Perhaps their immunity from sentimental 
troubles arises from the fact that from earliest child- 
hood they have been comrades of the other sex, 
and are therefore not disposed to turn a man into 
a demi-god because they only see one at rare in- 
tervals under the eagle eye of a mother or aunt. 
A great revolution in public opinion would be 
required ere English girls could be emancipated 
to the extent which prevails on the other side of 
the Atlantic, and even then it is doubtful whether 
the system would work well. The daughters of 

46 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

Albion, with but few exceptions, are single-hearted, 
earnest, and prone to look upon everything seriously. 
They often make the mistake of imagining that a 
man is in love because he is decently civil." 

Yet in German Home Life, written from an 
English point of view, we read that " There is no 
such thing as country life, as we understand it, in 
Germany ; no cosy sociability, smiling snugness, 
pleasant bounties and hospitalities ; and, above all, 
for the young folk, no freedom, flirtation, boatings, 
sketchings, high teas, scamperings, and merriments 
generally." And again : " The sort of frank ' flirta- 
tion,' beginning openly in fun and ending in amuse- 
ment, which is common amongst healthy, high- 
spirited boys and girls in England, and has no latent 
element of intrigue or vanity in it, but is born of 
exuberant animal spirits, youthful frolics, and healthy 
pastimes shared together, is forbidden to her " (the 
German girl). 

The Standard itself apparently contradicts itself 
in another article on " Flirtation," concerning which 
it says : " It is usually so innocent that it has become 
part of the education most of our young women pass 
through in their training for society. The British 
matron smiles contentedly when she sees that her 
daughter, just entered on her teens, exhibits a 
partiality for long walks and soft-toned confabula- 
tions with her cousin Fred or her brother's favourite 
schoolmate. Three or four such juvenile attach- 
ments will do the girl no harm, if they are gently 
watched over by the parental eye. They serve to 
evolve the sexually social instincts in a gradual way. 
Through them the bashful maiden learns the nature 

American Love 47 

of man in the same fashion as she takes lessons on 
the piano. In a word, she is ' getting her hand in ' 
for the real game of matrimony that is to be played 
in a few years. Her youthful swains, of course, 
derive their own instruction from these innocent 
amours. . . . Chivalrous feeling is developed which 
it takes a deal of worldly wisdom to smother in after 
years. . . . When we observe this sentimentality in 
a boy, we derive great amusement from it, but it 
should raise the lad in our estimation. He has 
something in him to which ideals appeal, and his 
early-developed susceptibility will to use a beauti- 
ful but forgotten word engentle his nature." 

Perhaps the difference between English and 
American courtship and flirtation is not so great as 
often painted, and is becoming less every year, 
owing to the Americanisation of Europe. 


It is in the United States of America that Plato's 
ideal so completely ignored by his countrymen 
that young men and women should have ample 
opportunity to meet and get acquainted with one 
another before marriage, is most perfectly realised ; 
as well as Addison's supplementary advice that 
marriage should be preceded by a long courtship. 

As boys and girls in America are commonly 
educated in the same schools, they are initiated at 
an early age into the sweets and sorrows of Calf- 
love Courtship, which has such a refining influence 
on the boys, and renders the girls more easy and 
natural in society when they get older ; destroying 
among other puerilities that spring-chicken Coyness 

48 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

which makes many of their European sisters appear 
so silly. In the Western country-schools each girl 
has her " beau " a boy of fourteen to seventeen 
who brings her flowers, apples, or other presents, 
accompanies her home, and performs various other 
gallant services ; nor has any harm ever been known 
to result from this juvenile Courtship except an 
occasional elopement, in case of a prematurely 
frivolous couple, whom it was just as well to get 
rid of in that way as any other. 

When they get a little older, the young folks 
go to picnics without a chaperon, or they enjoy a 
drive or sleigh-ride, or go a-skating together ; and 
after a party, dance, church fair, or other social 
gathering, where the elders commonly keep out of 
the way considerately, each young man accompanies 
a young lady home. Were you to insinuate to him 
the advisability of having a chaperon for the young 
lady, he would inform you pointedly that the young 
lady needed no protection inasmuch as he was a 
gentleman and not a tramp. It is this high sense 
of gentlemanly honour that protects women in 
America a hundred times better than all the 
barred windows of the Orient and the dragons of 
Europe. Thanks to this feeling of modern chivalry, 
a young lady may travel all alone from New York 
to Chicago, or even to San Francisco, and, if her 
manners are modest and refined, she will not once 
be insulted by word or look, not even in passing 
through the roughest mining regions. 

It is the consciousness of this chivalrous code of 
honour among the men that gives an American girl 
the frank and natural gaze which is one of her 

American Love 49 

greatest charms, and that allows her to talk to a 
man just introduced as if they were old acquaint- 
ances. It is a knowledge of this gentlemanly code 
that makes parents feel perfectly at ease in leaving 
their daughter alone in the parlour all the evening 
with a visitor. In a word, American customs prove 
that if you treat a man as a gentleman he will 
behave like a gentleman. 

Unquestionably there are girls who abuse the 
liberty allowed them, and encourage the men to 
encourage them in their freedom. Mr. Henry James 
has done a most valuable service in holding up the 
mirror to one of these girls, to serve as a warning to 
all Daisy Millers and semi -Daisy Millers. There 
are not a few of the latter kind, and I have myself 
met three full-fledged specimens of the real " Daisy " 
in Europe girls who would not have hesitated to 
go out rowing on a lake at eleven o'clock in the 
evening with a man known to them only a few 
hours, or to go next day with him to visit an old 
tower, or to say that mamma " always makes a fuss 
if I introduce a gentleman. But I do introduce 
them almost always. If I didn't introduce my 
gentlemen friends to mother, I shouldn't think I was 
natural." It is this class of American tourists that 
have, unfortunately, given foreigners a caricatured 
notion of the American girl's deportment. 

Etiquette differs somewhat in various American 
cities and among the different classes. For instance, 
a young lady of the " upper circles," who in Chicago 
is permitted to drive to the theatre in a carriage with 
a young man, is not allowed the same privilege in 
New York. 


5o Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

The New York Sun, an excellent authority in 
social matters, gives the whole philosophy of Ameri- 
can Courtship and Love in answering a young man's 
question as to whether, in asking a young lady of 
the highest circles to accompany him to a place of 
amusement, it is necessary to invite a chaperon at 
the same time. He is told that he must, in those 
circles : 

" But these people are only a few among the 
many. What is called society more exclusively in 
New York comprises, all told, no more than a 
hundred or two hundred families. Outside of them, 
of course, there are larger circles, to which they give 
the law to a greater or less extent, but the whole 
number of men and women in this great town of a 
million and a half of inhabitants who pay obedience 
to that law is not over a few thousand. 

" Nine girls out of ten in New York, with the full 
consent of their parents and as a matter of course, 
accompany young men to amusements without taking 
a chaperon along. They feel, and they are, entirely 
able to look out for themselves, and they would 
regard the whole fun as spoiled if a third person 
was on hand to watch over them. A large part of 
the audience at every theatre is always made up of 
young men and young women who have come out 
in pairs, and who have no thought of violating any 
rule of propriety. Very many of these girls would 
never be invited to the theatre by their male 
acquaintances if they were under the dominion of 
such a usage, for the men want them to themselves, 
else they would not ask their company, and besides 
do not feel able to pay for an extra ticket for an 

American Love 5 i 

obnoxious third person ; or, if they have a little more 
money to spare, they prefer to expend it at an ice- 
cream saloon after the play. 

" Nor can it be said that the morals of these less 
formal young people are any worse than those of 
the more exacting society. Probably they are better 
on the average, and if the laws of Murray Hill pre- 
vailed throughout this city, the marriage-rate of New 
York would be likely to decline, for nothing dis- 
courages the passion of the average young man so 
much as his inability to meet the charmer except in 
the presence of a third person, who acts as a buffer 
between him and her. He feels that he has no show, 
and cannot appear to good advantage under the eyes 
of a cool critic, whereas if he could walk with the 
girl alone in the shades of the balmy evening, the 
courage to declare his affection would come to him. 

" Therefore it is that engagements, even in the 
most fashionable society, are commonly made in the 
country during the summer, where the young people 
come together more freely and more constantly than 
in the town." 

The attempt made in certain corners of New 
York " Society " to introduce the foreign system of 
chaperonage is one of the most absurd and incon- 
gruous efforts at aping foreign fashions (which are 
on the decline even in Europe) ever witnessed in 
our midst. In Europe Chaperonage is in so far 
excusable, as it is a modified survival from barbarous 
times when men were mostly brutes, being drunk 
half the time and on military expeditions the other 
half. To treat American men, who are brought up 
as gentlemen, and commonly behave as such, as 

5 2 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

mediaeval ruffians, is a gratuitous insult, which they 
ought to resent by avoiding those houses where Ori- 
ental experiments are being tried with the daughters. 
That would bring the "mammas" to reason very soon. 

Yet it would seem as if New York " Society " 
had already had enough of the Oriental experiment ; 
for the same high authority just quoted asserted last 
autumn that " A regular stampede in favour of the 
liberty of the young unmarried female is to be 
undertaken this winter by a number of ' three-years- 
in-society ' veterans, supported and encouraged by 
nearly all this season's debutantes. The first step is 
to be the establishment of a right on the part of 
young girls to form parties for theatre matine'es and 
afternoon concerts, untrammelled by the presence of 
even a matron of their own age, and to which all 
' reliable and well-behaved young men are to be 
eligible.' . . . Rule No. 2 establishes beyond all dis- 
pute the often-mooted question whether the presence 
of a brother and sister in a party of young people 
going to any place of evening amusement throws a 
shield of respectability over the others of the party. 
Society long ago frowned upon this mongrel kind of 
chaperonage ; but upon the principle that no young 
man would permit indiscretions or improprieties in 
a party of which his sister made one, the ' veterans ' 
have voted in favour of it. The young man with a 
sister is therefore to enact the part of dragon on 
these occasions, and will be largely in demand. 
Failing a convenient sister, he may get a cousin, 
perhaps, to take her place." 

When it comes to the cousin, the reversion to 
Americanism, pure and simple, will be complete. 

American Love 53 

The gentlemanliness and Gallantry of Americans 
have at all times been acknowledged by observers of 
all nationalities ; and it is indeed hardly too much 
to say that the average American is disposed to 
treat the whole female sex with a studied Gallantry, 
which in most European countries is reserved by 
men for the one girl with whom they happen to be 
in love. Even the irate and vituperative Anthony 
Trollope in his book on North America was obliged 
to admit that " It must be borne in mind that in that 
country material wellbeing and education are more 
extended than with us, and that therefore men there 
have learned to be chivalrous who with us have 
hardly progressed so far. The conduct of the men 
to the women throughout the states is always 
gracious. . . . But it seems to me that the women 
have not advanced as far as the men have done. 
... In America the spirit of chivalry has sunk 
deeper among men than it has among women." 

Anthony Trollope is by no means the only 
writer who has put his finger on the greatest foible 
of American women. No doubt they have, as a 
class, been spoiled by excessive masculine Gallantry. 
They do not, like the women of the Troubadour 
period, who were similarly spoilt, go quite so far as 
to send their knights on crusades and among lepers, 
but they often shroud themselves in an atmosphere 
of selfishness which is very unfeminine to choose 
a complimentary adjective. 

In the East, where there is already a large excess 
of women over men, this evil is less marked than in 
the West, where women are still in a minority. Thus 
the Denver Tribune, in an article on " The Impolite- 

5 4 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

ness of Women," remarks : "If there is any charac- 
teristic of Americans of which they are more proud 
than any other, it is the courtesy which the men 
who are natives of this country exhibit towards 
women, and the respect which the gentler sex 
receives in public. This is a trait of the American 
character of which Americans are justly proud, and 
in which they doubtless excel the people of any 
other country. But while this is true of the men, 
it is a matter to be deeply regretted that as much 
cannot be said of the women of this country." After 
praising American women for their beauty, vivacity, 
high moral character, and other charms, the Tribune 
adds that they " seem very generally to be prompted 
in their conduct in public by a spirit of selfishness 
which very often finds expression in acts of positive 
rudeness." They are ungrateful, it continues, to the 
men who give up their seats in street-cars ; they 
compel men to step into a muddy street, instead of 
walking one behind the other at a crossing ; and at 
such places as the stamp-window of the post-office 
they do not wait for their turn, but force the men to 
stand aside. 

Another Western paper, the Chicago Tribune, 
complains that in that city there are 10,000 homes 
in which the daughters are ignorant of the simplest 
kind of household duties. It adds " That they do 
not desire to learn ; that, having been brought up 
to do nothing except appear gracefully in society, 
their object in life is to marry husbands who can 
support them in idle luxury ; that this state of things 
has substituted for marriages founded on love and 
respect a market in which the men have quoted 

American Love 55 

money -values, and where a young man, however 
great his talents, has no chance of winning a wife 
from the charmed circle." 

So that the pendulum has apparently swung to 
the other extreme. In mediaeval times the women 
were married for their money by the lazy, selfish 
men ; now the women are lazy and selfish, while 
the men toil and are married for their money. 

Yet there is much exaggeration in this view, 
which applies to only a small portion of the 
American people. We are far from the times when 
Miss Martineau complained of the feeble health of 
American women, and attributed it to the vacuity of 
their minds. Their health is still, on the average, 
inferior to that of English and German damsels, 
from whom they could also learn useful lessons in 
domestic matters ; but intellectually the American 
woman has no equal in the world ; while her sweet- 
ness, grace, and proverbial beauty combine into an 
ensemble which makes Cupid chuckle whenever he 
looks at a susceptible young man. 

Goldsmith says somewhere that " the English 
love with violence, and expect violent love in return." 
Certainly this holds true no less of the Americans. 
There are indeed several favourable circumstances 
which combine to make Romantic Love more 
ardent and more prevalent in the United States than 
in any other part of the world. 

(i) The first is the intellectual culture of women 
just referred to, which they owe partly to the leisure 
they enjoy, partly to the fact that America has 
the best elementary schools in the world, so that 
their minds are aroused early from their dormant 

56 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

state. As Bishop Spalding remarks : " Woman here 
in the United States is more religious, more moral, 
and more intelligent than man ; more intelligent in 
the sense of greater openness to ideas, greater 
flexibility of mind, and a wider acquaintance with 
literature." Now the whole argument of this book 
tends to show that the capacity for feeling Romantic 
Love is dependent on intellectual culture, and 
increases with it ; hence we might infer that there 
is more Love among the women of America than 
among those of any other country, even if this 
were not so patent from the greater number of 
Love-matches and various subtle signs known to 
international observers. 

And as the sweetest pleasure and goad of Love 
lies in the conviction that it is really returned, man's 
Love is thus doubled in ardour through woman's 
responsive sympathy. 

(2) That Courtship proper is longer than in 
England, and engagement shorter, is a circumstance 
in favour of America. For nothing adds so much to 
the ardour of Love as the uncertainty which prevails 
during Courtship ; whereas, after engagment, all these 
alternate hopes and doubts, confidences and jealousies, 
are quieted, and the ship approaches the still waters 
of the harbour of matrimony, which may be quite as 
deep but are less sublime and romantic than mid- 
ocean, with its possibilities of storm and shipwreck. 

Moreover, the longer the time of tentative Court- 
ship, the fewer are the chances of a mistake being 
made in selecting a sympathetic spouse. 

In Germany an engagement is so conclusive an 
affair that it is announced in the papers, and cards 

American Love 57 

are sent out as at a wedding. In America we 
meet with the other extreme, for it is not very 
unusual for a couple to be engaged some time before 
even the parents know it Though there is such 
a thing as breach of promise suits against fickle 
young men, such engagements, if unsatisfactory to 
either side, are commonly broken off amicably. 
And, as one of Mr. Howells's characters remarks in 
Indian Slimmer : " A broken engagement may be a 
bad thing in some cases, but I am inclined to think 
it is the very best thing that could happen in most 
cases where it happens. The evil is done long 
before ; the broken engagement is merely sanative, 
and so far beneficent." 

Were engagements less readily dissolved, divorces 
would be more frequent even than they are now. 

(3) Parental dictation is almost unknown in 
America ; nowhere else have young men and women 
such absolute freedom to choose their own soul-mate. 
Hence Individual Preference, on which the ardour of 
Love depends in the highest degree, has full sway. 
The comparative absence of barriers of rank and 
social grade also makes it easier for a man to find 
and claim his real Juliet. 

(4) This dependence of Love on Individualisation 
gives it another advantage in America. For nowhere 
is there so great a mixture of nationalities as here ; 
and, away from home, a national peculiarity of feature 
or manners has a sort of individualising effect. Till 
we get used to such national peculiarities through 
their constant recurrence we are apt to judge almost 
every woman in a new city attractive. From this 
point of view Love may be defined as an instinctive 

5 8 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

longing to absorb national traits, and blend them all in 
the one cosmopolitan type of perfect Personal Beauty. 

(5) There are beautiful women in all countries of 
the world, but no country has so many pretty girls as 
America. Money and rank find it hard to compete 
with such loveliness, hence Love has its own way. 
Here alone is it possible to find heiresses who have 
failed to get married through lack of Beauty. Per- 
sonal Beauty is the great matchmaker in America ; 
and thus it comes that Beauty is ever inherited and 
multiplied. For Love is the cause of Beauty as 
Beauty is the cause of Love. 

One more characteristic of American Love remains 
to be noted the most unique of all. American 
women are of all women in the world the most 
self-conscious, and have the keenest sense of humour. 
To these quick-witted damsels the sentimental sub- 
limities of amorous Hyperbole, which may touch the 
heart of a nai've German or Italian girl, are apt to 
appear dangerously near the ludicrous ; hence an 
American lover, if he is clever enough, deliberately 
covers the step which separates the sublime from 
the ridiculous. He gilds the gold of his compli- 
ments by using the form of playful exaggeration, 
which is the more easy to him because exaggeration 
is a national form of American humour. Mr. 
Howells's heroes often make love in this fashion. 
The lover in The Lady of the Aroostook spices his 
flatteries with open burlesque, and succeeds admirably 
with this new Ars Amoris ; and Colville in Indian 
Summer says to Imogene : " Come, I'll go, of course, 
Imogene. A fancy-ball to please you is a very 
different thing from a fancy-ball in the abstract." 

Schopenhauer s Theory of Love 59 

" Oh, what nice things you say ! Do you know, 
I always admired your compliments ? I think they're 
the most charming compliments in the world." 

" I don't think they're half so pretty as yours ; 
but they're more sincere." 

" No, honestly. They flatter, and at the same 
time they make fun of the flattery a little ; they 
make a person feel that you like them even while 
you laugh at them." 

Perfect success in this form of flattery requires 
a talent for epigram. Not many, unfortunately, 
even in America, are poets and wits at the same 
time, like Mr. Howells ; but there is an abundance 
of clever compliments nevertheless, and they are apt 
to assume the form of playful exaggeration. 


A first hasty perusal of Schopenhauer's brilliant 
essay on the " Metaphysics of Sexual Love " (in 
the second volume of his Welt als Wille und 
Vorstellung) will dispose most readers to agree 
with Diihring that the great pessimist " makes 
war on love." But a more careful consideration 
of his profound thoughts shows that this is not 
the case, notwithstanding his habitual cynical 

In the first place, his theory can do no possible 
harm, because, as he himself admits, no lover will ever 
believe in it. Secondly, the gist of Schopenhauer's 
theory is to show that a lover is the most noble and 
unselfish martyr in the world, because his usual 
attitude and fate is self-sacrifice. 

60 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 


The fundamental truth which Schopenhauer 
claims to have discovered is that love is an illusion 
an instinctive belief on the lover's part that his life's 
happiness absolutely depends on his union with his 
beloved ; whereas, in truth, a love-match commonly 
leads to lifelong conjugal misery. The lover, on 
reaching the goal so eagerly striven for, finds him- 
self disappointed, and realises, to his consterna- 
tion, that he has been the dupe of a blind instinct. 
Quien se casa por amores, ha de vivir con dolores, 
says a Spanish proverb (" to marry for love is to live 
in misery ") : and this doctrine Schopenhauer re- 
echoes in a dozen different forms : " It is not only 
disappointed love-passion that occasionally has a 
tragic end ; successful love likewise leads more com- 
monly to misery than to happiness." " Marriages 
based on love commonly end unhappily," etc. 


The reason of this curious fact is given in this 
sentence : " Love-marriages are formed in the inter- 
est of the species, not of the individuals. True, the 
parties concerned imagine that they are providing for 
their own happiness ; but their real [unconscious] 
aim is something foreign to their own selves 
namely, the procreation of an individual whose 
existence becomes possible only through their 

What urges a man on to this sacrifice of individual 
happiness to the welfare of his offspring is, as 
already intimated, a blind instinct known as Love. 

Schopenhauer's Theory of Love 61 

The universal Will (Schopenhauer's fetish, or name 
for an impersonal deity underlying all phenomena) 
has implanted this blind instinct in man, for the 
same reason that it implants so many other instincts 
in various animals to induce the parents to undergo 
any amount of labour, and even danger to life, for the 
sake of benefiting the offspring, and thus preserving 
the species. All these animals, like the lovers, are 
urged on blindly to sacrifice themselves in the belief 
that they are doing it for their own pleasure and bene- 
fit ; whereas it is all in the interest of their offspring. 

Why was the Will compelled to implant this 
blind instinct in man ? Because man is so selfish 
wherever guided by reason, that it would have been 
unwise to entrust so important a matter as the 
welfare of coming generations to his intellect and 
prudence. Prudence would tell young people to 
choose not the most attractive and healthy partners, 
who would be able to transmit their excellence to 
the next generation, but the ones who are most 
liberally supplied with money and useful friends. 
That is, they would invariably look out first for 
" Number One," indifferent to the deluge that might 
come after them. It was to neutralise this selfish- 
ness that the Will created the instinct of Love, 
which impels a man to marry not the woman who 
will make him the most happy and comfortable, but 
whose qualities, combined with his own, will be 
likely to produce a harmonious, well-made group of 

Schopenhauer's Will, it must be understood, is an 
aesthetic sort of a chap. He has his hobbies, and 
one of these hobbies is the desire to preserve the 

62 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

species in its typical purity and beauty. There are 
a thousand accidents of climate, vice, disease, etc., 
that tend to vitiate the type of each species ; but 
Love strives for ever to restore a harmonious balance, 
by producing a mutual infatuation in two beings 
whose combined (and opposite) defects will neutralise 
one another in the offspring. 


More definitely speaking, there are three ways 
in which the Will preserves the purity of its types 
three ways in which it inspires the Love whose duty 
it is to achieve this result. Physical Beauty is the 
first thing desired by the lover, because that is the 
expression of typical perfection. Secondly, he may 
be influenced by such Psychic Traits as will blend 
well with his own ; and thirdly, he will be attracted 
by perfections (or imperfections) which are the 
opposite of his own. These three sources must be 
considered briefly in detail. 

(i) Physical Beauty. The most important at- 
tribute of Beauty, in the lover's eye, is Youth. Men 
prefer the age from eighteen to twenty-eight in a 
woman ; while women give the preference to a man 
aged from thirty to thirty-five, which represents the 
acme of his virility. Youth without Beauty may 
still inspire Love ; not so Beauty without Youth. 

Health ranks next in importance. Acute disease 
is only a temporary disadvantage, whereas chronic 
disease repels the amorous affections, for the reason 
that it is likely to be transmitted to the next 

A fine framework or skeleton is the third 

Schopenhauer's Theory of Love 63 

desideratum. Besides age and disease, nothing 
proves so fatal to the chances of inspiring Love 
as deformity : " The most charming face does not 
atone for it ; on the contrary, even the ugliest face 
is preferred if allied with a straight growth of the 

A certain plumpness or fulness of flesh is the 
next thing considered in sexual selection ; for this 
is an indication of Health, and promises a sound 
progeny. Excessive leanness is repulsive, and so is 
excessive stoutness, which is often an indication of 
sterility. "A well -developed bust has a magic 
effect on a man." What attracts women to men 
is especially muscular development, because that 
is a quality in which they are commonly deficient, 
and for which the children will accordingly have to 
rely on the father. Women may marry an ugly 
man, but never one who is unmanly. 

Facial beauty ranks last in importance, according 
to Schopenhauer. Here too the skeleton is first 
considered in sexual selection. The mouth must 
be small, the chin projecting, " a slight curve of the 
nose, upwards or downwards, has decided the fate 
of innumerable girls ; and justly, for the type of 
the species is at stake." The eyes and the fore- 
head, finally, are closely associated with intellectual 

(2) Psychic Traits. What charms women in 
men is pre-eminently courage and energy, besides 
frankness and amiability. " Stupidity is no dis- 
advantage with women : indeed, it is more likely 
that superior intellectual power, and especially 
genius, as being an abnormal trait, may make an 

64 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

unfavourable impression on them. Hence we so 
often see an ugly, stupid, and coarse man preferred 
by women to a refined, clever, and amiable man." 
When women claim to have fallen in love with a 
man's intellect, it is either affectation or vanity. 
Wedlock is a union of hearts, not of heads ; and 
its object is not entertaining conversation, but 
providing for the next generation. This part of 
Schopenhauer's theory is evidently an outcome of 
his doctrine that children inherit their intellectual 
qualities from the mother, and their character from 
the father. Hence the feeling that they are capable 
of supplying their children with sufficient intellect 
is part of the feminine Love-instinct, and makes 
women indifferent to the presence or absence of 
those qualities in men. 

It does not follow from all this that a sensible 
man may not reflect on his chosen one's character, 
or she on his intellectual abilities, before marriage. 
Such reflection leads to marriages of reason, but 
not to Love-marriages, which alone are here under 

(3) Complementary Qualities, The physical and 
mental attributes considered under (i) and (2) are 
those which commonly inspire Love. But there 
are cases where perfect Beauty is less potent to 
inflame the passions than deviations from the normal 

" Ordinarily it is not the regular perfect beauties 
that inspire the great passions," says Schopenhauer ; 
and this seems to be borne out by the experience of 
Byron, who says : " I believe there are few men who, 
in the course of their observations on life, have not 

Schopenhauer 's Theory of Love 65 

perceived that it is not the greatest female beauty 
who forms [inspires] the longest and the strongest 

How is this to be accounted for? By the 
anxiety of Nature (or the Wilt) to neutralise im- 
perfections in one individual by wedding them to 
another's excesses in the opposite direction ; as an 
acid is neutralised by combining it with an alkali. 
The greater the shortcoming the more ardent will 
be the infatuation if a person is found exactly 
adapted for its neutralisation. The weaker a woman 
is, for example, in her muscular system, the more 
apt will she be to fall violently in love with an 
athlete. Short men have a decided partiality for 
tall women, and vice versa. Blondes almost 
always desire brunettes ; and if the reverse does 
not hold true, this is owing to the fact, he says, 
that the original colour of the human complexion 
was not light but dark. A light complexion has 
indeed become second nature to us, but less so the 
other features ; and " in love nature strives to return 
to dark hair and brown eyes, as the primitive type." 

Again, persons afflicted with a pug-nose take a 
special delight in falcon-noses and parrot-faces ; and 
those who are excessively long and slim, admire 
those who are abnormally short and even stumpy. 
So with temperaments ; each one preferring the 
opposite to his or her own. True, if a person is quite 
perfect in any one respect, he does not exactly 
prefer the corresponding imperfection in another, 
but he is more readily reconciled to it. 

Throughout his essay, Schopenhauer tacitly as- 
sumes that the parental peculiarities are fused or 


66 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

blended equally in the offspring, and that this 
blending is what the Will aims at. But on this 
point Mr. Herbert Spencer has some remarks, 
in his essay on " Personal Beauty," which directly 
contradict Schopenhauer, of whose theory, however, 
he does not seem to have been cognisant : 

" The fact," he says, " that the forms and qualities 
of any offspring are not a mean between the forms 
and qualities of its parents, but a mixture of them, 
is illustrated in every family. The features and 
peculiarities of a child are separately referred by 
observers to father and mother respectively nose 
and mouth to this side ; colour of the hair and eyes 
to that ; this moral peculiarity to the first ; this 
intellectual one to the second and so with contour 
and idiosyncrasies of body. Manifestly, if each organ 
or faculty in a child was an average of the two 
developments of such organ or faculty in the parents, 
it would follow that all brothers and sisters should 
be alike ; or should, at any rate, differ no more than 
their parents differed from year to year. So far, 
however, from finding that this is the case, we find 
not only that great irregularities are produced by 
intermixture of traits, but that there is no constancy 
in the mode of intermixture, or the extent of varia- 
tions produced by it. 

" This imperfect union of parental constitutions 
in the constitution of offspring is yet more clearly 
illustrated by the reappearance of peculiarities trace- 
able to bygone generations. Forms, dispositions, 
and diseases, possessed by distant progenitors, 
habitually come out from time to time in descend- 
ants. Some single feature, or some solitary ten- 

Schopenhauer's Theory of Love 67 

dency, will again and again show itself after being 
apparently lost. It is notoriously thus with gout, 
scrofula, and insanity." 

Again, unite a pure race " with another equally 
pure, but adapted to different conditions and having 
a correspondingly different physique, face, and morale, 
and there will occur in the descendants not a homo- 
geneous mean between the two constitutions, but a 
seemingly irregular combination of characteristics of 
the one with characteristics of the other one feature 
traceable to this race, a second to that, and a third 
uniting the attributes of both ; while in disposition 
and intellect there will be found a like medley of 
the two originals." 

The fact that the more remote ancestry must be 
taken into account besides the parents, in consider- 
ing the traits of the offspring, is one which. Mr. 
Galton has done much to emphasise, and which 
Schopenhauer completely ignores. It tells against 
the metaphysical part of his theory ; for all the 
efforts of the Will to merge opposite characters 
into homogeneous traits must prove futile if a 
blue-eyed man, for instance, who marries a black- 
eyed girl, finds that their children have neither the 
father's blue nor the mother's black, but the grand- 
mother's gray eyes. 

Yet in the long run diverse traits of figure 
and physiognomy do tend to a harmonious fusion. 
Though a man with a prominent nose, which he 
inherited from his father, is likely to transmit it to 
his son, though his wife may have a snub-nose, 
yet there will be a slight modification even in the 
son's organ ; and if the son keeps up the tradition of 

68 - Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

marrying a snub-nosed girl, and his children follow 
his example, the chances are that in a few genera- 
tions the nose of that family will be a feature of 
moderate size and classic proportions. The very 
fact emphasised by Mr. Galton that all the ancestral 
influences count, will here aid the ultimate fusion. 
Conspicuous instances of the long-continued pre- 
valence of a particular nose or other feature may 
be accounted for by the fact that other kinds of that 
organ were rare in the vicinity, or that marriage was 
decided by so many other considerations that the 
dimensions of one organ could not come into con- 
sideration, much as the bride or groom might have 
preferred an improvement in that respect. 

So far as Schopenhauer's theory concerns only 
the fact that Love is apt to be based on comple- 
menfary qualities, he is doubtless correct ; but it 
needs no erratic metaphysical fetish, as a deus ex 
machina, to account for that fact. A simple applica- 
tion of psychologic principles explains the whole 

In the first place, nothing could be more remote 
from the truth than the cynical notion that every 
woman considers herself a Venus. She may, on 
the whole, consider herself equal to the average of 
Beauty ; but if she has any special fault a mouth 
too large or too small, an upper lip too high, a nose 
too flat or too prominent, too much or too little 
flesh, excessive height or shortness she is not only 
conscious of the defect, but morbidly conscious of 
it, and uses every possible device to conceal it. 
Thus constantly brooding over her misfortune her 
mind, by a natural reaction, will conceive a special 

Schopenhauer's Theory of Love 69 

admiration for an organ that exceeds the line of 
Beauty in the opposite direction. Every day one 
hears a petite girl admiring a specially tall woman ; 
and this admiration will prompt her, other things 
being equal, to fall in love with a tall man. 

Secondly, familiarity breeds indifference to one's 
own charms, and a disposition to admire what we 
lack ourselves. 

Novelty comes into play. A Northern blonde 
among a nation of brunettes cannot fail to slay 
hearts by the hundred, while the mystic flashes of 
a Spanish woman's black eyes are fatal to every 
Northern visitor. 

Nations, like individuals, admire and desire what 
they lack. The Germans and the English are 
deficient in grace hence that quality is what chiefly 
charms them in the French, who have much more of 
it than of 'Beauty, and in the Spanish. Byron was so 
much smitten with the sun-mellowed complexions 
and the graceful proportions and gait of the Spanish 
maidens, that he became quite unjust to his own 
lovely countrywomen 

' ' Who round the North for paler dames would seek ? 
How poor their forms appear ! How languid, wan, and weak ! " 

Were savages susceptible to Love, it might be 
suggested that their practice of exogamy, or marry- 
ing a woman from another tribe, had something to 
do with their admiration of novelty and comple- 
mentary qualities ; but we know that they do not 
admire such qualities, but only such typical traits as 
prevail among their own women, and these, more- 
over, in an exaggerated form. This is one reason 
why savages are so ugly. They have no Romantic 

7o Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

Love to improve their Personal Beauty by fusing 
heterogeneous defects into homogeneous perfections. 

Thus we may freely endorse Schopenhauer's 
doctrine regarding the benefits derived by the off- 
spring (ultimately, in several generations) from 
marriages based on complementary Love, without 
bowing down before his fetish a fetish which 
appears doubly objectionable because it is old- 
fashioned ; i.e. it strives to " maintain the type of 
the species in its primitive purity," whereas modern 
science teaches that this " primitive type " of human 
beauty had a very simian aspect. 

Nor need we at all accept the pessimistic aspect 
of his theory the notion that Love is an illusion, 
and that Love-marriages commonly end unhappily, 
the lover sacrificing himself for his progeny. 

Mr. Herbert Spencer, in his Sociology, elaborates 
an idea which so curiously leads up to this phase of 
Schopenhauer's doctrine that it must be briefly re- 
ferred to for its evolutionary suggestiveness. 

Among the lowest animals the microscopic 
protozoa the individual, as he remarks, is sacri- 
ficed after a few hours of life, by breaking up into 
two new individuals, or into a number of germs 
which produce a new generation. The parents are 
here entirely sacrificed to the interests of the young 
and the species. As we ascend in the scale of life 
this sacrifice of parents to the young and the species 
becomes less and less prevalent. Among birds, for 
instance, " The lives of the parents are but partially 
subordinated at times when the young are being 
reared. And then there are long intervals between 
breeding-seasons, during which the lives of parents 

Schopenhauer's Theory of Love 71 

are carried on for their own sakes. ... In pro- 
portion as organisms become higher in their struc- 
tures and powers, they are individually less sacrificed 
to the maintenance of the species ; and the implica- 
tion is that in the highest type of man this sacrifice 
is reduced to a minimum." 

Here is the point where Schopenhauer, had he 
been an evolutionist, might have dovetailed his 
theory with Spencer's, by saying that in man it is 
no longer the life of the individual, or most of his 
time, that is sacrificed, but merely his conjugal 
happiness, which the Love-instinct induces him un- 
consciously to barter for the superior physical and 
mental beauty of his offspring. 

Unfortunately, Schopenhauer did not take any 
pains to verify his theory by testing it by vulgar 
facts. There are plenty of unhappy marriages, but 
no one who will search his memory can fail to come 
to the conclusion that the vast majority of them are 
cases where money or rank and not Love supplied 
the motive of an unsympathetic union. Though 
Conjugal Affection consists of a different group of 
emotions from Romantic Love, yet there is an affinity 
between them ; and it is not likely that Conjugal 
Love will ever supervene where before marriage there 
was an entire absence of sympathy and adoration. 
Even an imprudent Love-match which leads to 
poverty is it not preferable to a mariage de con- 
venance, which leads to lifelong indifference and 
ennui? Is it not better to have one month of 
ecstatic bliss in life than to live and die without 
ever knowing life's highest rapture ? 

Again, the French marry for money and social 

72 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

convenience, and their children are ugly ; the 
Americans marry for Love, and have the most 
beautiful children in the world. Is it not more 
conducive to conjugal happiness to know that one 
has lovely children and that the race is increasing, 
than to have ugly children and to know that the 
race is dying out? 

Love-matches would never end unhappily if the 
lovers would take proper care of their own happiness 
by transfusing the habits of Courtship into conjugal 
life, as elsewhere explained in this book. 

Schopenhauer's whole argument is vitiated by 
the fact that it is chiefly the physical complementary 
qualities that inspire Love, not the mental the 
latter, in fact, being barely noticed by him. Mental 
divergence might indeed occasionally lead to an 
unhappy marriage, but physical divergence the 
fact that he is large and blond, she small and a 
brunette cannot possibly lead to matrimonial dis- 
cord. This knocks the whole bottom out of Schopen- 
hauer's erotic pessimism. The only sense in which 
Love is an illusion is in its Hyperbolic phase the 
notion that the beloved is superior to all other 
mortals ; and that is a very harmless illusion. 

Schopenhauer's pessimism, it should be added, is 
greatly mitigated by the poetic halo of martyrdom 
with which he invests the lover's head. Society and 
public opinion, he points out, applaud him for in- 
stinctively preferring the welfare of the next gener- 
ation to his own comfort. " For is not the exact 
determination of the individualities of the next 
generation a much higher and nobler object than 
those ecstatic feelings of the lovers, and their super- 

Schopenhauer's Theory of Love 73 

sensual soap-bubbles?" It is this that invests Love 
with its poetic character. There is one thing only 
that justifies tears in a man, and that is the loss of 
his Love, for in that he bewails not his own loss but 
the loss of the species. 

Apart from the suggestive details of his essay, 
Schopenhauer's merit and originality lies, first, in his 
having pointed out that Love becomes more intense 
the more it is individualised ; secondly, in emphasis- 
ing the fact that in match-making it is not the 
happiness of the to-be-married couple that should 
be chiefly consulted, but the consequences of their 
union to the offspring ; thirdly, in dwelling on the 
important truth that Love is a cause of Beauty, 
because its aim always is either to perpetuate ex- 
isting Beauty through hereditary transmission, or to 
create new Beauty by fusing two imperfect in- 
dividuals into a being in whom their shortcomings 
mutually neutralise one another. 

Love, however, is only one source of Personal 
Beauty. Personal Beauty has four sources ; and 
these must now be considered in succession, in the 
order which roughly indicates their successive evolu- 
tion Health, Crossing, Love, and Mental Refine- 

The remainder of this work will be devoted ex- 
clusively to the subject of Personal Beauty, as it 
influences and is influenced by Romantic Love. 
And here, as in the preceding pages, I shall always 
cite the ipsissima verba of the greatest specialists 
who have written on any particular branch of this 

74 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 



Plants, Animals, Savages. In two of the most 
exquisite passages, not only in his own works, but 
in all English literature, Mr. Ruskin has emphasised 
the dependence of physical beauty in plants on their 
healthy appearance, and the independence of this 
beauty on any idea of direct utility to man. 

" It is a matter of easy demonstration," he says, 
" that, setting the characters of typical beauty aside, 
the pleasure afforded by every organic form is in 
proportion to its appearance of healthy vital energy ; 
as in a rose-bush, setting aside all considerations of 
gradated flushing of colour and fair folding of line, 
which it shares with the cloud or the snow-wreath, 
we find in and through all this certain signs pleasant 
and acceptable as signs of life and enjoyment in the 
particular individual plant itself. Every leaf and 
stalk is seen to have a function, to be constantly 
exercising that function, and, as it seems, solely for 
the good and enjoyment of the plant. It is true 
that reflection will show us that the plant is not 
living for itself alone, that its life is one of bene- 
faction, that it gives as well as receives, but no sense 
of this whatever mingles with our perception of 
physical beauty in its forms. Those forms which 
appear to be necessary to its health, the symmetry 
of its leaflets, the smoothness of its stalks, the vivid 
green of its shoots, are looked upon by us as signs 
of the plant's own happiness and perfection ; they 
are useless to us, except as they give us pleasure in 

Four Sources of Beauty 75 

our sympathising with that of the plant, and if we 
see a leaf withered or shrunk or worm-eaten, we say 
it is ugly, and feel it to be most painful, not because 
it hurts us, but because it seems to hurt the plant, 
and conveys to us an idea of pain and disease and 
failure of life in it" 

" The bending tree, waving to and fro in the wind 
above the waterfall, is beautiful because it is happy, 
though it is perfectly useless to us. The same trunk, 
hewn down and thrown across the stream, has lost 
its beauty. It serves as a bridge, it has become 
useful ; it lives not for itself, and its beauty is gone, 
or what it retains is purely typical, dependent on its 
lines and colours, not its functions. Saw it into 
planks, and though now adapted to become per- 
manently useful, its whole beauty is lost for ever, or 
to be regained only in part when decay and ruin 
shall have withdrawn it again from use, and left it 
to receive from the hand of Nature the velvet moss 
and varied lichen, which may again suggest ideas of 
inherent happiness, and tint its mouldering sides with 
hues of life." 

In the animal world we find the same dependence 
of Beauty upon Health. As Mr. Wallace has shown, 
" colour and ornament are strictly correlated with 
health, vigour, and general fitness to survive." It is 
the superior vitality, vigour, and vivacity of certain 
male animals that leads the choicest females to 
prefer them to others less favoured ; and thus it 
happens that, thanks to the dependence of Beauty 
on Health, animals have become more and more 
beautiful. Moreover, it is Love in its primitive form 
that urges animals to prefer those that are most 

76 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

healthy. And thus we have the three great agents 
acting and reacting upon one another. Health pro- 
duces Beauty, and together they inspire Love ; while 
Love selects Health, and thus preserves and multi- 
plies Beauty. But this whole subject has been so fully 
discussed in the chapter on Love among Animals 
that it is needless to recapitulate the facts here. 

Concerning savages, there is a prevalent notion 
that, owing to their free and easy life in the forests, 
they are healthier on the average than civilised man- 
kind. As a matter of fact, however, they are as 
inferior to us in Health as in Beauty. Their con- 
stant exposure and irregular feeding habits, their 
neglect and ignorance of every hygienic law, in con- 
junction with their vicious lives, their arbitrary mutila- 
tions of various parts, and their selection of inferior 
forms, prevent their bodies from assuming the regular 
and delicate proportions which we regard as essential 
to Beauty. They arrive at maturity at an earlier 
age, and lose their vitality sooner than we do. 
" Decrepitude," says Dr. Topinard, " shows itself 
sooner in some races than in others. The Austra- 
lians and Bosjesmans are old men at a period when 
the European is in the full enjoyment of his faculties, 
both physical and intellectual. The Japanese the 
same, according to Dr. Krishaber, physician to the 
Japanese embassy." 

Women everywhere pay less attention to the 
laws of Health than men. They have less exer- 
cise, less fresh air and sunshine than men. Hence, 
although the most beautiful women are more beauti- 
ful than the handsomest men, yet in probably every 
country of the world the average man is a more 

Four Sources of Beauty 77 

perfect specimen of masculine than the average 
woman of feminine Beauty. Concerning savages 
Mr. Spencer says : " Very generally among the 
lower races the females are even more unattractive 
in aspect than the males. It is remarked of the 
Puttooahs, whose men are diminutive and whose 
women are still more so, that ' the men are far from 
being handsome, but the palm of ugliness must be 
awarded to the women.' The latter are hard-worked 
and apparently ill-fed." Again, of the inhabitants 
of the Corea Gutzlaff says : " The females are very 
ugly, whilst the male sex is one of the best formed 
of Asia. . . . Women are treated like beasts of burden'' 
Many similar cases are cited by Dr. Ploss in Das 

Concerning modern civilised nations, a well-known 
art-critic has given his testimony to the effect that 
" Possibly owing to the fact that men are freer to 
follow their normal lives, I have found that in a 
majority of the countries I have visited there are 
more handsome men than beautiful women. This 
is peculiarly the case with the modern Greek, and 
was, if antique sculpture could be accepted as witness, 
with the ancient" 

Greek Beauty. In the preceding chapters of this 
work an attempt has been made to show that there 
is a general connection between the growth of Love 
and the growth of Beauty throughout the world. To 
some readers, no doubt, the thought has suggested 
itself, " How, if this be true, did the loveless Greeks 
succeed in reaching such uncommon physical beauty 
beauty which artists of all times have admired ?" 

It must be borne in mind, however, that we are 

78 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

very liable to exaggerate in our notions of Greek 
Beauty, because we are apt to generalise from the 
fine statues that have come down to us, and to 
imagine that they represent the common type of 
Greek Beauty. But it is well known that the Greeks 
idealised their statues according to certain physiog- 
nomic rules ; and, moreover, as Winckelmann remarks, 
" Beauty was not a general quality even among the 
Greeks, and Cotta in Cicero says that, among the 
great numbers of young persons at Athens, there 
were only a few possessing true beauty." 

Besides, it has not been claimed that Love is the 
only cause of Beauty. Taking into consideration the 
other sources of Beauty, it is easy enough to account 
for such physical attractiveness as the Greeks did 
possess. The intellectual culture which the- men 
enjoyed gave them a great advantage over the 
women ; and equally important, if not more so, was 
the attention which the men (and in some cases the 
women too) paid to Health. Their habitual life in 
the open air, while the women were locked up at 
home, combined with their daily gymnastic exer- 
cises in making their complexion healthy, their 
eyes sparkling, their limbs supple, vigorous, and 

Other causes that tended to keep up an average 
of healthy bodily development were the refusal to 
bring up sickly and deformed infants, and the exist- 
ence of numerous slaves, who did all the drudgery 
for the Greeks. 

It is most characteristic that the author of a 
very old Greek ode formulates his wishes in this 
order : First, health ; then, beauty ; thirdly, wealth 

Four Sources of Beauty 79 

honestly got ; fourth, the privilege of being gay and 
merry with his friends. 

First, Health; then, Beauty. There lies the secret, 
for they always go together ; and in aiming at one 
the Greeks got the other too. 

There was every reason why Greek parents should 
have striven eagerly to follow those laws of Health 
which ensure beautiful children. In ancient Greece 
Beauty was a possession which led to national fame. 
Some persons, Winckelmann informs us, were even 
characterised by a particular name, borrowed from 
some specially fine feature. Thus Demetrius Polior- 
ketes was named, from the beauty of his eyelids, 
%apt,To/3\e(l>apo<;, i.e. on whose lids the graces dwell. 

" It appears, indeed," the same writer continues, 
" to have been a belief that the procreation of beautiful 
children might be promoted by the distribution of 
prizes for beauty, as there is reason to infer from the 
contests of beauty which were instituted in the 
remotest ages by Cypselus, King of Arcadia, in the 
time of the Heraclidae, on the banks of the river 
Alpheus, in Elis ; and also from the fact that at the 
festival of the Philesian Apollo, a prize for the most 
exquisite kiss was conferred on the youthful. Its 
assignment -was subject to the decision of a judge, as 
was probably also the case at Megara, at the tomb of 

" At Sparta, and at Lesbos, in the temple of Juno, 
and among the citizens of Parrhasia, the women con- 
tended for the prize of beauty. The regard for this 
quality was so strong that, as Oppian declares, the 
Spartan women placed in their sleeping- rooms an 
Apollo, or Bacchus, or Nereus, or Narcissus, or 

8o Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

Hyacinthus, or Castor and Pollux, in order that they 
might bear beautiful children." 

Some hint as to what the Greeks regarded as 
beautiful is given by the epithets Homer bestows on 
Helen "the well-rounded," " the white-armed," "fair- 
haired," " of the beautiful cheeks." 

Medieval Ugliness. This is a topic which might 
as well be introduced under any of the other Sources 
of Beauty, for it is difficult to say which of these 
sources was most completely and deliberately choked 
up during the Dark Ages. 

It is a curious irony of language that makes 
asceticism almost identical with aestheticism, of which 
it is the deadly enemy. As diseases are transmitted 
from generation to generation, so it seems that the 
fear of Beauty born of mediaeval asceticism has not 
yet died out completely ; for it is related that some 
years ago a pious dame in Boston seriously medi- 
tated the duty of having some of her daughter's 
sound teeth pulled out, so as to mitigate her sinful 

If this worthy lady had followed St. Jerome's 
injunction " I entirely forbid a young lady to 
bathe ; " if she had taught her that it is unladylike to 
have a healthy appetite ; if she had locked her up in 
a house rendered pestilential by defective drainage ; 
allowed her mind to rot in fallow idleness ; taught 
her that to be really saintly and virtuous she must 
be pale and hysterical ; or imitated the lady who 
was praised by a bishop in the fourth century 
for " having brought upon herself a swarm of 
diseases which defied all medical skill to cure," 
if the worthy Boston lady had but followed this 

Four Sources of Beauty Si 

mediaeval system, she would have succeeded in a 
short time in overcoming her daughter's sinful 
Beauty, and making her " ugly as a mud-fence," as 
they say out West. 

That Personal Beauty cannot flourish where 
Health is regarded as a vice and Disease as a 
virtue is self-evident. And one needs only to look 
at mediaeval pictures to note how coarse and void of 
refined expression are the men, how hard and mas- 
culine the women. The faces of the numerous 
mediaeval women in Blanche's Cyclopaedia of Costume 
have almost all an expression approaching imbecility, 
and features as if they had been chiselled by a small 
boy trying his hand at sculpture for the first time. 
Thackeray does not hesitate to speak even of " those 
simpering Madonnas of Rafael." Mr. G. A. Simcox re- 
marks that in manuscripts of the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries (like the Harleian Gospels and Maccabees) 
we meet with " short, thickset figures, mostly with 
the long, square, horsey face, moving stiffly in small 
groups, in heavy dresses ; and even the daughter of 
Herodias dances upon her head [sic] in a gown that 
might have stood alone. On the other hand, the 
faces are more set, more articulate, less flabby, though 
they are all mean, or almost all, and look askance 
out of the corners of their eyes" (Art Journal, 
1874, P. 58). 

There may be Oriental countries where woman 
is kept more closely under lock and key than she 
was in Europe during the Dark Ages ; but nowhere 
else has man so well succeeded in reducing the pur- 
suit of unhappiness to a science, in snubbing, scorn- 
ing, abusing, maltreating woman. How all this 


82 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

must have tended to increase Personal Beauty is 
well brought out in the following advice given by 
Mr. Ruskin : " Do not think you can make a girl 
lovely if you do not make her happy. There is not 
one restraint you put on a good girl's nature there 
is not one check you give to her instincts of affection 
or of effort which will not be indelibly written on 
her features, with a hardness which is all the more 
painful because it takes away the brightness from 
the eyes of innocence, and the charm from the brow 
of virtue." 

Modern Hygiene. Disease is Beauty's deadliest 
enemy. Yet for the sake of gratifying a silly vanity 
for the sake of being distinguished from ordinary 
mortals a certain pallor and blase languor have 
long been considered in certain influential circles 
as more distingue' than ruddy cheeks and robust 
health. Yet even if pale cheeks were more beauti- 
ful than rosy cheeks, would it be worth while to 
purchase them at the cost of premature decay of 
the certainty that a few years of pale cheeks will 
be followed by many years of sallow cheeks and lack- 
lustre eyes, deeply sunk into their orbits ? 

Though beauty is still of lamentably rare occur- 
rence in every country, there is infinitely more of it 
than during the Middle Ages ; and certainly not the 
least cause of this is the increased attention paid 
to Hygiene public and personal. The difference in 
this respect between us and our ancestors is well 
brought out by the statistics regarding the average 
length of life. In ancient Rome, it is stated, " the 
average longevity among the most favoured classes 
was but thirty years, whereas to-day the average 

Four Sources of Beauty 83 

longevity among the corresponding class of people 
is fifty years. In the sixteenth century the average 
longevity in Geneva was 21.21 years. Between 1814 
and 1833 it was 40.68, and as large a proportion 
now live to seventy as lived to forty-three three 
hundred years ago." Dr. Corfield, comparing the 
statistics of 1842 with those of 1884, states that 
the mean duration of life in London has increased 
from twenty-nine to thirty- eight years. " In the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth the death-rate of the 
metropolis as it then was amounted to 40 per 
thousand. In the reign of Queen Victoria, almost 
entirely by the reduction of mortality by means of 
improved drainage, ventilation, and water, it has 
often touched 1 5 and 1 4, and even fallen as low as 
i 3 in the thousand," while " in many of the suburban 
districts, and in the fashionable region about Hyde 
Park, it ranges from 1 1 to 12." 

In France, according to M. Topinard, the mean 
duration of life, which was twenty-nine at the close of 
the eighteenth century, and thirty-nine from 1817 to 
1831, increased to forty from 1840 to 1859, thanks 
to the progress of sanitary science and civilisation. 

As Hygiene is receiving more and more attention 
every year, it is possible that in course of time Dr. 
W. B. Richardson's ideal will be realised a town 
ideally perfect in sanitary matters, having a death- 
rate of 9 per 1000, and 105 years the duration of 
a man's life. 

As decrepitude and premature old age means a 
premature loss of Beauty, personal attractiveness 
would be correspondingly prolonged and increased 
with life itself. 

84 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

Even at the present time not one house in a 
thousand is so constructed that every room has 
good ventilation. Architects are, however, less to 
blame than the people who will persist in their 
absurd old superstitution that draughts and night 
air are injurious. Professor Reclam, the distinguished 
hygienist, not long ago opened a crusade against the 
horror of night air and draughts which is especially 
prevalent among his countrymen. " Sleeping with 
open windows," he says, " is most unjustly decried 
among the people, as well as night air in general. 
But night air is injurious only in swampy regions, 
whereas on dry soil, in the mountains, and every- 
where in the upper stories of a house it is more 
salubrious than day air. . . . Draughts are not 
injurious unless we are in a glow. To healthy 
persons they cannot possibly do so much harm as the 
stagnant air in a close room. The fear of draughts 
is entirely groundless, though it affects most people 
in a manner which is simply ludicrous." 

Electricity, no doubt, will in less than a decade 
abolish horses from our cities, and with them the 
dust, foul odours, and sleep-murdering noise. The 
gain to Health, and through it to Beauty, from this 
alone, will be enormous. Doubtless one of the 
reasons why there is so much Beauty, so many fresh 
and sparkling eyes, in Venice, is because there are 
no horses in that city, and the inhabitants are not 
roused and half -roused from sleep every fifteen 
minutes during the night by a waggon rattling 
down the street. 

It is not sufficiently known that street-noise may 
injure the Health even of those whom it does not 

Four Sources of Beauty 85 

entirely wake up. The restorative value of sleep 
lies in its depth and the absence of dreams. A 
noisy waggon interferes with the depth of sleep and 
starts a current of dreams, thus depriving it of half 
its potency. 

" Beauty sleep " is an expression which rests on 
a real physiological truth. Sleep before midnight 
really is more health-giving and beautifying than 
after midnight, for the reason that in all towns and 
cities there is less noise in the early hours of the 
night than after four in the morning, wherefore sleep 
is deeper between ten and twelve than between six 
and eight o'clock. The reason why so many more 
proposals (by city folks) are made in the country 
than in the city is not only because there are more 
frequent opportunities of meeting at a summer hotel, 
but because the young folks retire early, and appear 
in the morning with an exuberance of Health, born 
of fresh air and sound sleep, which cannot fail to 
inspire Love. 

Other matters of Hygiene will be discussed in 
connection with the organs which they specially 


Darwin has proved experimentally that in the 
vegetable kingdom " cross-fertilisation is generally 
beneficial, and self -fertilisation injurious. This is 
shown by the difference in height, weight, con- 
stitutional vigour, and fertility of the offspring from 
crossed and self-fertilised flowers, and in the number 
of seeds produced by the parent plants." He also 
showed that "the benefit from cross -fertilisation 
depends on the plants which are crossed having 

86 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

been subjected during previous generations to some- 
what different conditions." 

Similarly, concerning animals, we read in 
Topinard, that " breeders who select their subjects 
with a definite object to breed in and in, that is to 
say, between near relations, rapidly obtain excellent 
results. They know, however, that fertility then 
diminishes, and that it will cease altogether if they 
do not have recourse from time to time to crossing, 
in order to strengthen the race." 

But both in the vegetable and the animal king- 
dom, as we have seen, superior Health also implies 
superior Beauty. 

The inference is natural that the human race 
also must be benefited by marriages of individuals 
of different races, or of the same race, but brought 
up under different conditions of life. And the facts 
are entirely in favour of this supposition, as are 
the best authorities in Anthropology. Dr. Topinard 
gives the following instances among many others : 
" Immigration into the United States, which has 
taken so considerable a flight during the last thirty 
years, has already been enormous. Every variety 
of cross has been going on between English, Irish, 
Germans, Italians, French, etc., with the greatest 
possible success. We may also mention numberless 
Spaniards from the Peninsula, among whom are 
found the features of the Saracen invaders of the 
ninth century ; then that population on the Barbary 
coast, called Moors, and which is a medley of races 
of every description, the Arab and Berber blood 
predominating. On tracing back the yellow races, 
we also discover a perfect eugenesis. . . . De Mas 

Four Sources of Beauty 87 

speaks in the highest terms of mixed breeds of 
Chinese and Mongolians, and MM. Mondieres and 
Morice of those of Chinese and Annamites under 
the name of Minuongs. Dr. Bowring describes a 
race in the Philippine Islands, intermediate between 
the Malays and Chinese, as the principal agent of 
civilisation in these latitudes." 

On the other hand, " it is undeniable that in 
Africa the Negro races do not cross to any great 
extent." Nor has any one ever accused the Negroes 
of an excessive amount of Beauty. Whereas in 
Lima, which has the finest women in South 
America, " there are twenty-three different names 
to designate the varieties of mixed breeds of 
Spaniards, Peruvians, and Negroes." " The number 
of mongrels on the face of the globe has been 
estimated at twelve millions, of whom no fewer 
than eleven millions are in South America." South 
American women are already famous for their 
Beauty, and there is reason to believe that when 
the fusion of all these elements is complete the 
race will be one of the finest in the world. What 
Beauty it has now seems to be owing chiefly to the 
magic of Crossing ; for attention to Health there is 
little but what comes from life in the open air ; 
while Romantic Love is perhaps as rare as Mental 
Refinement, inasmuch as Courtship is not so free 
and easy a matter as in North America. All the 
more honour to the potency of Crossing. 

Take a few more cases. The African Negroes, 
as just stated, do not mix much, and are an ugly 
type. Among the Polynesians, on the other hand, 
there are many very fine types of human beauty ; 

88 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

and it is therefore not surprising to read that to- 
day in Polynesia, " mixed breeds are so numerous 
that it would be difficult to find among them any 
individuals of pure race." 

Again, concerning the Magyars or Hungarians, 
Schweiger-Lerchenfeld remarks that "they are a 
splendid race, physically and intellectually. . . . The 
girls and young women are of most piquant charm, 
models of health in mind and body." But these 
Magyars, when they first came to Europe, were, as 
Waitz states, "of a repulsive ugliness in the eyes of 
all their neighbours." That they have mixed with 
the Indo-Germanic type is shown by their appear- 
ance, as well as by peculiarities of their language. 
" Where they have probably remained less mixed," 
Waitz continues, " and at the same time less culti- 
vated, in some remote regions, especially in the 
mountains, the ugly primitive type may be found 
to the present day ; in the plains may be found 
every transitional form from this to the nobler type ; 
at Szegedin both are found face to face." 

The Magyars, in turn, have, like the Slavo- 
Italians, Czechs, etc., assisted the Austrians in 
evolving a superior type of Beauty by fusing with 
them. That there is very much more Beauty in 
Vienna than in any purely German city is an almost 
proverbial commonplace ; and the reason why may 
be found in the statistics: in Germany 31.80 per 
cent are blond, 14.05 brunet, 54.15 mixed; in 
Austria 19.59 P er cent are blond, 23.17 brunet, 
and 68.04 mixed. 

The European Turks have much nobler forms of 
the head and features than their Asiatic relatives ; 

Four Sources of Beauty 89 

and the inference seems inevitable that they owe 
these improvements to intermarriage with Circassian 

A negative instance, showing the disadvantages 
of abstaining from Crossing, is given by the Jews. 
There are handsome Jews and, up to a certain age, 
very beautiful Jewesses. But the typical Jew is 
certainly not a thing of beauty. The disadvantages 
of Jewish separatism are shown not only in the long, 
thick, crooked nose, the bloated lips, almost sug- 
gesting a negro, and the heavy lower eyelid, but in 
the fact that the Jews "have proportionately more 
insane, deaf mutes, blind, and colour-blind " than 
other Europeans. From an intellectual and industrial 
point of view, the Jews are one of the finest races in 
the world, and their absorption by the natives of the 
countries in which they have settled could not but 
benefit both parties concerned. From this point of 
view there may be something said even in favour of 
the money-marriages, which are now so frequent 
between extravagant German officers and Jewish 
heiresses. Unfortunately, the Jews have kept apart 
so long from the rest of the world that they do not 
readily mix with non-Jews. Contrary to the general 
rule, mixed marriages of Jews and Christians are less 
fertile than pure Jewish unions. 

The precise manner in which a mixture of races 
improves physical appearance is a question still open 
to debate. Professor Kollmann (Plastische Anatomic) 
thinks " the result of the crossing of two forms is 
comparable, not to a chemical, but to a mechanical 
mixture;" and this agrees with the view of Mr. Herbert 
Spencer, who endeavours to trace to this fact the 

go Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

frequent want of correspondence between intellectual 
and physical beauty. He believes, however, the 
time will come " when the present causes of incon- 
gruity will have worked themselves out," and intel- 
lectual beauty emerge in harmony with physical, in 
all details, as it no doubt exists in general. 

There is no lack of facts supporting the view that 
sexual fusion is a mere mechanical mixture. The 
" Bourbon nose " seems to defy mitigating circum- 
stances for generations ; and " M. de Quatrefages 
knew a great-grandson of the bailiff of Suffren who 
was a striking likeness of his ancestor after four 
generations, and who, nevertheless, bore no resem- 
blance either to his father or his mother." A child 
may resemble its father, mother, aunt, uncle, grand- 
parents, or several of them at once ; and the resem- 
blance may vary at different ages. 

More extraordinary are the following cases cited 
by Topinard : " Sometimes the child possesses alto- 
gether the character of one or other parent : for 
example, the child of a European father and a 
Chinese mother, Dr. Scherzer says, is altogether a 
European or altogether a Chinese. A Berber with 
blue eyes and with the lobule of the ear absent, 
married to a dark Arab woman with a well-formed 
ear, had two children, one like himself, the other like 
his wife. An English officer, fair, with blue eyes 
and florid complexion, had several children by an 
Indian negress. Some were the image of the father, 
others exactly like the mother. ... A decided negro, 
having had a white among his ancestors, has unex- 
pectedly a child with a white skin by a negress." 

Yet all these are exceptional cases, which, like 

Four Sources of Beauty 91 

the winning number in a lottery, get a dispro- 
portionate amount of attention. Moreover, this 
" mechanical " form of assimilation seems to occur 
chiefly where very unrelated races are fused, and 
then especially in the first generation. In subsequent 
generations the union doubtless tends to become 
more and more chemical no longer a negro char- 
acter floating on a white one, like oil on water, but 
a mixture, as of wine and water. 

Take the American quadroons, for instance, 
famous for their beauty of form and features. They 
are mongrels of the third generation, having one- 
eighth black, seven-eighths white blood in their veins. 
Surely these characters are not " mechanically " mixed 
in such a woman, but " chemically." That is, you 
do not find her with the eyes and nose of a negro, 
the lips and ears of a white, one part of her skin 
dark the other light : but in everything there is a 
fusion of the ancestral elements. Her nose is not 
flat like that of her ancestress, nor her lips swollen, 
but both are intermediate between those of her white 
and black ancestors. Her lip is still thicker than 
that of the whites, and that gives her a sensuous 
aspect, kiss-inviting. Her eyes, again, have lost the 
fierce glare and opaque blackness of the negro- 
grandmother, and assumed a more crystalline, tender 
lustre ; while their form and surroundings have 
become more refined and expressive. All this is 
homogeneous fusion, not "heterogeneous mixture." 

Finally, it is hardly correct to state dogmatically 
that a certain person resembles this or that ancestor. 
In nothing else do opinions vary so constantly and 
so ludicrously. No one who has ever been " trotted 

92 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

around " among his relatives in the " old country," 
can have failed to be amused at the countless resem- 
blances to this and that uncle, aunt, or grand-parent 
discovered in him, until he came to the conclusion 
that he must be a veritable epitome of. the whole 
genealogy. A man who at home is supposed to be 
absolutely unlike his brother, is elsewhere mistaken 
for him and addressed as such ; while another man 
finds a friend who knew his father in his youth, and 
declares he is exactly like him ; though a second 
friend who knew only the mother, claims a similar 
hereditary influence for her. All of which tends to 
show that there is more of both parents in each 
person than is commonly supposed ; and that the 
reason why opinions differ so, is because the fusion 
is chemical rather than mechanical, which makes it 
difficult to put the finger on distinct points of 

It is in the more closely allied races, like the 
English and German, or Italian and Spanish, that 
" chemical " fusion is most readily attained, and 
Beauty most rapidly evolved. Such are the unions 
which take place on such a large scale in the United 
States and Canada ; and this may account for the 
fact that there is more Beauty in North America 
than in South America, where the races that inter- 
mingle are less related. There is a golden mean 
here as in everything else. 


What Crossing does on a national scale, Love 
continues with individuals, by fusing dissonant, but 
complementary, parental qualities into a harmonious 

Four Sources of Beauty 93 

progeny. How this is done is sufficiently shown in 
the chapter on Schopenhauer. 

This, however, is only one of the ways in which 
Love increases the amount of Beauty in the world. 
There are several others. 

The second is that apart from complementary 
considerations Romantic Love always urges the 
choice of a mate who approaches nearest to the ideal 
type of Beauty. As Beauty is hereditary, and as a 
beautiful father and mother may have six or more 
beautiful children, this predilection for Beauty shown 
by Love necessarily preserves and multiplies it 

" From fairest creatures we desire increase, 
That thereby Beauty's rose might never die," 

says Shakspere, anticipating the modern theory of 

On this particular topic nothing more need be 
said here, because all the remainder of this book 
will be taken up with a consideration of those 
features of Personal Beauty for which the aesthetic 
taste which forms part of Romantic Love shows a 
decided preference. 

The third way in which Love promotes the cause 
of Beauty is by the great attention it pays to Health 
in its choice. For though Health is not always 
synonymous with Beauty, it is the soil on which 
alone Beauty can germinate and flourish. 

The fourth way is through the elimination of 
ugliness. Love, says Plato, is devotion to Beauty : 
" with the ugly Eros has no concern." 

From the aesthetic point of view, ugliness is 
disease. Now there is a cast-iron Lykurgean law 
prevailing throughout Nature which eliminates the 

94 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

diseased and the ugly. It is a cruel agency, called 
Natural Selection, and has not the slightest regard 
for individuals, but provides only for the weal of the 
species, as Schopenhauer erroneously says is the case 
with Love. In a bed of plants, if there are more 
than can find sustenance, the stronger crowd out the 
weaker. Among animals, wherever there is com- 
petition, the best-developed, handsomest lion survives 
in combat, and the most fleet-footed, and consequently 
most graceful, deer escapes, while the clumsy, the 
ugly, and diseased perish miserably, inexorably. 
Savages leave the old and feeble to die, and weak 
or deformed children are either deliberately put out 
of the way or perish from want of proper care. Nor 
among the ancient civilised nations were such 
methods unknown. Plato and Aristotle, says Mr. 
Grote, agree in this point : " Both of them command 
that no child born crippled or deformed shall be 
brought up a practice actually adopted at Sparta 
under the Lykurgean institutions, and even carried 
further, since no child was allowed to be brought up 
until it had been inspected and approved by the 
public nurses." The Romans, too, were legally per- 
mitted to expose deformed children. 

Christianity, the religion of pity and charity, 
abhors such practices. Christianity is antagonistic 
to Natural Selection. One of its chief functions is 
the building of hospitals in which the cripples, the 
insane, the incurably diseased, are gratuitously and 
tenderly cared for, instead of being allowed to 
perish, as they would under the sway of Natural 

This artificial preservation of disease and defor- 

Four Sources of Beauty 95 

mity, in and out of hospitals, due to Christian 
charity, might in the long run prove injurious to the 
welfare of the human race, were it not for the 
stepping in of Modern Love as a preserver of 
Health and Beauty. What formerly was left to the 
agency of Natural Selection is now done by Love, 
through Sexual Selection, on a vast scale. 

From a moral point of view, the substitution of 
Sexual for Natural Selection is a great gain, in 
harmony with the spirit of Christianity. For Cupid 
does not kill those who do not come up to his 
standard of Health and Beauty, but simply ignores 
and condemns them to a life of single-blessedness. 


" After all," says Washington Irving, speaking of 
Spanish women, " it is the divinity within which 
makes the divinity without; and I have been 
more fascinated by a woman of talent and intel- 
ligence, though deficient in personal charms, than 
I have been by the most regular beauty." 

It is one of the commonest commonplaces of 
conversation that in moments of intellectual or 
emotional excitement the features of plain people 
assume an aspect of exquisite beauty. Love trans- 
fuses a homely girl's countenance with a glow of 
angelic loveliness ; and biographies are full of state- 
ments concerning the countenances of men of genius, 
which, ordinarily unattractive, assumed an expression 
of unearthly beauty while their minds were active 
and electrified the facial muscles. 

" There is not any virtue the exercise of which, 
even momentarily, will not impress a new fairness 

96 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

upon the features," says Mr. Ruskin ; and again, 
he speaks of " the operation of the intellectual 
powers upon the features, in the fine cutting and 
chiselling of them, and removal from them of signs 
of sensuality and sloth, by which they are blunted 
and deadened, and substitution of energy and 
intensity for vacancy and insipidity (by which wants 
alone the faces of many fair women are utterly 
spoiled and rendered valueless); and by the keen- 
ness given to the eye and fine moulding and 
development to the brow, of which effects Sir Charles 
Bell has well noted the desirableness and opposition 
to brutal types." 

An English clergyman, the Rev. F. P. Lawson, 
diocesan inspector for Northamptonshire, issued a 
report not long ago concerning the results of his 
observations in 325 urban and rural schools during 
several years, regarding the effects of good education 
in improving the appearance of the children. " A 
school, thoroughly well taught, seldom failed to 
exhibit a considerable number of interesting little 
faces, and a striking absence of such faces might 
invariably be associated with poverty of tone 
and superficial instruction. Nothing struck him 
more forcibly in a school that has been suddenly 
lifted out of the mire by a firstrate teacher than the 
bright and thoughtful look which the children soon 

Negative evidence to the same effect might also 
be cited by the volume, but one case may suffice. 
" It is unhappily a fact," says Mr. Galton, " that 
fairly distinct types of criminals breeding true to 
their kind have become established, and are one 

Four Sources of Beauty 97 

of the saddest disfigurements of modern civilisa- 

The connection between culture and a superior 
type of Beauty is strikingly revealed in the follow- 
ing remarks on the far-famed Georgian women of 
the Caucasus, made by a great connoisseur of feminine 
beauty, the poet Bodenstedt : " In Europe the notion 
prevails that a Georgian woman is a tall, graceful 
being, of luscious form, clothed in wide, rich 
garments, with dense black hair, long enough 
to enchain all masculine hearts, an open, noble 
forehead, and a pair of eyes which contain 
within their dark, mysterious, magic circle all the 
secrets of human delight that come through the soul 
or the senses. Her gait is rapture. Joy precedes, 
and admiration follows her. . . . With such notions 
in their heads, strangers generally arrive in Georgia, 
and find themselves wofully disappointed. The 
tourists who come with such great expectations to 
visit this country, invested with the atmosphere of a 
fairyland by history and legend, either adhere 
stubbornly to their preconceived notions, or else 
they instantly go over to the opposite extreme, 
and find everything dirty, ugly, disgusting, dreadful. 

" The truth lies between these extremes. The 
Georgians are, all in all, one of the handsomest 
nations on the earth. But although I am a great 
admirer of women, I am compelled in this case to 
award the prize to the men instead of the women. 
This opinion is endorsed by all educated inhabitants 
of Georgia who have eyes, taste, and an impartial 

" I must add that of that higher beauty where 


98 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

heart and intellect and soul are mirrored in the eye, 
I found few traces in the whole Caucasus, either 
among men or women. I have seen the greater 
number of the beauties which Georgia boasts, but 
not one face have I seen that satisfied me com- 
pletely, though the picturesque native costume does 
much to heighten the charms of the women. The 
face entirely lacks that refined mental expression which 
makes a beautiful European woman such a unique 
enchantress. Such a woman may still inspire love 
and win hearts long after the time of her bloom ; 
whereas in a Georgian everything fades with youth. 
The eyes, which, notwithstanding their apparent 
fire, never expressed anything but calm and voluptu- 
ous indolence, lose their lustre ; the nose, which 
even in its normal relations exceeds the limits of 
beauty, assumes, in consequence of the premature 
hollowness of the cheeks, such abnormal dimensions 
that many people imagine that it actually continues 
to grow ; and the bosom, which the national costume 
makes no effort to conceal, prematurely loses its natural 
firmness all of which phenomena are observed in 
European women much less frequently, and in a less 
exaggerated form. If you add to this the habit, so 
prevalent among Georgians, young and old, of using 
white and red cosmetics, you will understand that 
such rude and inartistic arts of the toilet can only 
add to the observer's sense of dissatisfaction." 

America affords many illustrations of the manner 
in which refinement of mind and manners increases 
Beauty in a single generation. There are in every 
city thousands of parents who began life as ordinary 
labourers, but soon got rich through industry or good 

Four Sources of Beauty 99 

luck. They bring up their children in houses where 
every attention is paid to sanitary rules ; they send 
them to school and college ; and when they come 
back you would hardly believe that those coarse- 
featured, clumsy-limbed, ungraceful persons could be 
their father and mother. The discrepancy is some- 
times so great that when the young folks invite 
people of " their set " to their house, the old birds 
keep out of the way discreetly, either of their own 
accord or by filial dictation, which in America 
appears to be displacing parental authority. 

But if there is such an intimate connection be- 
tween culture and Beauty, how is it that we so often 
find plain features joined with a noble mind and 
fine features with a mean mind ? Mr. Spencer has 
endeavoured to explain this apparent discrepancy 
by assuming that in such cases plain features are 
inherited severally and separately from ancestors of 
diverse physiognomies, which being merely mechani- 
cally mixed, not fused, fail to harmonise. There 
may be something in this, but a simpler explana- 
tion is at hand. 

Noble minds are often the result of individual 
effort, and persistence in it. Many men of genius 
have had humble parents not specially gifted. From 
these parents and their ancestors they inherited their 
plain faces. Now individual effort, in the short 
period of a lifetime, is insufficient to alter the pro- 
portions of a face, which depend on its bony parts ; 
but it does suffice to alter the expression, which 
depends on the movements of the soft, muscular 
parts. Hence every person, however plain-featured, 
may acquire a beautiful expression by cultivating 

ioo Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

his mind and refining his manners and temper. 
Whenever, therefore, we meet a man or woman 
whose features are less attractive at rest than when 
moved to expression of emotion, we may feel sure 
that they owe their mental refinement more to 
individual effort than to inherited capacity. 

The children of such persons will be more beauti- 
ful than they are themselves, because they will inherit 
the parents' habit of expressive muscular action of 
the features. And owing to the fact that all the 
bony parts of the body are modified in accordance 
with the action of the muscles attached to them, 
the bony parts, the proportions, of the face will 
also be gradually modified and moulded into nobler 
shapes, through the continuance of refined emotional 

It is in this manner that intellectual growth and 
emotional refinement have gradually differentiated 
our features from those of our savage ancestors. Our 
lips have become more delicate, our mouths smaller, 
our jaws less gigantic, ponderous, and projecting, 
because civilisation has taught us to use the hands 
in preparing food, and to cut it instead of tearing it 
off the bone with the teeth, as savages and other 
wild animals do. 

Use increases, disuse diminishes the size of an 
organ. Hence for the same reason that our jaws 
have become less projecting and heavy, our forehead 
has lost its backward slope and become straight and 
noble, owing to the growth of the brain. And 
similarly with other peculiarities of the face, in- 
dicating the connection between mental refinement 
and physical beauty. " Thus is it," says Mr. Spencer, 

Evolution of Taste 101 

" with depression of the bridge of the nose, which 
is a characteristic both of barbarians and of our 
babes, possessed by them in common with our 
higher quadrumana. Thus, also, is it with that 
forward opening of the nostrils, which renders them 
conspicuous in a front view of the face, a trait alike 
of infants, savages, and apes. And the same may 
be said of widespread alae to the nose, of great 
width between the eyes, of long mouth, of large 
mouth indeed of all those leading peculiarities of 
feature which are by general consent called ugly." 



In all the preceding remarks concerning the 
connection between mental and physical beauty, 
the assumption has been made tacitly that what we 
consider beautiful is so in reality ; and that our 
taste is a safe guide to follow. Yet this assumption 
may be challenged, and has, indeed, been often 
challenged. Every nation, every savage tribe, has 
its own standard of Beauty ; what right, therefore, 
have we to claim dogmatically that we are infallible 
judges ? 

Ask the devil, says Voltaire, what is the mean- 
ing of TO /ca\ov the Beautiful and he will tell you 
" Le beau est une paire de cornes, quatre griffes, et 
une queue" a couple of horns, four claws, and a 
tail. Ask a North American Indian, says Hearne, 
what is Beauty, he will answer : " A broad, flat face, 
small eyes, high cheek-bones, three or four broad 
black lines across each cheek, a low forehead, a 

IO2 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

large, broad chin, a clumsy hook-nose, a tawny hide, 
and breasts hanging down to the belt." In the 
Chinese empire " those women are preferred who 
have ... a broad face, high cheek-bones, very 
broad noses, and enormous ears." " One of the 
titles of the Zulu king," says Darwin (who gives 
many other instances a propos in chapter xix. of 
the Descent of Man}, " is ' You who are black.' Mr. 
Galton, in speaking to me about the natives of South 
Africa, remarked that their ideas of beauty seem 
very different from ours ; for in one tribe two slim, 
slight, and pretty girls were not admired by the 

Darwin himself appears to have been staggered 
and puzzled by this diversity of taste, and to have 
partly inclined to the theory that Beauty is relative 
to the human mind (though elsewhere he repudiates 
it) a theory which Jeffrey has so boldly formulated 
in the assertion that " All tastes are equally just and 
true, in as far as concerns the individual whose taste 
is in question ; and what a man feels distinctly to 
be beautiful is beautiful to him, whatever other 
people may think of it." 

Fiddlesticks ! The Alison - Jeffrey school of 
Scotch aestheticians, having been among the first 
in the field, have done more to confuse the 
English mind on the subject of Beauty than several 
generations of other clever writers will be able to 
clear up again. 

There are about half a dozen sound, square, solid, 
scientific reasons why we have a better right to our 
opinion concerning the nature of Beauty than a 
Hottentot or a North American Indian. 

Evolution of Taste 103 

One of the things most commonly forgotten by 
those who wonder at the strange " taste " of savages 
is that many of their customs have nothing whatever 
to do with the sense of beauty. The habit of putting 
on " war-paint " originated not in a desire for orna- 
mentation, but in the wish to make themselves 
frightful in appearance to the enemy. For the same 
reason heads are mutilated. As Waitz notes in 
speaking of Tahiti : " A very ugly mutilation is that 
to which most of the boys had to subject themselves. 
Immediately after birth their mothers compressed 
their forehead and the back of the head, so that the 
former became narrow and high, the latter flat ; this 
was done to make their aspect more terrible, and 
thus turn them into more formidable warriors." 
Tattooing, likewise, was originally intended to be 
an easy sign of recognition, or of social or religious 
distinction, rather than an ornament of the body. And 
when we consider how prone the mind of our own 
fashionable ladies is to violate every canon of good 
taste in their wild effort to surpass one another in 
some novel extravagance just from Paris ; when we 
note that if a Fifth Avenue lady wears a gull on 
her hat, her coloured cook will invest in a turkey or 
ostrich for her's, we understand at once that many of 
the mutilations approved by savages are the outcome 
of vanity and emulation, not of aesthetic taste. 


Yet there are undoubtedly a number of physiog- 
nomic and other peculiarities which savages admire 

IO4 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

while we consider them ugly ; and some, again, 
which we admire and they dislike. Have we a 
right to consider them inferior to us in taste because 
they fail to admire what we adore ? 

Certainly ; beyond the shadow of a doubt. It 
takes genius to fully appreciate genius ; it takes a 
refined taste to appreciate refined beauty. This is 
what the savage lacks. 

Look at any one of the fine arts. Why does the 
savage prefer his monotonous drumming and ear- 
piercing war-songs to a soft, beautiful, dreamy 
Chopin nocturne ? Because he cannot understand 
the nocturne. 

Why does he prefer his painted, clumsy, coarse- 
featured squaw to a civilised woman with delicate 
contours, refined features, graceful gait? Because 
he does not understand the beauty of the latter. It 
is too subtle for his coarse nerves, his feeble imagina 
tion. The smiles and manifold expressions that chase 
one another across her lovely features, like the subtly- 
interwoven melodies in a symphonic poem, are the 
visible signs of thoughts and emotions which he has 
never experienced, and therefore cannot understand. 
It is like giving him a page of Sanskrit to read. 

It is for this reason that a negro never falls in 
love with a white woman, and that a peasant prefers 
his plump, crude country-girl to the fair, delicate city 
visitor. He requires more vigorous arms, broader 
features, than the city girl possesses, to make an 
impression on his callous nerves of touch and sight. 
And it is fortunate for the peasant girl that her 
lover does lack taste, else she would soon find him a 
fickle deserter. 

Evolution of Taste 105 

The savage, in a word, prefers his style of 
" beauty " to ours for the same reason that he 
prefers a piece of raw liver and a glass of oil to 
the subtle flavours of French cookery and French 
wines. His senses are too coarse, his mind too 
vulgar, to perceive the poetry of refined features. 
Everything must be loud and exaggerated to make 
an impression on him loud music, loud and 
glaring red and yellow colours, loud and coarse 

This doctrine that differences of taste are merely 
due to differences in the degree of aesthetic culture, 
and that there is such a thing as an absolute standard 
of human beauty, derives further support from the 
facts (i) that the ideal of Beauty set up by the 
aesthetic Greeks two thousand years ago corresponds 
so remarkably with that of modern artistic minds ; 
(2) that e.g. a Japanese student in the United States 
soon learns to prefer American female beauty to the 
Japanese variety ; (3) that an English, Italian, or 
American audience who at first admire Norma and 
find Lohengrin tiresome, can in a few seasons be 
so educated as to prefer Lohengrin and actually 
scorn Norma; but not vice versa, in either case (2) 

or (3). ^ 

Mr. Ruskin takes a similar view regarding differ- 
ences of taste when he says that "Respecting what has 
been asserted of negro nations looking with disgust 
on the white face, no importance whatever is to be 
attached to the opinions of races who have never 
received any ideas of beauty whatsoever (these ideas 
being only received by minds under some certain 
degree of cultivation), and whose disgust arises 

io6 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

naturally from what they suppose to be a sign of 
weakness or ill-health." 

That this consideration of health does affect the 
negro's judgment regarding the beauty of the white 
complexion, is also shown by what Mr. Winwood 
Reade told Mr. Darwin, namely, that the negro's 
"horror of whiteness may be attributed . . . partly 
to the belief held by most negroes that demons and 
spirits are white, and partly to their thinking it a 
sign of ill-health." 

But of all the theoretical truths emphasised in 
the Modern Painters none is so important as this : 
"That not only changes of opinion take place in 
consequence of experience, but that those changes 
are from variation of opinion to imity of opinion, 
that whatever may be the difference of estimate 
among unpractised or uncultivated tastes, there will 
be unity of taste among the experienced ; and that, 
therefore, the result of repeated trial and experi- 
ence is to arrive at principles of preference in some 
sort common to all, and which are part of our 

Let us now see what are those principles of 
Beauty that may be considered independent of a 
more or less crude and undeveloped taste. Some 
are negative, some positive. 


(a) Animals. " It has been argued," says Darwin 
(by Schaffhausen), " that ugliness consists in an 
approach to the structure of the lower animals, and 
no doubt this is partly true with the more civilised 
nations, in which intellect is highly appreciated ; but 

Negative Tests of Beauty 107 

this explanation will hardly apply to all forms of 

Curiously enough, savages themselves use animals 
as a negative test of beauty. Thus we read that 
" the Indians of Paraguay eradicate their eyebrows 
and eyelashes, saying that they do not wish to be 
like horses." " On the Eastern coast, the negro 
boys, when they saw Burton, cried out, ' Look at the 
white man ; does he not look like a white ape ?' " 
" A man of Cochin China ' spoke with contempt of 
the wife of the English ambassador that she had 
white teeth like a dog, and a rosy colour like that of 
potato-flowers.' " 

A few centuries ago it was a favourite pastime of 
physiognomists to draw elaborate parallels between 
men and animals. Thus, in 1593, there appeared a 
work, De Humana PJiysiognomia, with numerous 
illustrations, in which always a human face was 
matched with some animal's head. Professor Wundt 
thus sums up the essence of this book : " A broad 
forehead, we are told, indicates feadulness, because 
the ox with his broad head lacks courage. A long 
forehead, on the other hand, indicates erudition, as 
is shown by means of an intelligent dog who has 
the honour of serving as a pendant to Plato's profile. 
Persons with shaggy hair are good-natured, as they 
resemble the lion. He whose eyebrows are turned 
inwards, towards the nose, is uncleanly like the pig, 
which this resembles. The narrow chin of the ape 
signifies malice and envy. Long ears and thick 
lips, such as the donkey possesses, are signs of 
stupidity. A person who has a nose crooked from 
the forehead inclines, like the raven, to theft, etc. 

io8 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

These animal-physiognomists appear to have favoured 
a thoroughly pessimistic view of man's capacities, 
inasmuch as for every creditable resemblance they 
find at least ten discreditable ones." 

Apart from these puerilities, it is in most cases 
simply absurd to compare man with animals. Ex- 
cept in the case of apes there are no proper terms 
of comparison, because the types are so distinct ; 
and, moreover, from the point of view of its own 
type, the average animal of any species is more 
beautiful than the average man or woman from the 
human point of view. This assertion is indirectly 
corroborated by Mr. Galton's testimony, that " our 
human civilised stock is far more weakly through 
congenital imperfection than that of any other 
species of animals, whether wild or domestic." 

Schopenhauer considered animals beautiful in 
every way, and suggested that whenever we do find 
an animal ugly it is due to some irrelevant, inevit- 
able association of ideas, as when a monkey suggests 
a man, or a toad mud. And Mr. Ruskin pertinently 
suggests that " That mind only is fully disciplined 
in its theoretic power which, when it chooses, 
throwing off the sympathies and repugnancies with 
which the ideas of destructiveness or of innocence 
accustom us to regard the animal tribes, as well as 
those meaner likes and dislikes which arise, I think, 
from the greater or less resemblance of animal 
powers to our own, can pursue the pleasures of 
typical beauty down to the scales of the alligator, 
the coils of the serpent, and the joints of the beetle." 

When Sir Charles Bell intimated that in Greek 
sculpture the guiding principle was remoteness from 

Negative Tests of Beauty 1 09 

the animal type, he stated only one side of the 
truth, of which the other is thus noted by Winckel- 
mann : among the Greeks, he says, " The study of 
artists in producing ideal beauties was directed to 
the nature of the nobler beasts, so that they not 
only instituted comparisons between the forms of 
the human countenance and the shape of the head 
of certain animals, but they even undertook to adopt 
from animals the means of imparting greater majesty 
and elevation to their statues . . . especially in the 
heads of Hercules." Jupiter's head " has the com- 
plete aspect of the lion, the king of beasts, not only 
in the large, round eyes, in the fulness of the pro- 
minent, and, as it were, swollen forehead, and in the 
nose, but also in the hair, which hangs from his 
head like the mane of the lion, first rising upward 
from the forehead, and then, parting on each side 
into a bow, again falling downward." 

So that we may safely reject the theory that 
ugliness consists in an approach to the structure of 
the lower animals, whatever savages and Chinamen 
may think on this subject. Coarse minds little 
suspect what exquisite beauty is to be found in the 
head of a cow or a donkey, a puppy or a lamb 
beauty which, like a lovely melody, may bring tears 
to the eyes of one who is sensitive to aesthetic im- 
pressions. Objectively considered, even the destruc- 
tive emotions do not appear ugly in an animal. The 
ferocity of a lion does not make him appear vicious, 
because ferocity is his nature. He knows no better ; 
can only live by fighting. But a man is disfigured 
by ferocity because he does know better ; he can 
live without fighting ; and it is the consciousness of 

1 10 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

his selfish meanness that puts the stamp of ugliness 
on his distorted features. 

In apes alone does fierceness seem ugly and 
brutal instead of sublime. For apes bear so much 
resemblance to us, and have a brain so superior in 
structure to that of other animals, that we feel justi- 
fied in applying the human standard. Hence apes 
alone afford us a negative test of beauty. Their 
heads and faces are cast in our mould, and therefore 
afford the means of direct comparison. In looking 
at their massive, brutal jaws, their receding foreheads, 
their undifferentiated hands and feet, their coarse, 
hairy skin, their clumsy, inexpressive, gigantic mouths, 
their flat noses and nostrils open to the view, we are 
justified in calling them ugly, compared with our- 
selves, and in feeling proud that civilisation has 
gradually raised us so far above our country cousins, 
in beauty as in everything else, except the art of 
climbing trees. 

(6) Savages are valuable as negative tests of beauty 
for the same reason : they enable us to see what pro- 
gress we have made in refining our features into har- 
monious proportions, and making them susceptible of 
diverse emotional expression. It should be noted 
that Nature constantly endeavours to make primitive 
mankind beautiful, as it does with all other animals. 
Tourists constantly note the occurrence of remark- 
able instances of Personal Beauty among the young 
in most tribes. But this natural Beauty is not 
appreciated by the vulgar taste of savages, as we 
saw a few pages back in a case mentioned by Mr. 
Galton. Beauty must be distorted and exagger- 
ated before it pleases the savage's taste. Paint 

Negative Tests of Beauty 1 1 1 

must be laid on an inch thick, the nose perforated 
and " adorned " with a ring, and ditto the abnormally 
lengthened lips. This corrects the notion that 
savage hideousness is a product of Nature. Nature 
may blunder, but never so sadly as in the appearance 
of a savage belle or warrior ; and in scorning these 
we do not therefore scorn Nature, but merely the 
artificial products of the vulgar taste of primitive 

(e) Degraded Classes. Poverty, suffering, want of 
leisure for mental culture, want of money for sanitary 
modes of living, have, unfortunately, produced in all 
countries a large class in whom Personal Beauty 
occurs only as an accident. That such unhappy 
mortals afford a negative test of Beauty is seen by 
the fact that, just as savages are intermediate be- 
tween monkeys and them, so they stand between 
savages and refined men in features and expression. 

Poverty alone does not produce this vulgar type 
of personal appearance ; it is intellectual indolence, 
moral vice, and hygienic indifference that are respon- 
sible for it. Hence this third negative test of 
Beauty is not at all difficult to find in any sphere 
of society, from the hod-carrier to the aristocrat with 
a pedigree of a hundred generations. In every scale 
of the social ladder may be found " features seamed 
by sickness, dimmed by sensuality, convulsed by 
passion, pinched by poverty, shadowed by sorrow, 
branded with remorse ; bodies consumed with sloth, 
broken down by labour, tortured by disease, dis- 
honoured in foul uses ; intellects without power, 
hearts without hope, minds earthly and devilish " 

1 1 2 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

(d) Age and Decrepitude. It is not true, as a 
famous Frenchwoman has remarked, that age and 
beauty are incompatible terms. Even age and Love 
are not incompatible, as we saw in the chapter on 
Genius in Love ; and Byron has remarked that 
Love, like the measles, is most dangerous when it 
comes late in life. 

There is a special variety of Beauty for every 
period of life, and the Beauty of old age certainly is 
not the least attractive of these varieties. What 
could be more majestic, more admirable, than the head 
of a Longfellow in his last days ? Provided health 
of mind and body has been maintained, even the 
folds in the cheeks, the wrinkles on the forehead of 
old age, are not unbeautiful. But when senility 
means decrepitude, brought on by a neglectful or 
otherwise vicious life, then it is positively ugly. The 
loveliest thing in the world is a fair and amiable 
maiden ; the ugliest a vicious old hag savages and 
apes not excepted. 

(e) Disease. Temperance preachers and other 
hygienic reformers commonly dwell too exclusively 
on the dangers to health, domestic peace, moral 
progress, and refinement which the indulgence in 
various vices entails. If they would insist with equal, 
or even greater, emphasis on the havoc which 
diseases brought on by intemperance and neglect of 
the laws of Health make on Personal Beauty, they 
would double their influence on their audiences or 
readers. For in woman's heart the desire to be 
beautiful is and always will be the strongest motive 
to action or non-action ; nor are men, as a rule, 
much less interested in the matter of preserving a 

Negative Tests of Beauty 1 1 3 

handsome appearance. It may make some impres- 
sion on a man to tell him that if he takes ice-water 
before breakfast, or " cock-tails " at various odd 
hours on an empty stomach, he will ruin his diges- 
tion ; but the impression will be six times as deep 
if you can convince him that he will ere long look 
like that confirmed dyspeptic Jones, with lack-lustre 
eyes, sallow complexion, and a general expression of 
premature senility, which accounts for the fact that 
he has been twice already refused by the girl he 

Or take that girl over there who never takes a 
walk, always sleeps with her windows hermetically 
closed, and never allows a ray of sunshine to touch 
any part of her body. Tell her she is ruining her 
health and she may be momentarily alarmed by this 
vague warning, and walk half a mile for a week or 
so, until she has forgotten it. But make it clear to 
her what is the exact consequence of such neglect of 
the primal laws of health namely, the premature loss 
of every trace of Personal Beauty and youthful charm, 
with old-maidenhood inevitably staring her in the face, 
owing to her apathetic appearance and gait, her 
sickly complexion, her features distorted by frequent 
headaches, brought on by lack of fresh, cool air 
each of which leaves its permanent trace in the form 
of an addition to a wrinkle or subtraction from the 
plumpness of her cheeks, tell her all this, and that 
her eyes will soon sink into their sockets and have 
blue rings like those of an invalid, and a ghastly 
stare and she will, perhaps, be sufficiently roused 
to save her Health for the sake of her Beauty. 

We are now confronted with the question, Why 


1 14 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

is it that disease is a mark of ugliness, health a 
mark of Beauty ? The old Scotch school of aestheti- 
cians think it is all a matter of association. We 
consider certain forms characteristic of health as 
beautiful simply because we associate with them 
various emotions of affection, the pleasures of love, 
etc., and conversely with disease and vice. Accord- 
ing to Stendhal, " La beaute n'est que la promesse 
du bonheur," or, in American, Beauty is simply the 
promise of a " good time." But it is Lord Jeffrey 
who, to use another appropriate American expression, 
" goes the whole hog " in this matter, by practically 
denying the existence of such a thing as a pure, 
disinterested, aesthetic sense. Suppose, he says, 
" that the smooth forehead, the firm cheek, and the 
full lip, which are now so distinctly expressive to us 
of the gay and vigorous periods of youth and 
the clear and blooming complexion, which indi- 
cates health and activity had been, in fact, the 
forms and colours by which old age and sickness 
were characterised ; and that, instead of being found 
united to those sources and seasons of enjoyment, 
they had been the badges by which Nature pointed 
out that state of suffering and decay which is now 
signified to us by the livid and emaciated face of 
sickness, or the wrinkled front, the quivering lip, 
and hollow cheek of age ; if this were the familiar 
law of our nature, can it be doubted that we should 
look upon these appearances, not with rapture, but 
with aversion, and consider it as absolutely ludi- 
crous or disgusting to speak of the beauty of what 
was interpreted by every one as the lamented sign of 
pain and decrepitude ? 

Negative Tests of Beauty 1 1 5 

" Mr. Knight himself, though a firm believer in 
the intrinsic beauty of colours, is so much of this 
opinion that he thinks it entirely owing to those 
associations that we prefer the tame smoothness and 
comparatively poor colours of a youthful face to the 
richly fretted and variegated countenance of a pimpled 

Bosh ! and a hundred times bosh ! One feels 
that these men lived at a time when port was drunk 
by the bottle, like claret, and when variegated noses 
were to a certain extent fashionable. 

Though every reader feels the sophistry and 
absurdity of the above argumentation, it is not easy 
to refute it. Professor Blackie declaims against it, 
Ruskin sneers at it, but nowhere have I been able to 
find a definite, direct refutation of the thesis. The 
following suggestions may, therefore, be of some 

In the first place, Jeffrey's supposition is equiv- 
alent to saying that if black were white, white would 
be black. For if all the phenomena of human nature 
were reversed, our taste, being also a " phenomenon," 
would be reversed too. If health meant emaciation, 
then a lover would not be happy unless he could 
kiss a pair of leathery lips and embrace a skeleton. 
Hence his sense of touch, like his sight, would have 
to be the reverse of what they are now ; and that 
being the case, aesthetic taste, which is based on the 
senses, would of course be reversed too. But that 
is simply saying that if you stand a man on his 
head his feet will be in the air. 

Secondly, Lord Jeffrey's argument involves the old 
fallacy that the useful and the beautiful are identical 

1 1 6 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

that we only consider those things beautiful which 
afford us some utilitarian gratification. If this theory 
were correct, a coal-boat would be more beautiful than 
a yacht ; a savage's big jaw-bone more beautiful than 
our delicate ones ; a clumsy, dirty, coarse-featured 
labourer more beautiful than a society belle. 

No, we have, thank heaven, an aesthetic sense 
which enables us to see and admire beauty quite 
independently of any " associations " which it may 
have with our utilitarian cravings. It is possible, 
however, and even probable, that the aesthetic sense 
was originally developed from utilitarian associations. 
On this subject Mr. Grant Allen has some exceed- 
ingly valuable remarks in his interesting work on 
the Colour- Sense. He there eloquently sets forth 
the view that it was the bright tints of luscious fruits 
that first taught primitive man to derive pleasure 
from the sight of coloured objects. This gradually 
led to a " predilection for brilliant dyes and glistening 
pebbles ; till at last the whole series culminates in 
that intense and unselfish enjoyment of rich and pure 
tints which make civilised man linger so lovingly 
over the hues of sunset and the myriad shades of 
autumn. . . . The disinterested affection can only 
be reached by many previous steps of utilitarian 
progress." But and here lies the kernel of the argu- 
ment "fruit-eaters and flower- feeders derive pleasure 
from brilliant colours . . . not because those colours 
have mental associations with their food, but because 
the structures which perceive them have been con- 
tinually exercised and strengthened by hereditary 
use," until at last they formed a special nervous or 
cerebral apparatus which presides over impressions 

Negative Tests of Beauty 1 1 7 

of beauty, and takes a special pleasure in its own 
activity, apart from all utilitarian considerations. 

Lord Jeffrey apparently lacked this special 
aesthetic sense, as shown by his whole argument, and 
by his inability, which he shared with Alison, of 
finding beauty in Nature, unless it was in some way 
associated with man's presence and man's mean 

How different this from the feelings of the man 
who of all writers on Beauty has the most highly 
developed aesthetic sense Mr. Ruskin, who has just 
told us in his Autobiography that his love of Nature, 
ardent as it is, depends entirely on the wildness of 
the scenery its remoteness from human influences 
and associations. 

It is this specially-developed aesthetic taste that 
would prevent man from calling flabby cheeks, sallow 
complexions, pimpled noses, and sunken eyes beauti- 
ful, if by some miracle they should be changed into 
signs of health. For this sense of beauty was first 
educated not by the sight of human beauty, but of 
beauty in Nature fruits, pebbles, shells, lustrous 
metals, etc. ; and the notions of beauty thus obtained 
have been gradually transferred to human beings as 
standards of attractiveness. It can be shown that 
what the best judges pronounce the highest human 
beauty, is so because it partakes of certain charac- 
teristics which we find beautiful throughout Nature. 
And conversely, what we consider ugly in the human 
form and features would also be called ugly in 
external objects ; in both cases, be it distinctly 
understood, without any direct reference to utilitarian 
considerations, and sometimes even in opposition to 

1 1 8 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

them, as in our admiration of a beautiful poisonous 
plant or snake, or a tiger. 

It is these universal characteristics of Beauty, 
found in man as in animals, that we now have to 
consider. They are the positive criteria of Beauty, 
and may be regarded as a new set of " overtones " 
or leading motives for the remainder of this volume, 
although the old ones will occasionally reappear 
and combine with them. 


Of these there are at least eight Symmetry, 
Curvature, Gradation, Smoothness, Delicacy, Colour, 
Lustre, Expression, including Variety and Indi- 

(a) Symmetry. "In all perfectly beautiful 
objects," says Mr. Ruskin, " there is found the 
opposition of one part to another, and a reciprocal 
balance obtained ; in animals the balance being 
commonly between opposite sides (note the disagree- 
ableness occasioned by the exception in flat fish, 
having the eyes on one side of the head) ; but in 
vegetables the opposition is less distinct, as in the 
boughs on opposite sides of trees, and the leaves and 
sprays on each side of the boughs, and in dead 
matter less perfect still, often amounting only to a 
certain tendency towards a balance, as in the opposite 
sides of valleys and alternate windings of streams. 
In things in which perfect symmetry is, from their 
nature, impossible or improper, a balance must be at 
least in some measure expressed before they can be 
beheld with pleasure. . . . Symmetry is the opposi- 
tion of equal quantities to each other. Proportion 

Positive Tests of Beauty 1 19 

the connection of unequal quantities with each other. 
The property of a tree in sending out equal boughs 
on opposite sides is symmetrical. Its sending out 
shorter and smaller towards the top, proportional. 
In the human face its balance of opposite sides 
is symmetry, its division upwards, proportion." 

Mr. Darwin thus gives his testimony as to the 
prevalence of symmetry in Nature : " If beautiful 
objects had been created solely for man's gratification, 
it ought to be shown that before man appeared 
there was less beauty on the face of the earth than 
since he came on the stage. Were the beautiful 
volute and cone shells of the Eocene epoch, and the 
gracefully sculptured ammonites of the Secondary 
period, created that man might ages afterwards 
admire them in his cabinet ? Few objects are more 
beautiful than the minute silicious cases of the 
diatomaceae : were they created that they might be 
examined and admired under the higher powers 
of the microscope ? The beauty in this latter 
case, and in many others, is apparently wholly 
due to symmetry of growth" (Origin of Species, 
chap, vi.) 

In the floral world, again, the natural tendency 
is always towards symmetry. Wind-fertilised flowers 
are symmetrical in form ; and " as Mr. Darwin has 
observed, there does not appear to be a single 
instance of an irregular flower which is not fertilised 
by insects or birds " (Lubbock), and therefore modi- 
fied in form in the effort to adapt itself to useful 
insects and to exclude pirates. 

Throughout the animal kingdom, including man, 
this law of symmetry is true. Hence it is not likely 

I2O Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

that we should ever admire a lame leg, a crooked 
nose, bent on one side, eyes that are not mates, or a 
face several inches longer on one side than the 
other, owing to paralysis as beautiful, even if, as 
Jeffrey would have it, Madame Nature should 
suddenly take it into her head to associate such 
abnormalities with health instead of with disease. 

(ft) Gradation. On this law of Nature Mr. 
Ruskin again has spoken at once more scientifically 
and poetically than any other writer on aesthetics : 
" What curvature is to lines, gradation is to shades 
and colours. . . . For instances of the complete 
absence of gradation we must look to man's work, or 
to his disease and decrepitude. Compare the gradated 
colours of the rainbow with the stripes of a target, 
and the gradual concentration of the youthful blood 
in the cheek with an abrupt patch of rouge, or with 
the sharply-drawn veining of old age. 

" Gradation is so inseparable a quality of all 
natural shade and colour that the eye refuses in art 
to understand anything as either which appears 
without it ; while, on the other hand, nearly all the 
gradations of nature are so subtile, and between 
degrees of tint so slightly separated, that no human 
hand can in any wise equal, or do anything more 
than suggest the idea of them." 

The following remarks which the same writer 
makes in another place concerning Gradation show 
at the same time how asinine it is for a savage or 
any other person of uncultivated taste to set himself 
up as a judge of Personal Beauty, as good as any one 
else, on the plea that it is all " a matter of taste " 
and de gustibus non est disputandum : 

Positive Tests of Beauty 1 2 i 

" When the eye is quite uncultivated, it sees that 
a man is a man, and a face is a face, but has no idea 
what shadows or lights fall upon the form or features. 
Cultivate it to some degree of artistic power, and it 
will then see shadows distinctly, but only the more 
vigorous of them. Cultivate it still further, and it 
will see light within light, and shadow within 
shadow, and will continually refuse to rest in what 
it has already discovered, that it may pursue what 
is more removed and more subtle, until at last it 
comes to give its chief attention and display its chief 
power on gradations wJiicJi to an untrained faculty 
are partly matters of indifference and partly imper- 

The words italicised enable us to appreciate what 
Sokrates must have had in his mind when he distin- 
guished between that which is beautiful and that 
which only appears beautiful. yEsthetic training 
enables us to see things as they are, instead of as 
they appear through inattention, through ignorance, 
or through clouds of national prejudice, or individual 

The way in which aesthetic training enables us 
to see gradations of beauty previously imperceptible 
can be most strikingly illustrated in the case of music. 
There are thousands of intelligent folks who cannot 
tell the difference between a superb Steinway Grand, 
just tuned for a concert, and a harsh, clangy, 
mountain -hotel piano that has not been tuned for 
two years. But give these persons a thorough 
musical education, and they will soon be able to 
smile at Jeffrey's notion that the tone of the hotel- 
piano was quite as beautiful as that of the Steinway, 

122 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

because it seemed so to them. It is not only the 
imagination but the senses themselves that require 
training. A Hottentot or any unmusical person 
cannot tell the difference between two consecutive 
tones on the piano, whereas a skilled musician can 
detect all the gradations from one tone to another, 
down to the sixty-fourth part of a semitone ! 

"It is all a matter of taste!" Precisely. Of 
good taste and bad taste. 

Examples of gradation in the human form are 
the gradual tapering of the limbs and the fingers, 
the exquisite line from the female neck to the 
shoulders and the bosom, the blushes on the cheeks, 
so long as they do not assume the form of a hectic 
flush, and the delicate tints of the complexion in 
general, varying with emotional states, according as 
the veins and arteries are more or less filled with the 
vital fluid. 

Is it then " entirely owing to their associations " 
with health or disease that we prefer the complexion 
of a youthful face to the hideous daubs of red which 
Knight refers to as the " richly fretted and variegated 
countenance of a pimpled drunkard?" Is it owing 
to such associations that we prefer the delicately 
gradated blushes of coloured marble to the richly 
bedaubed countenance of a pimpled brickbat ? But 
it would be a waste of time to refer again to the 
crude anti-aesthetic notions of Messrs. Knight, Alison, 
and Jeffrey. 

One more exquisite illustration of subtle grada- 
tion in the human form divine may be cited from 
Winckelmann : 

" The soul, though a simple existence, brings 

Positive Tests of Beauty 123 

forth at once, and in an instant, many different 
ideas ; so it is with the beautiful youthful outline, 
which appears simple, and yet at the same time has 
infinitely different variations, and that soft tapering 
which is difficult of attainment in a column, is still 
more so in the diverse forms of the youthful body. 
Among the innumerable kinds of columns in Rome 
some appear pre-eminently elegant on account of 
this very tapering ; of these I have particularly 
noted two of granite, which I am always studying 
anew : just so rare is a perfect form, even in the 
most beautiful youth, which has a stationary point in 
our sex still less than in the female." 

(c) Curvature. " That all forms of acknowledged 
beauty are composed exclusively of curves will," Mr. 
Ruskin believes, " be at once allowed ; but that which 
there will be need more especially to prove, is the 
subtility and constancy of curvature in all natural 
forms whatsoever. I believe that, except in crystals, 
in certain mountain forms admitted for the sake of 
sublimity or contrast (as in the slope of debris), in 
rays of light, in the levels of calm water and alluvial 
land, and in some few organic developments, there 
are no lines or surfaces of nature without curvature, 
though, as we before saw in clouds, more especially 
in their under lines towards the horizon, and in vast 
and extended plains, right lines are often suggested 
which are not actual. Without these we should not 
be sensible of the value of contrasting curves ; and 
while, therefore, for the most part, the eye is fed in 
natural forms with a grace of curvature which no 
hand nor instrument can follow, other means are 
provided to give beauty to those surfaces which are 

i 24 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

admitted for contrast, as in water by its reflection of 
the gradations which it possesses not itself." 

In a footnote to the last edition of the Modern 
Painters he adds regarding the apparent exceptions 
named : " Crystals are indeed subject to rectilinear 
limitations, but their real surfaces are continually 
curved ; the level of calm water is only right lined 
when it is shoreless." 

On the other hand, " Generally in all ruin and 
disease, and interference of one order of being with 
another (as in the cattle line of park trees), the curves 
vanish, and violently opposed or broken and unmean- 
ing lines take their place." I feel tempted to cite 
another most admirable passage on curvature through- 
out Nature even where it is least looked for, and the 
untrained eye cannot see it in the shattered walls 
and crests of mountains which " seem to rise in a 
gloomy contrast with the soft waves of bank and 
wood beneath." But it is too long to quote, and I 
can only advise the reader most earnestly to look 
it up in chapter xiv. vol. iv. 

" Straight lines," Professor Bain observes, " are 
rendered artistic only by associations of power, 
regularity, fitness, etc." " In some situations straight 
lines are aesthetic. ... In the human figure there 
underlies the curved outline a certain element of 
rigidity and straightness, indicating strength in the 
supporting limbs and spine. Whenever firmness 
is required, there must be a solid structure, and 
straightness of form is a frequent accompaniment 
of solidity. The straight nose and the flat brow 
are subsidiary to the movement and the stability of 
the face." 

Positive Tests of Beauty 125 

Yet even our straight limbs follow in their motions 
the law of curvature. And to this fact that they 
move more easily and naturally in a curved than in 
a straight line, which requires laborious adjustment, 
Bain traces part of our superior pleasure in rounded 

What infinite subtlety and variety Curvature is 
capable of is vividly brought before the eyes by 
Winckelmann : " The forms of a beautiful body are 
determined by lines the centre of which is constantly 
changing, and which, if continued, would never 
describe circles. They are, consequently, more 
simple, but also more complex, than a circle, which, 
however large or small it may be, always has the 
same centre, and either includes others or is included 
in others. This diversity was sought after by the 
Greeks in works of all kinds ; and their discernment 
of its beauty led them to introduce the same system 
even into the form of their utensils and vases, whose 
easy and elegant outline is drawn after the same 
rule, that is, by a line which must be found by 
means of several circles, for all these works have 
an elliptical figure, and herein consists their beauty. 
The greater unity there is in the junction of the 
forms, and in the flowing of one out of another, so 
much the greater is the beauty of the whole." 

Masculine and Feminine Beatify. The universality 
of curvature as a form of .beautiful objects through- 
out nature and art is of importance in helping us to 
determine the question which is the more beautiful 
form, a perfect man or a perfect woman an Apollo 
or a Venus ? A Venus, no doubt. In those qualities 
which are subsumed under the terms of the sublime 

126 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

or the characteristic in strength, manly dignity, 
intellectual power, majesty the masculine type, no 
doubt, is superior to the feminine. But in Beauty 
proper in the roundness and delicacy of contours, 
in the smoothness of complexion and its subtle 
gradations of colour, in the symmetrical roundness 
and lustrous expressiveness of the eyes the femi- 
nine type is pre-eminent. 

" Woman," says Professor Kollmann, " is smaller, 
more delicate, but also softer and more graceful 
(schwungvoller) in form, in her breasts, hips, thighs, 
and calves. No line on her body is short and 
sharply angular ; they all swell, or vault themselves 
in a gentle curve. . . . The neck and the rounded 
shoulders are connected by gracefully curved lines, 
whereas a man's neck is placed more at a right 
angle to the more straight and angular shoulders. 
. . . The hair is softer, the skin more tender and 
transparent. All the forms are more covered over 
with adipose tissue, and connected by those gradual 
transitions which produce the gently rounded out- 
lines ; whereas in a man everything muscles, sinews, 
blood-vessels, bones is more conspicuous." 

Schopenhauer, accordingly, was clearly in the 
wrong when he endeavoured to make out that man 
is vastly superior to woman in physical beauty, 
a notion which Professor Huxley, too, does not 
appear to disapprove of very violently. At the 
same time it is, no doubt, true that there are more 
good specimens of masculine beauty in most countries 
than of feminine beauty ; true also that man's beauty 
lasts much longer than woman's. A boy is more 
beautiful than a girl under sixteen, for the very 

Positive Tests of Beauty 127 

reason that his form is more like that of an adult 
woman than a girl's is. From eighteen to twenty- 
five woman is more beautiful than man ; while after 
thirty, owing to the almost universal neglect of the 
laws of health women are apt to become either too 
rotund, which ruins their grace and delicacy, or too 
angular more angular than a man under fifty. 

(d) Delicacy and Grace. The difference between 
masculine and feminine beauty and the superiority 
of the latter is also indirectly brought out in Burke's 
remarks on Delicacy, which, though open to criticism 
in one or two points, are on the whole admirable and 
exhaustive : 

" An air of robustness and strength is very pre- 
judicial to beauty. An appearance of delicacy, and 
even of fragility, is almost essential to it. Whoever 
examines the vegetable or animal creation will find 
this observation to be founded in nature. It is not 
the oak, the ash, or the elm, or any of the robust 
trees of the forest which we consider as beautiful ; 
they are awful and majestic, they inspire a sort of 
reverence. It is the delicate myrtle, it is the orange, 
it is the almond, it is the jasmine, it is the vine, 
which we look on as vegetable beauties. It is the 
flowery species, so remarkable for its weakness and 
momentary duration, that gives us the liveliest idea 
of beauty and elegance. Among animals the grey- 
hound is more beautiful than the mastiff, and the 
delicacy of a jennet, a barb, or an Arabian horse, is 
much more amiable than the strength and stability 
of some horses of war or carriage. 

" I need here say little of the fair sex, where I 
believe the point will be easily allowed me. The 

i 2 8 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

beauty of women is considerably owing to their 
weakness or delicacy, and is even enhanced by their 
timidity, a quality of mind analogous to it. I would 
not here be understood to say that weakness betray- 
ing very bad health has any share in beauty ; but the 
ill effect of this is not because it is weakness, but 
because the ill state of health, which produces such 
weakness, alters the other conditions of beauty ; the 
parts in such a case collapse, the bright colour, the 
lumen purp^lre^lm juventtz is gone, and the fine 
variation is lost in wrinkles, sudden breaks, and 
right lines." 

Delicacy is a quality closely related to grace, or 
beauty in motion and attitude. " Grace," says Dr. J. 
A. Symonds, " is a striking illustration of the union 
of the two principles of similarity and variety. For 
the secret of graceful action is that the symmetry is 
preserved through all the varieties of position." This 
is well put ; but the first condition and essence of 
grace is that there must be an exact correspondence 
between the work done and the limb which does it. 
The attitude of an oak-trunk, with nothing on the 
top but a geranium bush, however symmetrical, would 
always be ungraceful, owing to the ludicrous dis- 
proportion between the support and the thing sup- 
ported. Conversely, a weak fern -stalk, trying to 
support a branch of heavy cactus leaves, would be 
equally ungraceful ; for there must be neither a 
waste of energy nor a sense of effort. Part of 
this feeling may perhaps be traced to sympathy 
thus showing how various emotions enter into 
our aesthetic judgments, sometimes weakening, some- 
times strengthening them. As Professor Bain re- 

Positive Tests of Beauty i 29 

marks, a propos : " We love to have removed from 
our sight every aspect of suffering, and none more 
so than the suffering of toil." 

Grace is almost as powerful to inspire Love as 
Beauty itself. Women know this instinctively, and 
in order to acquire the Delicacy which leads to grace, 
they deprive their bodies of air and sunshine and 
strengthening sleep, hoping thereby to acquire arti- 
ficially, through ill-health, what Nature has denied 
them. Fortunately such violations of the laws of 
health always frustrate their object. Delicacy con- 
joined with Health inspires Love, but delicacy born 
of disease inspires only pity a feeling which may 
inspire in a woman what she imagines is Love, but 
in a man never. 

(e) Smoothness is another attribute of Beauty on 
which Burke was the first to place proper emphasis : 
It is, he says, " a quality so essential to beauty that 
I do not recollect anything beautiful that is not 
smooth. In trees and flowers, smooth leaves are 
beautiful ; smooth slopes of earth in gardens ; 
smooth streams in the landscape ; smooth coats 
of birds and beasts in animal beauties ; in fine 
women, smooth skins ; and in several sorts of 
ornamental furniture, smooth and polished surfaces. 
. . . Any ruggedness, any sudden projection, any 
sharp angle, is in the highest degree contrary to 
the idea of beauty." 

Though there are exceptions to this rule of 
smoothness including such a marvel of beauty as 
the moss-rose, as well as various leaves covered with 
down, etc. yet, on the whole, Burke is right. Cer- 
tainly the smooth white hand of a delicate lady is 


130 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

more beautiful than the rough, horny " paws " of a 
bricklayer ; and the inferior beauty of a man's arm 
is owing as much to its rough scattered hairs as to 
the prominence of the muscles, in contrast to the 
smooth and rounded arm of woman. In animals, 
however, hairs on the limbs are not unbeautiful, 
because they are dense enough to overlap, and thus 
form a hairy surface admirable alike for its soft 
smoothness, its gloss, and its colour. 

(/) Lustre and Colour. Lustrous, sparkling eyes, 
glossy hair, pearly teeth, where would human 
beauty be without them without the delicate tints 
and blushes of the skin, the brown or blue iris, the 
golden or chestnut locks, the ebony eyebrows and 
lashes ? 

Yet the greatest art-critics incline to the opinion 
that, on the whole, colour is a less essential ingredient 
of beauty than form. " Colour assists beauty," says 
Winckelmann, but " the essence of beauty consists not 
in colour but in shape." " A negro might be called 
handsome when the conformation of his face is hand- 
some." " The colour of bronze and of the black and 
greenish basalt does not detract from the beauty of 
the antique heads," hence " we possess a knowledge 
of the beautiful, although in an unreal dress and of 
a disagreeable colour." 

Similarly Mr. Ruskin, who remarks of colour that 
it " is richly bestowed on the highest works of crea- 
tion, and the eminent sign and seal of perfection in 
tJiem ; being associated with life in the human form, 
with light in the sky, with purity and hardness in the 
earth, death, night, and pollution of all kinds being 
colourless. And although if form and colour be 

Positive Tests of Beauty 1 3 1 

brought into complete opposition, so that it should 
be put to us as a stern choice whether we should 
have a work of art all of form, without colour (as 
an Albert Diirer's engraving), or all of colour, with- 
out form (as an imitation of mother-of-pearl), form 
is beyond all comparison the more precious of the 
two . . . yet if colour be introduced at all, it is 
necessary that, whatever else may be wrong, that 
should be right," etc. 

Again : " An oak is an oak, whether green with 
spring or red with winter ; a dahlia is a dahlia, 
whether it be yellow or crimson ; and if some 
monster-hunting botanist should ever frighten the 
flower blue, still it will be a dahlia ; but let one 
curve of the petals one groove of the stamens be 
wanting, and the flower ceases to be the same. Let 
the roughness of the bark and the angles of the 
boughs be smoothed or diminished, and the oak 
ceases to be an oak ; but let it retain its inward 
structure and outward form, and though its leaves 
grew white, or pink, or blue, or tri-colour, it would 
be a white oak, or a pink oak, or a republican oak, 
but an oak still." 

" If we look at Nature carefully, we shall find that 
her colours are in a state of perpetual confusion and 
indistinctness, while her forms, as told by light and 
shade, are invariably clear, distinct, and speaking. 
The stones and gravel of the bank catch green 
reflections from the boughs above ; the bushes 
receive grays and yellows from the ground ; every 
hairbreadth of polished surface gives a little bit of 
the blue of the sky, or the gold of the sun, like a 
star upon the local colour ; this local colour, change- 

132 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

ful and uncertain in itself, is again disguised and 
modified by the hue of the light or quenched in the 
gray of the shadow ; and the confusion and blend- 
ing of tint is altogether so great that were we left 
to find out what objects were by their colours only, 
we would scarcely in place distinguish the boughs 
of a tree from the air beyond them or the ground 
beneath them. I know that people unpractised in 
art will not believe this at first ; but if they have 
accurate powers of observation, they may soon 
ascertain it for themselves ; they will find that, 
while they can scarcely ever determine the exact 
hue of anything, except when it occurs in large 
masses, as in a green field or the blue sky, the form, 
as told by light and shade, is always decided and 
evident, and the source of the chief character of 
every object." 

Professor Bain remarks on this topic that " Among 
the several kinds of beauty, the eye takes most 
delight in colour. . . . For this reason we find the 
poets borrowing more of their epithets from colours 
than from any other topic." 

This view seems to be confirmed by the fact that 
lovers in expatiating on the beauty of their Dulcineas 
seem to have much more to say about their brown 
or golden locks, their light or dark complexion, their 
blue or black eyes, than about the shape of their 
features. This, however, partly finds its explanation 
in the fact that colour, being a sensuous quality, is 
more easily and more directly appreciated than 
form, the perception of which is a much more com- 
plicated matter, being a translation into intellectual 
terms of remembered impressions of touch, associated 

Positive Tests of Beauty 133 

with certain colours, lights, and shades which recall 
them ; and partly in the greater ease with which 
peculiarities of colour are referred to than peculiarities 
of form. In the days of ancient Greece the nomen- 
clature of colours was equally undeveloped, and is so 
vague in Homer that Gladstone and Geiger actually 
set up the theory that Homer's colour-sense was 
imperfect, and that that sense has been gradually 
developed within historic times, a theory which I 
have confuted on anatomical grounds in Macmillaris 
Magazine, Dec. 1879. 

That as regards human beauty colour is of less 
importance than form is shown, moreover, in this, 
that a girl with regular features and a freckled com- 
plexion will much sooner find a lover than one with 
the most delicately-coloured complexion, conjoined 
with a big mouth, irregular nose, or sunken cheeks. 
And a beautifully-shaped eye is sure to be admired 
by all, no matter whether blue, gray, or brown ; 
whereas an eye that is too small or otherwise 
defective in form can never be redeemed by the 
most beautiful colour or brilliancy. 

On the other hand, there are several things to be 
said in favour of colour that will mitigate our judg- 
ment on this point. In the first place, colour is 
more perfect in its way than form, so that it is 
impossible ever to improve on it by idealising, as it 
is often with form. As Mr. Ruskin remarks, " Form 
may be attained in perfection by painters, who, in 
their course of study, are continually altering or 
idealising it ; but only the sternest fidelity will reach 
colouring. Idealise or alter in that, and you are 
lost. Whether you alter by debasing or exag- 

134 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

gerating, by glare or by decline, one fate is for you 
ruin. . . . Colour is sacred in that you must keep 
to facts. Hence the apparent anomaly that the only 
schools of colour are the schools of realism." 

Again, looking at Nature with an artist's eye, 
Ruskin discovered and frequently alludes to the 
"apparent connection of brilliancy of colour with 
vigour of life," and Mr. Wallace, looking at Nature 
with a naturalist's eye, established this " apparent 
connection " as a scientific fact. The passage in 
which he sums up his views has been once already 
quoted ; but it is of such extreme importance in 
enforcing the lesson that beauty is impossible without 
health, that it may be quoted again : 

" The colours of an animal usually fade during 
disease or weakness, while robust health and vigour 
adds to its intensity. ... In all quadrupeds a ' dull 
coat' is indicative of ill-health or low condition; 
while a glossy coat and sparkling eye are the invari- 
able accompaniments of health and energy. The 
same rule applies to the feathers of birds, whose 
colours are only seen in their purity during perfect 
health ; and a similar phenomenon occurs even 
among insects, for the bright hues of caterpillars 
begin to fade as soon as they become inactive, pre- 
paratory to their undergoing transformation. Even 
in the Vegetable Kingdom we see the same thing ; 
for the tints of foliage are deepest, and the colours 
of flowers and fruits richest, on those plants which 
are in the most healthy and vigorous condition." 

(g) Expression, Variety, Individuality. Besides 
the circumstances that colour is more uniformly 
perfect in Nature than form, and that it is always 

Positive Tests of Beauty 135 

associated with Health, ' without which Beauty is 
impossible, another peculiarity may be mentioned in 
its favour. The complexion is a kaleidoscope whose 
delicate blushes and constant changes of tint, from 
the ashen pallor of despair to the rosy flush of 
delight, are the fascinating signs of emotional ex- 
pression. And herein lies the superior beauty of the 
human complexion over all other tinted objects : it 
reflects not only the hues of surrounding external 
bodies, but all the moods of the soul within. 

Form without colour is form without expression. 
But form without expression soon ceases to fascinate, 
for we constantly crave novelty and variety ; and 
form is one, while expression is infinitely varied and 
ever new. Herein lies the extreme importance of 
expression as a test of Beauty. Colour, of course, 
is only one phase of expression. The soul not only 
changes the tints of the complexion, but liquifies the 
facial muscles so that they can be readily moulded 
into forms characteristic of joy, sadness, hope, fear, 
adoration, hatred, anger, affection, etc. 

Why is the portrait-painter so infinitely superior 
to the photographer ? Because the photographer 
paradoxical as this may seem gives you a less 
realistic picture of yourself than the artist. He only 
gives you the fixed form, or at most a transient ex- 
pression which, being fixed permanently, loses its 
essence, which is motion and thus becomes a cari- 
cature an exaggeration in duration. But the artist 
studies you by the hour, makes you talk, notes the 
habitual forms of expression most characteristic 
of your individuality ; and, blending these into a 
sort of " typical portrait " of your various individual 

136 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

traits, makes a picture which reveals all the advan- 
tages of art over mere solar mechanism or photo- 

This explains why some of the most charming 
persons we know never appear well in a photograph, 
while others much less charming do. The beauty 
of the latter lies in form, of the former in ex- 
pression. But expression is much more potent to 
inspire admiration and Love than mere beauty of 
features ; and not without reason, for beautiful 
features, being a lucky inheritance, may be conjoined 
with unamiable individual traits, whereas beautiful 
expression is the infallible index of a beautiful mind 
and character ; and promises, moreover, beautiful 
sons and daughters, because " expression is feature 
in the making." It is by such subtle signs and 
promises that Love is unconsciously and instinctively 
guided in its choice. 

Formal Beauty alone is external and cold. It is 
those slight variations in Beauty and expression 
which we call individuality and character that excite 
emotion : so much so that Love, as we have seen, is 
dependent on individuality, and a man who warmly 
admires all beautiful women is in love with none. 

Speaking of the Greeks, Sir Charles Bell says : 
"In high art it appears to have been the rule of the 
sculptor to divest the form of expression. ... In 
the Venus, the form is exquisite and the face perfect, 
but there is no expression there ; it has no human 
softness, nothing to love" " All individuality was 
studiously avoided by the ancient sculptors in the 
representation of divinity ; they maintained the 
beauty of form and proportion, but without ex- 

Positive Tests of Beauty 137 

pression, which, in their system, belonged exclusively 
to humanity." 

But inasmuch as the Greeks attributed to their 
deities all the various emotions which agitate man, 
why did they refuse them the signs of expression ? 
One cannot but suspect that the Greeks did not 
sufficiently appreciate the beauty of expression. 
Had they valued it more they would not have 
allowed their women to vegetate in ignorance like 
flowers, one like the. other, but would have educated 
them and given them the individuality and expression 
which alone can inspire Love. 

Again, if the Greeks had been susceptible to the 
superior charms of emotional expression, is it likely 
that they would have been so completely absorbed 
in the two least expressive and emotional of the 
arts architecture and sculpture ? 

We cannot avoid the conclusion that the Greeks 
were as indifferent to the charms of individual ex- 
pression as to Romantic Love, which is dependent 
on it. In their statues, as Dr. Max Schasler remarks, 
a mouth or eye has no more significance as a mark 
of beauty than a well -shaped leg. Whereas in 
modern, and even sometimes in mediaeval art, what 
a world of expression in a mouth, a pair of eyes ! 

Leaving individual exceptions (like Homer) aside, 
it may be said that the arts have been successively 
developed to a climax in the order of their capacity 
for emotional expression, viz. Architecture, Sculp- 
ture, Painting, Poetry, and Music. Poetry precedes 
music, because though its emotional scope is wider, 
it is less intense. To-day music is the most popular 
and universal of all the arts because it stirs most 

138 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

deeply our feelings. And just as the discovery of har- 
mony, by individualising the melodies, has increased 
the power and variety of music a thousandfold ; so 
the individualisation of Beauty and character through 
modern culture has made Romantic Love a blessing 
accessible to all the most prevalent form of modern 

Individuality is of such extreme importance 
in Love that a slight blemish is not only pardoned 
but actually adored if it increases the individuality. 
Bacon evidently had this in his mind when he said 
that " there is no excellent beauty which has not 
some strangeness in its proportion." Seneca, as 
well as Ovid, noted the attractiveness of slight short- 
comings ; and the following anecdote shows that 
though the Persians, as a nation, have ever been 
strangers to Romantic Love, their greatest poet, 
Hafiz, understood the psychology of the subject in 
its subtlest details : 

" One day Timur (fourteenth century) sent for 
Hafiz and asked angrily : ' Art thou he who was so 
bold as to offer my two great cities Samarkand and 
Bokhara for the black mole on thy mistress's cheek?' 
alluding to a well-known verse in one of his odes. 
' Yes, sire,' replied Hafiz, ' and it is by such acts of 
generosity that I have brought myself to such a 
state of destitution that I have now to solicit your 
bounty.' Timur was so pleased with the ready wit 
displayed in this answer that he dismissed the. poet 
with a handsome present." 

To sum up : the reason why 

" The rose that lives its little hour 

Is prized beyond the sculptured flower " 

Positive Tests of Beauty 139 

is not, as Bryant implies, the transitoriness of the 
rose, but the fact that the marble flower, like the 
wax-flower, is dead and unchangeable, while the 
short-lived rose beams with the expression of happy 
vitality after a shower, or sadly droops and hangs its 
head in a drouth. It has life and expression, subtle 
gradations of colour, and light and shade, which are 
the signs of its vitality and moods, varying every 
day, every hour. And so with all the higher forms 
of life, those always being most beautiful and highly 
prized which are most capable of expressing subtle 
variations of health, happiness, and mental refine- 

There is no part of the human body which does 
not serve as a mark of expression 

' ' In many's looks the false heart's history 

Is writ in moods and frowns and wrinkles strange." 

" There's language in her eye, her cheek, her lip, 
Nay, her foot speaks." SHAKSPERE. 

It will not do, therefore, to neglect any part of the 
body. As it is the last straw which breaks the 
camel's back, so Cupid's capricious choice is often 
determined by some minor point of perfection, when 
the balance is otherwise equal. Suppose there are 
two sisters whose faces, figures, and mental attrac- 
tions are about equal ; then it is possible that one of 
them will die an old maid simply because the 
other had a smaller foot, a more graceful gait, or 
longer eyelashes. 

But though every organ has its own beauty, 
there is an aesthetic scale of lower and higher which 
corresponds pretty accurately with the physical scale 
from down upwards from the foot to the eye and 

140 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

forehead. It is in this order, accordingly, that we 
shall now proceed to consider the various parts of 
the human form, and those peculiarities in them 
which are considered most beautiful and most 
liable to inspire Romantic Love. 



There is hardly anything concerning which vain 
people are so sensitive as their feet. To have large 
feet is considered one of the greatest misfortunes 
that can befall a woman. Mathematically stated, 
the length of a woman's skirts is directly proportional 
to the size of her feet ; and women with large feet 
are always shocked at the frivolity of those who 
have neat ankles and coquettishly allow them to be 
seen on occasion ; nor do they see any beauty in Sir 
John Suckling's lines 

" Her feet beneath her petticoat 
Like little mice stole in and out, 
As if they feared the light. " 

Nor are men, as a rule, sufficiently free from pedal 
vanity to pose as satirists. Byron found a mark of 
aristocracy in small feet, and he was rendered almost 
as miserable by the morbid consciousness of his 
own defects as Mme. de Stael (who had very ugly 
feet, yet once ventured to assume the rdle, in private 
theatricals, of a statue) was offended by Talleyrand's 
witticism, that he recognised her by the pied de 

There is a ben trovato, if not true, story of a 
clever wife who objected to her husband's habit of 

The Feet 141 

spending his evenings away from home, and who 
reformed him by utilising his vanity. By insisting 
that his boots were too large, she repeatedly 
induced him to buy smaller ones, which finally 
tortured him so much that he was only too glad to 
stay at home and wear his slippers. 


How universal is the desire to have, or appear to 
have, small feet is shown by the fact that everybody 
blackens his shoes or boots ; for, owing to a peculiar 
optical delusion, black objects always appear smaller 
than white ones ; which is also the reason why too 
slim and delicate ladies never appear to such 
advantage in winter as they do in summer, when 
they exchange their dark for light dresses. 

To a certain point the admiration of small feet is 
in accordance with the canons of good Taste, as will 
be presently shown. But Taste has a disease which 
is called Fashion. It is a sort of microbe which has 
the effect of distorting and exaggerating everything 
it takes hold of. Fashion is not satisfied with small 
feet ; it wants them very small, unnaturally small, 
at the cost of beauty, health, grace, comfort, and 
happiness. Hence for many generations shoemakers 
have been compelled to manufacture instruments of 
torture so ruinous to the constitution of man and 
woman, that an Austrian military surgeon has 
seriously counselled the enactment of legal fines to 
be imposed on the makers of noxiously -shaped 
shoes, similar to those imposed on food-adulterators. 

Most ugly and vulgar fashions come from 
France ; but as regards crippled feet the first prize 

142 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

has to be yielded to the Chinese, even by the Parisians. 
The normal size of the human foot varies, for men, 
from 9^ to i 3 ; for women from 5^ to 9 inches, man's 
feet being longer proportionately to the greater 
length of his lower limbs. In China the men value 
the normal healthy condition of their own feet enough 
to have introduced certain features of elasticity in their 
shoes which we might copy with advantage ; but the 
women are treated very differently. " The fashion- 
able length for a Chinese foot," says Dr. Jamieson, 
" is between 3^ and 4 inches, but comparatively few 
parents succeed in arresting growth so completely." 
When girls are five years old their feet are tightly 
wrapped up in bandages, which on successive occa- 
sions are tightened more and more, till the surface 
ulcerates, and some of the flesh, skin, and sometimes 
even a toe or two come off. " During the first 
year," says Professor Flower, " the pain is so intense 
that the sufferer can do nothing but lie and cry and 
moan. For about two years the foot aches con- 
tinually, and is subject to a constant pain, like the 
pricking of sharp needles." Finally the foot becomes 
reduced to a shapeless mass, void of sensibility, which 
" has now the appearance of the hoof of some animal 
rather than a human foot, and affords a very insuffi- 
cient organ of support, as the peculiar tottering 
gait of those possessing it clearly shows." 

The difference between the Chinese belle and 
the Parisian is one of degree merely. The former 
has her torturing done once for all while a child, 
whereas the latter allows her tight, high-heeled shoes 
to torture her throughout life. The English are the 
only nation that have recognised the injuriousness 

The Feet 143 

and vulgarity of the French shoe, and substituted 
one made on hygienic principles ; and as England 
has in almost everything else displaced France as 
the leader in modern fashion, it is reasonable to 
hope that ere long other nations will follow her in 
this reform. American girls are, as a rule, much less 
sensible in this matter than their English sisters ; 
one need only ask a clerk in a shoe store to find 
out how most of them endeavour to squeeze their 
small feet into shoes too small by a number. 

Fashions are always followed blindly, without 
deliberation. But would it not be worth while for 
French, American, and German women and many 
men too to ask themselves what they gain and 
what they lose by trying to make their feet appear 
smaller than they are ? The disadvantages outweigh 
the advantages to an almost ludicrous extent. 

On the one side there is absolutely nothing but 
the gratification of vanity derived from the fact that 
a few acquaintances admire one's " pretty feet " ; and 
even this advantage is problematical, because a 
person who wears too tight shoes can hardly con- 
ceal them from an observer, and is therefore apt 
to get pity for her vain weakness in place of ad- 

On the other hand are the following disadvan- 
tages : 

(1) The constant torture of pressure (not to 
mention the resulting corns and bunions), which 
alone must surely outweigh a hundred times the 
pleasure of gratified vanity at having a Chinese foot. 

(2) The unconscious distortion of the features 
and furrowing of the forehead in the effort to endure 

1 44 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

and repress the pain, and wrinkles, be it remem- 
bered, when once formed are ineradicable. 

(3) The discouragement of walking and other ex- 
ercise, involving a general lowering of vitality, sickly 
pallor, and premature loss of the bloom of youth. 

(4) The wasting of the calf of the leg to dimen- 
sions characteristic of savagedom, disease, and old 
age, not to speak of the numerous maladies resulting 
to women from the use of hard high heels of fashion- 
able shoes, every contact of which with the ground 
sends a shock through the spinal column to the 
brain and produces obscure disorders in various parts 
of the organism. 

(5) The mutilation of one of the most beautiful 
and characteristically human parts of the body. As 
the author of Harper's Ugly Girl Papers remarks : 
" One's foot is as proper an object of pride and com- 
placency as a shapely hand. But where in a thousand 
would a sculptor find one that was a pleasure to con- 
template like that of the Princess Pauline Bonaparte, 
whose lovely foot was modelled in marble for the 
delight of all the world who have seen it ? " 

(6) Finally, and most important of all, the loss 
of a graceful gait, of the poetry of motion, which is 
a thousand times more calculated to inspire admira- 
tion aesthetic or erotic than a small foot. 

Man is said to be a reasoning animal ; and man 
embraces woman. But surely in matters of fashion 
woman is not a reasoning being. Very large feet 
being properly regarded as ugly, she draws the in- 
ference that the smaller they can be made the more 
will they be beautiful ; forgetting that Beauty is a 
matter of proportion, not of absolute size. A foot 

The Feet 145 

may, like a waist, as easily appear ugly from being 
too small as from being too large. A large woman 
with very small feet cannot but make a disagreeable 
impression, like a bust on an insecure pedestal or a 
leaning tower. 


According to Schopenhauer, the great value which 
all attach to small feet " depends on the fact that 
small feet are an essentially human characteristic, 
since in no animal are the tarsus and metatarsus 
together so small as in man, which peculiarity is 
connected with his erect attitude : he is a planti- 
grade." But it is difficult to see any force in this 
reasoning, since not one person in a hundred thou- 
sand knows what the bones called tarsus and meta- 
tarsus are, nor cares whether they are larger in man 
or in animals ; while, as regards the upright position, 
large feet would appear more suitable for maintaining 
it than small ones. 

If smallness were the test of beauty in man, why 
should we not feel ashamed to have larger heads 
than animals, or envy the elephant, who, for his size, 
has the smallest foot of all animals ? 

Those who believe that human beauty consists in 
the degree of remoteness from animal types, will 
derive satisfaction from the fact that apes have feet 
that are larger than ours. Topinard gives these 
figures showing the relative sizes : man, 1 6.96 ; gor- 
illa, 20.69 ; chimpanzee, 21.00 ; orang, 25. But why 
should man feel a special pride in the fact that his 
feet are somewhat smaller than those of his nearest 
relatives, whom, until recently, he did not even 
acknowledge as such ? 


146 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

It is, moreover, unscientific to compare man's foot 
with the ape's too closely, because they have different 
functions being used by man for walking, by the 
ape for climbing and therefore require different 
characteristics. It is only in those organs that have 
a like function as the jaws, teeth, nose, eyes, and 
forehead that a direct comparison is permissible, 
and a progress noted in our favour. 

Again, as M. Topinard tells us, " The hand and 
the foot of man, although shorter than those of the 
anthropoid ape, do not vary among races according 
to their order of superiority, as we should have sup- 
posed. A long hand or foot is not a characteristic oj 

The same is true among individuals of the same 
race. Mme. de Stael was one of the most intelligent 
women the world has ever seen, yet her feet were 
very large ; and conversely, some of our silliest girls 
have the smallest feet. 

Since, then, there is no obvious connection be- 
tween small feet and superior culture, it follows that 
the beauty of a foot is not to be determined by so 
simple a matter as its length. There are other 
peculiarities, of greater importance, in which the laws 
of Beauty manifest themselves. First, in the arched 
instep, which is not only attractive because it intro- 
duces the beauty-curve in place of the straight, flat 
line of the sole, but which is of the utmost impor- 
tance in increasing the foot's capacity for carrying its 
burden, just as architects build arches under bridges, 
etc., for the sake of the greater strength and more 
equable distribution of pressure thus obtained. Sec- 
ondly, in the symmetrical correspondence of the toes 

The Feet 147 

and contours of one foot with those of its partner ; in 
the gradation of the regularly shortened toes, from 
the first to the fifth ; in the delicate tints of the skin 
which, moreover, is smooth and not (as in apes) 
covered with straggling hairs and deep furrows, 
which would have concealed the delicate veins that 
variegate the surface and give it the colour of life. 

Professor Carl Vogt, in his Lectures on Man, 
vividly illustrates the principles on which our judg- 
ment regarding beauty in feet is based, by comparing 
a negro's foot with that of civilised man : " The foot 
of the negro, says Burmeister, produces a disagree- 
able impression. Everything in it is ugly ; the 
flatness, the projecting heel, the thick, fatty cushion 
in the inner cavity, the spreading toes. . . . The 
character of the human foot lies mainly in its arched 
structure, in the predominance of the metatarsus, 
the shortening and equal direction of the toes, 
among which the great toe is remarkably long, but 
not, like the thumb, opposable. . . . The toes in 
standing leave no mark, but do so in progression. 
The whole middle part of the foot does not touch 
the ground. Persons with flat feet, in whom the 
middle of the sole touches the ground, are bad pedes- 
trians, and are rejected as recruits. . . . The negro 
is a decided flat foot . . . the fat cushion on the 
sole not only fills up the whole cavity, but projects 
beyond the surface." 

Inasmuch as it is the custom among all civilised 
peoples to cover the foot entirely, many of its aspects 
of beauty are rendered invisible permanently, so that 
it is perhaps not to be wondered at that in their 
absence Fashion should have so eagerly fixed on the 

148 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

two visible features size and arched instep and 
endeavoured to exaggerate them by Procrustean 
dimensions and stiltlike high heels. Yet in this 
matter even modern Parisians represent a progress 
over the mediaeval Venetian ladies, who, according 
to Marinello, at one time wore soles and heels over 
a foot in height, so that on going out they had to 
be accompanied by several servants to prevent them 
from falling. Mais que voulez vous ? Fashion is 
fashion, and women are women. 

By the ancient Greeks the feet were frequently 
exposed to view ; hence, says Winckelmann, " in 
descriptions of beautiful persons, as Polyxena and 
Aspasia, even their beautiful feet are mentioned." 
Possibly in some future age, when Health and 
Beauty will be more worshipped than vulgar Fashion 
fetishes, a clever Yankee will invent an elastic, tough, 
and leathery, but transparent substance that will 
protect the foot while fitting it like a glove and 
showing its outlines. This would put an end to the 
mutilations resorted to from vanity guided by bad 
taste, and would add one more feature to Personal 
Beauty. And the foot, as Burmeister insists, has 
one advantage over every other part of the body. 
Beauty in all these other features depends on health 
and a certain muscular roundness. But the foot's 
beauty is independent of such variations, as it lies 
mainly in its permanent bony contours and in its 
fat cushion, which alone of all adipose layers 
resists the ravages of disease and old age. Hence 
a beautiful foot is a thing of beauty and a joy for 
ever, long after all other youthful charms have faded 
and fled. 

The Feet 149 


So long as the foot remains entirely covered, its 
beauty is, on the whole, of less importance than the 
grace of its movements. Grace, under all circum- 
stances, is as potent a love-charm as Beauty itself 
of which, in fact, it is only a phase ; and if young 
men and women could be made to realise how much 
they could add to their fascinations by cultivating 
a graceful gait and attitudes, hygienic shoemakers, 
dancing-masters, and gymnasiums would enjoy as 
great and sudden a popularity as skating-rinks, and 
a much more permanent popularity too. 

It is the laws of Grace that chiefly determine the 
most admirable characteristics of the foot The arched 
instep is beautiful because of its curved outlines ; 
but its greatest value lies in the superior elasticity 
and grace it imparts to the gait. The habitual carry- 
ing of heavy loads tends to make the feet flat and 
to ruin Grace ; hence the clumsy gait of most work- 
ing people, and, on the other hand, the graceful walk 
of the " aristocratic " classes. 

The proper size of the foot, again, is most easily 
determined with reference to the principles of Grace. 
Motion is graceful when it does not involve any 
waste of energy, and when it is in accordance with 
the lines of Beauty. There must be no disproportion 
between the machinery and the work done no 
locomotive to pull a baby-carriage. Too large feet 
are ugly because they appear to have been made for 
"carrying a giant ; too small ones are ugly because 
seemingly belonging to a dwarf. What are the exact 
proportions lying between " too large " and " too 

150 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

small " can only be determined by those who have 
educated their taste by the study of the laws of 
Beauty and Grace throughout Nature. 

From this point of view Grace is synonymous 
vj'tfh functional fitness. A monkey's foot is less beau- 
tiful than a man's, but in climbing it is more graceful ; 
whereas in walking man's is infinitely more graceful. 
Apes rarely assume an erect position, and when they 
do so they never walk on the flat sole. " When the 
orang-outang takes to the ground," says Mr. E. B. 
Tylor, " he shambles clumsily along, generally putting 
down the outer edge of the foot and the bent 
knuckles of the hand." 

I have italicised the word " clumsily " because it 
touches the vital point of the question. Man owes 
his intellectual superiority largely to the fact that he 
does not need his hands for walking or climbing, but 
uses them as organs of delicate touch and as tools. To 
acquire this independence of the hands he needed 
feet, which enabled him to stand erect and walk 
along, not " clumsily," but firmly, naturally, and 
therefore gracefully. Hence in course of time, 
through the effects of constant use, there was 
developed the callous cushion of the heel and toes ; 
while, through discontinuance of the habit of climb- 
ing, the toes became reduced in size. In the ape's 
foot, it is well known, the toes are almost as long as 
the fingers of the hand : a fact which led Blumen- 
bach and Cuvier to classify apes as quadrumana or 
tow-handed animals. But Professor Huxley showed 
that this classification was based on erroneous 
reasoning. The resemblance between the hands and 
feet of apes is merely physiological or functional 

The Feet 1 5 i 

because hands and feet are used alike for climbing. 
But anatomically, in its bones and muscles, etc., the 
monkey's apparent hind "hand" is a true foot no less 
than man's. If the physiological function, i.e. the 
opposability of the thumb to the other ringers, 
were taken as a ground of classification, then birds, 
who have such toes, would have no feet at all but 
only wings and hands. 

There is a limit, however, beyond which the 
size of man's toes cannot be reduced without injur- 
ing the foot's usefulness and the grace of gait. The 
front part of the foot is distinguished for its yielding 
or elastic character. Hence, says Professor Hum- 
phrey, " in descending from a height, as from a chair 
or in walking downstairs, we alight upon the balls of 
the toes. If we alight upon the heels for instance, 
if we walk downstairs on the heels we find it an 
uncomfortable and rather jarring procedure. In 
walking and jumping, it is true, the heels come first 
in contact with the ground, but the weight then falls 
obliquely upon them, and is not fully borne by the 
foot till the toes also are upon the ground." 

One of the reasons why Grace is more rare even 
than Beauty on this planet is that the toes are cramped 
or even turned out of their natural position by tight, 
pointed, fashionable shoes, and are thus prevented from 
giving elasticity to the step. Instances are not rare 
(and by no means only in China) where the great 
toe is almost at right angles to the length of the 
foot. In walking, says Professor Flower, " the heel 
is first lifted from the ground, and the weight of the 
body gradually transferred through the middle to 
the anterior end of the foot, and the final push or 

i 5 2 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

impulse given with the great toe. It is necessary 
then that all these parts should be in a straight line 
with one another." 

It is a mooted question whether the toes should 
be slightly turned outward, as dancing-masters insist, 
or placed in straight parallel lines, as some physio- 
logists hold. For the reason indicated in the last 
paragraph, physiologists are clearly right. With 
parallel or almost parallel great toes, a graceful 
walk is more easily attained than by turning out the 
toes. Even in standing, Dr. T. S. Ellis argues, the 
parallel position is preferable : " When a body stands 
on four points I know of no reason why it should 
stand more firmly if those points be unequally dis- 
posed. The tendency to fall forwards would seem to 
be even increased by widening the distance between 
the points in front, and it is in this direction that 
falls most commonly occur." 


Perhaps the most striking difference between the 
feet of men and apes lies in the relative size of the 
first and second toes. In the ape's foot the second 
toe is longer than the first, whereas in modern 
civilised man's foot the first or great toe is almost 
always the longer. Not so, however, with savages, 
who are intermediate in this as in other respects 
between man and ape ; and there are various other 
facts which seem to indicate that the evolution of 
the great toe, like that of the other extreme of the 
body the head and brain is still in progress. 

There is a notion very prevalent among artists 
that the second toe should be longer than the first. 

The Feet 153 

This idea, Professor Flower thinks, is derived from 
the Greek canon, which in its turn was copied from 
the Egyptian, and probably originally derived from 
the negro. It certainly does not represent what is 
most usual in our race and time. " Among hundreds 
of bare, and therefore undeformed, feet of children I 
lately examined in Perthshire, I was not able to find 
one in which the second toe was the longest. Since 
in all apes in fact, in all other animals the first 
toe is considerably shorter than the second, a long first 
toe is a specially human attribute ; and instead of 
being despised by artists, it should be looked upon as 
a mark of elevation in the scale of organised beings." 

Mr. J. P. Harrison, after a careful examination of 
the unrestored feet of Greek and Roman statues in 
various museums and art galleries, wrote an article 
in the Journal of tJu Anthropological Institute of 
Great Britain (vol. xiii. 1884), in which he states 
that he was " led to the conviction that it was 
from Italy and not Greece that the long second 
toe affected by many English artists had been im- 
ported." Among the Italians a longer second toe is 
common, as also among Alsatians ; in England so 
rarely that its occurrence probably indicates foreign 
blood. Professor Flower, as we have seen, found no 
cases at all ; Paget examined twenty-seven English 
males, in twenty-four of whom the great toe was the 
longer. " In the case of the female feet, in ten out 
of twenty-three subjects the first or great toe was 
longest, and in ten females it was shorter than the 
second toe. In the remaining three instances the 
first and second toes were of equal length." 

Bear these last sentences in mind a moment, till we 

154 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

have seen what is the case with savages. Says Dr. 
Bruner : " A slight shortening of the great toe un- 
doubtedly exists, not merely amongst the Negro 
tribes, but also in ancient and modern Egyptians, 
and even in some of the most beautiful races of 
Caucasian females." And Mr. Harrison found this 
to be, with a few exceptions, a general trait of 
savages. The great toe was shorter than the second 
in skeletons of Peruvians, Tahitians, New Hebrideans, 
Savage islanders, Ainos, New Caledonians. 

Must we therefore agree with Carl Vogt when he 
says, " We may be sure that, whenever we perceive an 
approach to the animal type, the female is nearer to 
it than the male ?" 

Perhaps, however, we can find a solution of the 
problem somewhat less insulting to women than this 
statement of the ungallant German professor. 

It is Fashion, the handmaid of ugliness, that has 
thus apparently caused almost half the women to 
approximate the simian type of the foot ; Fashion, 
which, by inducing women for centuries to thrust 
their tender feet into Spanish boots of torture, has 
taken from their toes the freedom of action requisite 
for that free development and growth which is to be 
noticed in almost all the men. 

Considering the great difference between the left 
and the right foot, it appears almost incredible, but 
is a sober fact, that until about half a century ago 
" rights and lefts " were not made even for the men, 
who now always wear them. But even to-day 
" they are not, it is believed, made use of by women, 
except in a shape that is little efficacious," says Mr. 
Harrison ; and concerning the Austrians Dr. Schaffer 

The Feet i 5 5 

remarks, similarly, that " the like shoe for the left 
and right foot is still in use in the vast majority of 
cases." No wonder women are so averse to taking 
exercise, and therefore lose their beauty at a time 
when it ought to be still in full bloom. For to walk 
in such shoes must be a torture forbidding all un- 
necessary movement. 

Once more be it said it is Fashion, the hand- 
maid of ugliness, that is responsible for the inferior 
beauty of the average female foot, by preventing 
the free development and play of the toes which 
are absolutely necessary for a graceful walk. 

To what an extent the woful rarity of a graceful 
gait is due to the shape of " fashionable " shoes is 
vividly brought out in a passage concerning the natives 
of Martinique, which appeared in a letter in the New 
York Evening Post : " Many of the quadroons are 
handsome, even beautiful, in their youth, and all the 
women of pure black and mixed blood walk with a 
lightness of step and a graceful freedom of motion 
that is very noticeable and pleasant to see. I say 
all the women ; but I must confine this description 
to those who go shoeless, for when a negress crams 
her feet into even the best-fitting pair of shoes her 
gait becomes as awkward as the waddle of an 
Indian squaw, or of a black swan on dry land, and 
she minces and totters in such danger of falling for- 
ward that one feels constrained to go to her and 
say, ' Mam'selle Ebene or Noirette, do, I beseech 
you, put your shoes where you carry everything else, 
namely, on the top of your well-balanced head, and 
do let me see you walk barefoot again, for I do 
assure you that neither your Chinese cousins nor 

i 56 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

your European mistresses can ever hope to imitate 
your goddess-like gait until they practise the art of 
walking with their high-heeled, tiny boots nicely 
balanced on their heads, as you so often are pleased 
to do.' " 

There is another lesson to be learned from this 
discussion, namely, that in trying to establish the 
principles of Beauty, it is better to follow one's own 
taste than adhere blindly to Greek canons, and what 
are supposed to be Greek canons. The longer 
second toe, as we have seen, is not a characteristic 
of Greek art, but due apparently to restorations made 
in Italy where this peculiarity prevails. The Greeks, 
indeed, never hesitated to idealise and improve 
Nature if caught napping ; and there can be little 
doubt that if in their own feet the first toe had been 
shorter than the second, they would have made it 
longer all the same in their statues, following the 
laws of gradation and curvature which a longer 
second toe would interrupt. For it is undeniable 
that, as Mr. Harrison remarks, "a model foot, accord- 
ing to Flaxman, is one in which the toes follow 
each other imperceptibly in a graceful curve from 
the first or great toe to the fifth." 


The statement made above regarding the pre- 
valence among Italians of a longer second toe 
enables us also to qualify the remark made in the 
Westminster Review (1884), that "Even at the 
present day it is a fact well known to all sculptors 
that Italy possesses the finest models as regards the 
female hands and feet in any part of Europe ; and 

The Feet i 5 7 

that to the eye of an Italian the wrists and ankles 
of most English women would not serve as a study 
even for those revivalisms of the antique which are 
to be purchased in our streets for a few shillings." 
Whatever may be true of wrists and ankles, the toes 
must be excepted, at least if a larger percentage of 
Italian than of English women have the second toe 

Although in matters where so many individual 
differences exist it is hazardous to generalise, the 
following remarks on national peculiarities in feet, 
made by a reviewer of Zachariae's Diseases of the 
Human Foot, may be cited for what they are worth : 
" The French foot is meagre, narrow, and bony ; the 
Spanish foot is small and elegantly curved, thanks 
to its Moorish blood. . . . The Arab foot is pro- 
verbial for its high arch ; ' a stream can run under 
his foot,' is a description of its form. The foot of 
the Scotch is large and thick that of the Irish flat 
and square the English short and fleshy. .The 
American foot is apt to be disproportionately small." 


Walking, running, and dancing are the most 
potent cosmetics for producing a foot beautiful in 
form and graceful in movement. It is possible that 
much walking does slightly increase the size of the 
foot, but not enough to become perceptible in the 
life of an individual ; and it has been sufficiently 
shown that the standard of Beauty in a foot is not 
smallness but curved outlines, litheness, and grace of 
gait, these qualities being a thousand times more 
powerful " love-charms " than the smallest Chinese 

i 58 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

foot. Moreover, it is probable that graceful walking 
has no tendency to enlarge the foot as a whole, but 
only the great toe ; and a well-developed great toe 
is a distinctive sign of higher evolution. 

It is useless for any one to try to walk or dance' 
gracefully in shoes which do not allow the toes to 
spread and act like two sets of elastic springs. One 
of the most curious aberrations of modern taste is 
the notion that the shape of the natural foot is not 
beautiful that it will look better if made narrowest 
in front instead of widest. Even were this so, it 
would not pay to sacrifice all grace to a slight gain 
in Beauty. But it is not so. It is only habit, which 
blunts perception, that makes us indifferent to the 
ugliness of the pointed shoes in our shop-windows, 
or even in many cases prefer them to naturally- 
shaped shoes. Were we once accustomed to pro- 
perly-shaped hygienic boots, in which no part of the 
foot is cramped, our present shoes, with their un- 
natural curves where there should be none, and the 
absence of curves where they should be (" rights and 
lefts "), would seem as " awful " and " horrid " as the 
old crinoline does to the eyes of the present genera- 
tion. As Professor Flower remarks : " The fact that 
the excessively pointed, elongated toes of the time 
of Richard II., for instance, were superseded by the 
broad, round-toed, almost elephantine, but most com- 
fortable shoes seen in the portraits of Henry VIII. 
and his contemporaries, shows that there is nothing 
in the former essential to the gratification of the 
aesthetic instincts of mankind. Each form was, 
doubtless, equally admired in the time of its pre- 

The Feet 159 

The Germans claim that it was one of their 
countrymen, Petrus Camper, who first called atten- 
tion, about a hundred years ago, to another objec- 
tionable peculiarity of the modern shoe its high 
heels ruinous alike to comfort, grace, and health (a 
number of female diseases being caused by them); 
yet they admit that Camper's advice was hardly 
heeded by the Germans, and that it therefore serves 
them right that quite recently the modern hygienic 
shoe, with low, broad heels, has been introduced in 
Germany as the " English form," the English having 
proved themselves less obtuse and conservative in 
this matter. 

The heel is, however, capable of still further im- 
provement. It is not elastic like the cushion of the 
heel, after which it should be modelled ; and Dr. 
Schaffer's suggestion that an elastic mechanism 
should be introduced in the heel is certainly worthy 
of trial. Everybody knows how much more lightly, 
gracefully, as well as noiselessly, he can walk in 
rubbers than in leather shoes ; and this gain is 
owing to the superior elasticity of the heel and the 
middle part of the shoe, covering the arch, which 
should be especially elastic. It is pleasanter to 
walk in a meadow than on a stone pavement ; but 
if we wear soles that are both soft and elastic we 
need never walk on a hard surface ; for then, as Dr. 
Schaffer remarks, " we have the meadow in our 

As the left foot always differs considerably from 
the right, it is not sufficient to have one measure 
taken. The fact that shoemakers do take but one 
measure shows what clumsy bunglers most of them 

1 60 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

are. As a rule, it is easier to get a fit from a large 
stock of ready-made boots than at a shoemaker's. 

The stockings, as well as the shoes, often cramp 
and deform the foot ; and Professor Flower suggests 
that they should never be made with pointed toes, 
or similar forms for both sides. Digitated stockings, 
however, are a nuisance, for they hamper the free 
and elastic action of the toes. Woollen stockings 
are the best both for summer and winter use. No 
one who has ever experienced the comfort of wearing 
woollen socks (and underclothes in general), will ever 
dream of reverting to silk, cotton, or any other 

Soaking the feet in water in which a handful of 
salt has been dissolved, several times a week, is an 
excellent way of keeping the skin in sound condition. 
For perfect cleanliness it does not suffice to change 
the socks frequently. As the author of the Ugly 
Girl Papers remarks, " The time will come when we 
will find it as shocking to our ideas to wear out a 
pair of boots without putting in new lining as we 
think the habits of George the First's time, when 
maids of honour went without washing their faces 
for a week, and people wore out their linen without 
the aid of a laundress." 


Among the ancients dancing included graceful 
gestures and poses of all parts of the body, as well 
as facial expression. In Oriental dancing of the 
present day, likewise, graceful movements of the 
arms and upper part of the body play a more im- 
portant rdle than the lower limbs. Modern dancing, 

The Feet 161 

on the contrary, is chiefly an affair of the lower 
extremities. It is pre-eminently an exercise of the 
toes ; and herein lies its hygienic and beautifying 
value, for, as we have seen, grace of gait depends 
chiefly on the firm litheness and springiness of the 
toes, especially the great toe. By their grace of gait 
one can almost always distinguish persons who have 
enjoyed the privilege of dancing-lessons, which have 
strengthened their toes and, by implication, many 
other muscles, not forgetting those of the arm, which 
has to hold the partner. 

There are thousands of young women who have 
no opportunities for prolonged and exhilarating 
exercise except in ballrooms. In the majority of 
cases, unfortunately, Fashion, the handmaid of Ugli- 
ness and Disease, frustrates the advantages which 
would result from dancing by prescribing for ball- 
rooms not only the smallest shoes, but the tightest 
corsets and the lowest dresses, which render it im- 
possible or imprudent to breathe fresh air, without 
which exercise is of no hygienic value, and may 
even be injurious. But what are such trifling sacri- 
fices as Health, Beauty, and Grace compared to the 
glorious consciousness of being fashionable ? 


The ballroom is Cupid's camping ground, not 
only because it facilitates the acquisition of that 
grace by which he is so easily enamoured, but 
because it affords such excellent opportunities for 
Courtship and Sexual Selection. And this applies 
not only to the era of modern Romantic Love, but, 
from its most primitive manifestations in the animal 


1 62 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

world, dancing, like song, has been connected with 
love and courtship. 

Darwin devotes several pages to a description 
of the love-antics and dances of birds. Some of 
them, as the black African weaver, perform their 
love-antics on the wing, " gliding through the air 
with quivering wings, which make a rapid whirring 
sound like a child's rattle " ; others remain on the 
ground, like the English white-throat, which " flutters 
with a fitful and fantastic motion " ; or the English 
bustard, who " throws himself into indescribably odd 
attitudes whilst courting the female " ; and a third 
class, the famous Bower-birds, perform their love- 
antics in bowers specially constructed and adorned 
with leaves, shells, and feathers. These are the 
earliest ballrooms known in natural history ; and it 
is quite proper to call them so, for, as Darwin 
remarks, they " are built on the ground for the sole 
purpose of courtship, for their nests are formed in 

Passing on to primitive man, we again find him 
inferior to animals in not knowing that the sole 
proper function of dancing is in the service of Love, 
courtship, and grace. Savages have three classes of 
dance, two being performed by the men alone, the 
third by men and women. First come the War-Dances, 
in which the grotesquely-painted warriors brandish 
their spears and utter unearthly howls, to excite 
themselves for an approaching contest. Second, 
the Hunters' Dances, in which the game is imper- 
sonated by some of the men and chased about, which 
leads to many comic scenes ; though there is a 
serious undercurrent of superstition, for they believe 

The Feet 163 

that such dances a sort of saltatorial prayer 
bring on good luck in the subsequent real chase. 
Third, the Dance of Love, practised e.g. by the 
Brazilian Indians, with whom " men and women 
dance a rude courting dance, advancing in lines with 
a kind of primitive polka step " (Tylor). That there 
is as little refinement and idealism in the savage's 
dances as in his love-affairs in general is self- 

The civilised nations of antiquity, as we have 
seen, had no prolonged Courtship, and therefore no 
Romantic Love. Since young men and women were 
not allowed to meet freely, dancing was of course not 
esteemed as a high social accomplishment. It was 
therefore commonly relegated to a special class of 
women (or slaves), such as the Bayaderes of India 
and the Greek flute girls. Notwithstanding that 
even the Greek gods are sometimes represented as 
dancing, yet this art came to be considered a sign 
of effeminacy in men who indulged in it ; and as for 
the Romans, their view is indicated in Cicero's 
anathema : " No man who is sober dances, unless he 
is out of his mind, either when alone or in decent 
society, for dancing is the companion of wanton 
conviviality, dissoluteness, and luxury." 

In ancient Egypt, too, the upper classes were 
not allowed to learn dancing. And herein, as in so 
many things in which women are concerned, the 
modern Oriental is the direct descendant of the 
ancients. " In the eyes of the Chinese," says M. 
Letourneau, " dancing is a ridiculous amusement 
by which a man compromises his dignity." 

Plato appears to have been the first who recog- 

1 64 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

nised the importance of dancing as affording oppor- 
tunities for Courtship and prematrimonial acquaint- 
ance. But his advice remained unheeded by his 
countrymen. A view regarding dancing similar to 
Plato's was announced by an uncommonly liberal 
theologian of the sixteenth century in the words, as 
quoted by Scherr, that " Dancing had been originally 
arranged and permitted with the respectable purpose 
of teaching manners to the young in the presence of 
many people, and enabling young men and maidens 
to form honest attachments. For in the dance it 
was easy to observe and note the habits and peculi- 
arities of the young." 

Thus we see that, with the exception of the 
savage's war-dances and hunting pantomimes, the art 
of dancing has at all times and everywhere been born 
of love ; even the ancient religious dances having 
commonly been but a veil concealing other purposes, 
as among the Greeks. But all ceremonial dancing, 
like ceremonial kissing, has been from the beginning 
doomed to be absorbed and annihilated by the 
all-engrossing modern passion of Romantic Love. 

True, as a miser mistakes the means for the end 
and loves gold for its own sake, so we sometimes see 
girls dance alone possibly with a vaguely coy in- 
tention of giving the men to understand that they 
can get along without them. But their heart is not 
in it, and they never do it when there are men 
enough to go round. As for the men, they are too 
open and frank ever to veil their sentiments. They 
never dance except with a woman. 

To-day our fashion and society papers are 
eternally complaining of the fact that the young 

The Feet 165 

men especially the desirable young men seem to 
have lost all interest in dancing. But who is to 
blame for this ? Certainly not the men. It is 
Fashion again, and the mothers who sacrifice the 
matrimonial prospects of their daughters as well 
as their Health, Beauty, and Individuality to this 
hideous fetish. It is the late hours of the dance, 
prescribed by Fashion, that are responsible for the 
apparent loss of masculine interest in this art. 
Formerly, when aristocracy meant laziness and 
stupidity, the habit of turning night into day was 
harmless or even useful, because it helped to rid the 
world prematurely of a lot of fools. But to-day the 
leading men of the community are also the busiest. 
Aristocracy implies activity, intellectual and otherwise. 
Hence there are few men in the higher ranks who 
have not their regular work to do during the day. 
To ask them after a day's hard labour to go to a 
dance beginning at midnight and ending at four or 
five is to ask them to commit suicide. Sensible 
men do not believe in slow suicide, hence they avoid 
dancing-parties as if such parties were held in small- 
pox hospitals. 

Let society women throw their stupid conser- 
vatism to the winds. Let them arrange balls to 
begin at eight or nine and end at midnight or one, 
and " desirable " men will be only too eager to flock 
to assemblies which they now shun. The result will 
be a sudden and startling diminution in the number 
of old maids and bachelors. 

It is the moral duty of mothers who have 
marriageable daughters to encourage this reform. 
Maternal love does not merely imply solicitude for 

1 66 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

the first twenty years of a daughter's life, but care- 
ful provision for the remainder of her life, covering 
twice that period, by enabling her to meet and 
choose a husband after her own heart 


Did space permit, it would be interesting to study 
in detail the dances of various epochs and countries, 
coloured, like the Love which originated them, by 
national peculiarities the Polish mazourka and 
polonaise, the Spanish fandango, the Viennese waltz, 
the Parisian cancan, etc. Suffice it to note the great 
difference between the dances of a few generations 
ago and those of to-day, as shown most vividly in 
the evolution of dance-music. 

The earliest dance-tunes are vocal, and were sung 
by the (professional) dancers themselves, in the days 
when the young were not yet allowed to meet, con- 
verse, and flirt and dance. Subsequently, the trans- 
ference of dance -music to instruments played by 
others gave the dancers opportunity to perform 
more complicated figures, and made it possible to 
converse. But even as late as the eighteenth century 
dancing and dance-music were characterised by a 
stately reserve, slowness, and pompous dignity which 
showed at once that they had nothing to do with 
Romantic Love. It was not the fiery, passionate 
youths who danced these solemnly stupid minuets, 
gavottes, sarabandes, and allemandes, but the older 
folks, whose perruques, and collars, and frills, and 
bloated clothes would not have enabled them to 
execute rapid movements even if the warm blood of 
youth had coursed in their veins. 

The Feet 167 

How all this artificiality and snail-like pomp has 
been brushed away by triumphant Romantic Love, 
which has secured for modern lovers the privilege of 
dancing together before they are married and cease 
to care for it ! True, we still have the monotonous 
soporific quadrille, as if to remind us of bygone times ; 
but the true modern dance is the round dance, which 
differs from the stately mediaeval dance as a jolly 
rural picnic does from a formal morning call. 

The difference between the mediaeval and the 
modern dance is thus indicated by F. Bremer : 

" Peculiar to modern dance-music is the round 
dance, especially the waltz ; and it is in consequence 
warmer than the older dance-music, more passionate 
in expression, in rhythm and modulation more 
sharply accented. As its creator we must regard 
Carl Maria von Weber, who, in his Invitation to 
Dance, struck the keynote through which sub- 
sequently, in the music of Chopin, Lanner, Strauss, 
Musard, etc., utterance was given to the whole gamut 
of dreamy, languishing, sentimental, ardent passion. 
The consequence was the displacement of the stately, 
measured dances by impetuous, chivalrous forms ; and 
in place of the former nai've sentimentality and 
childish mirth, it is the rapture of Love that con- 
stitutes the spirit of modern dance-music." 

Not to speak of more primitive dance-tunes, what 
a difference there is between the slow and dreary 
monotony of eighteenth century dances and a 
Viennese waltz of to-day ! The vast superiority 
of a Strauss waltz lies in this that it is no longer 
a mere rhythmic noise calculated to guide the steps, 
and skips, and bows, and evolutions of the dancers, 

1 68 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

but tJie sympJionic accompaniment to the first act in 
the drama of Romantic Love. It recognises the fact 
that Courtship is the prime object of the dance. 
Hence, though still bound by the inevitable dance 
rhythm, Strauss is ever trying to break loose from 
it, to secure that freedom and variety of rhythm 
which is needed to give full utterance to passion. 
Note the slow, pathetic introductions ; the signs in 
the score indicating an accelerated or retarded 
tempo when the waltz is played at a concert, where 
the uniformity of ballroom movement is not called 
for ; note what subtle use he makes of all the other 
means of expressing amorous feeling the wide 
melodic intervals, the piquant, stirring harmonies, 
the exquisitely melancholy flashes of instrumental 
colouring, alternating with cheerful moments, show- 
ing a subtle psychologic art of translating the Mixed 
Moods of Love into the language of tones. 

In the waltzes, mazourkas and polonaises of 
Chopin we see still more strikingly that the true 
function of dance - music is amorous. Even as 
Dante's Love for Beatrice was too super-sensual, 
too ethereal for this world, so Chopin's dance-pieces 
are too subtle, too full of delicate nuances of tempo 
and Love episodes, to be adapted to a ballroom with 
ordinary mortals. Graceful fairies alone could dance 
a Chopin waltz ; mortals are too heavy, too clumsy. 
They can follow an amorous Chopin waltz with the 
imagination alone, which is the abode of Romantic 
Love. To a Strauss waltz a hundred couples may 
make love at once, hence he writes for the orchestra ; 
but Chopin wrote for the parlour piano, because the 
feelings he utters are too deep to be realised by more 

The Feet 169 

than two at a time one who plays and one who 
listens, till their souls dance together in an ecstatic 
embrace of Mutual Sympathy. 


It is at Vienna, which has more feminine grace 
and beauty to the square mile than any other city 
in the world, that the art of dancing is to be seen in 
its greatest perfection. No wonder that it is the 
home of the Waltz-King, Johann Strauss ; and that 
a Viennese feuilletonist has shown the deepest in- 
sight into the psychology of the dance in an article 
from which the following excerpts are taken : 

" The waltz has a creative, a rejuvenating power, 
which no other dance possesses. The skipping polka 
is characterised by a certain stiffness and angularity, 
a rhythm rather sober and old-fashioned. The galop 
is a wild hurricane, which moves along rudely and 
threatens to blow over everything that comes in its 
way ; it is the most brutal of all dances, an enemy 
of all tender and refined feelings, a bacchanalian 
rushing up and down. . . '. 

" The waltz, therefore, remains as the only true 
and real dance. Waltzing is not walking, skipping, 
jumping, rushing, raving ; it is a gentle floating and 
flying ; from the heaviest men it seems to take away 
some of their materiality, to raise the most massive 
women from the ground into the air. True, the 
Viennese alone know how to dance it, as they alone 
know how to play it. ... 

" The waltz insists on a personal monopoly, on 
being loved for its own sake, and permits no vapid 
side-remarks regarding the fine weather, the hot 

170 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

room, the toilets of the ladies ; the couple glide 
along hardly speaking a word ; except that she 
may beg for a pause, or he, indefatigable, insatiable, 
intoxicated by the music and motion, the fragrance 
of flowers and ladies, invites her to a new flight 
around the hall. And yet is this mute dance the 
most eloquent, the most expressive and emotional, 
the most sensuous that could be imagined ; and if 
the dancer has anything to say to his partner, let 
him mutely confide it to her in the sweet whirl of a 
waltz, for then the music is his advocate, then every 
bar pleads for him, every note is a billet-doux, every 
breath a declaration of love. Jealous husbands do 
not allow their wives to waltz with another man. 
They are right, for the waltz is the Dance of Love." 


There is one more form of dancing which may be 
briefly alluded to, because it illustrates the hypocrisy 
of the average mortal as well as the rarity of true 
aesthetic taste. Solo ballet-dancing is admired not 
only by the bald-headed old men in the parquet, but 
there are critics who seriously discuss such dancing 
as if it were a fine art ; generally lamenting the good 
old times of the great and graceful ballet-dancers. 
The truth is that ballet-dancing never can be graceful, 
as now practised. To secure graceful movement it 
is absolutely necessary to make use of the elasticity 
of the toes to touch the ground at the place where 
the toes articulate with the middle foot, and to give 
the last push with the yielding great toe. Ballet- 
dancers, however, walk on the tips of their stiffened 
toes, the result of which is, as the anatomist, Pro- 

The Lower Limbs 171 

fessor Kollmann, remarks, that "their gait is 
deprived of all elasticity and becomes stiff, as in 
going on stilts." 

It speaks well for the growing sensibility of man- 
kind that this form of dancing is gradually losing 
favour. Like the vocal tight-rope dancing of the 
operatic prime donne with whom ballet-dancers are 
associated, their art is a mere circus-trick, gaped at 
as a difficult tour de force, but appealing in no sense 
to aesthetic sentiments. 

These strictures, of course, apply merely to solo- 
dancing on tiptoe. The spectacular ballet, which 
delights the eye with kaleidoscopic colours and 
groupings, is quite another thing, and may be made 
highly artistic. 



The assumption by man of an erect attitude has 
modified and improved the appearance of his leg 
and thigh quite as marvellously as his feet. " In 
walking," says Professor Kollmann, " the weight of 
the body is alternately transferred from one foot to 
the other. Each one is obliged in locomotion to 
take its turn in supporting the whole body, which 
explains the great size of the muscles which make 
up man's calf. The ape's calf is smaller for the 
reason that these animals commonly go on all fours." 
Professor Carl Vogt gives these details : " No ape 
has such a cylindrical, gradually diminishing thigh ; 
and we are justified in saying that man alone pos- 
sesses thighs. The muscles of the leg are in man 

i/2 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

so accumulated as to form a calf, while in the ape 
they are more equally distributed ; still, transitions 
are not wanting, since one of the greatest charac- 
teristics of the negro consists in his calfless leg." 
And again : " Man possesses, as contrasted with the 
ape, a distinctive character in the strength, rotundity, 
and length of the lower limb ; especially in the 
thighs, which in most animals are shortened in 
proportion to the leg." 

The words here italicised call attention to two 
of the qualities of Beauty gradation and the curve 
of rotundity which the lower limbs in their evolu- 
tion are thus seen to be gradually approximating. 
Other improvements are seen in the greater smooth- 
ness, the more graceful and expressive gait resulting 
from the rounded but straight knee, etc. 

The implication that savages are in the muscular 
development of their limbs intermediate between 
apes and civilised men calls for further testimony 
and explanation. Waitz states that " in regard to 
muscular power Indians are commonly inferior to 
Europeans ; " and Mr. Herbert Spencer has collected 
much evidence of a similar nature. The Ostyaks 
have " thin and slender legs " ; the Kamtchatdales 
" short and slender legs " ; those of the Chinooks 
are " small and crooked " ; and the African Akka 
have " short and bandy legs." The legs of Austra- 
lians are " inferior in mass of muscle " ; the gigantic 
Patagonians have limbs " neither so muscular nor so 
large-boned as their height and apparent bulk would 
induce one to suppose." Spencer likewise calls 
attention to the fact that relatively-inferior legs are 
" a trait which, remotely simian, is also repeated by 

The Lower Limbs 173 

the child of the civilised man " which thus indi- 
vidually passes through the several stages of de- 
velopment that have successively characterised its 

Numerous exceptions are of course to be found 
to the rule that the muscular rotundity and plump- 
ness of the limbs increases with civilisation. The 
lank shins which may be seen by the hundred 
among the bathers at our sea-coast resorts contrast 
disadvantageously with many photographs of savages ; 
and tourists in Africa and among South American 
Indians and elsewhere have often enough noted the 
occurrence of individuals and tribes who would have 
furnished admirable models for sculptors. But this 
only proves, on the one hand, that " civilised " per- 
sons who are uncivilised in their neglect of the laws 
of Health, inevitably lose certain traits of Beauty 
which exercise alone can give ; while, on the other 
hand, those " savages " who lead an active and 
healthy life are in so far civilised, and therefore enjoy 
the superior attractions bestowed by civilisation. 
Moreover, as Mr. Spencer suggests, "In combat, the 
power exercised by arm and trunk is limited by the 
power of the legs to withstand the strain thrown on 
them. Hence, apart from advantages in locomotion, 
the stronger-legged nations have tended to become, 
other things equal, dominant races." 

" Rengger," says Darwin, " attributes the thin 
legs and thick arms of the Payaguas Indians to suc- 
cessive generations having passed nearly their whole 
lives in canoes, with their lower extremities motion- 
less. Other writers have come to a similar conclu- 
sion in analogous cases." 

174 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

Although savages have to hunt for a living and 
occasionally go to war, they are essentially a lazy 
crew, taking no more exercise than necessary ; which 
accounts for the fact that, with the exceptions noted, 
their muscular development is inferior to that of 
higher races. 


One of the most discouraging aspects of modern 
life is the growing tendency toward concentration of 
the population in large cities. Not only is the air 
less salubrious in cities than in the country, but the 
numerous cheap facilities for riding discourage the 
habit of walking. London is one of the healthiest 
cities, and the English the most vigorous race, in the 
world ; yet it is said that it is difficult to trace a 
London family down through five generations. Few 
Paris families can, it is said, be traced even through 
three generations. Without constant rural accessions 
cities would tend to become depopulated. 

The enormous importance of exercise for 
Health and Beauty, which are impossible without it, 
is vividly brought out in this statement of Koll- 
mann's: "Muscles which are thoroughly exercised do 
not only retain their strength, but increase in circum- 
ference and power, in man as in animals. The flesh 
is then firm, and coloured intensely red. In a 
paralysed arm the muscles are degenerated, and 
have lost a portion of one of their most impor- 
tant constituents albumen. Repeated contractions 
strengthen a muscle, because motion accelerates the 
circulation of the blood and the nutrition of the 
tissues. What a great influence this has on the 

The Lower Limbs 175 

whole body may be inferred from the fact that the 
organs of locomotion the skeleton and muscles 
make up more than 82 per cent of the substance of 
the body. With this enormous proportion of bone 
and muscle, it is obvious that exercise is essential 
to bodily health." 

Exercise in a gymnasium is useful but monoton- 
ous ; and too often the benefits are neutralised by 
the insufficient provision for fresh air, without which 
exercise is worse than useless. Hence the superiority 
of open-air games base-ball, tennis, rowing, riding, 
swimming, etc., to the addiction to which the English 
owe so much of their superior physique. Tourists 
in Canada invariably notice the wonderful figures of 
the women, which they owe largely to their fondness 
for skating. " Beyond question," says the Lancet, 
" skating is one of the finest sports, especially for 
ladies. It is graceful, healthy, stimulating to the 
muscles, and it develops in a very high degree the 
important faculty of balancing the body and pre- 
serving perfect control over the whole of the muscu- 
lar system, while bringing certain muscles into action 
at will. Moreover, there is this about it which is of 
especial value : it trains by exercise the power of 
intentionally inducing and maintaining a continuous 
contraction of the muscles of the lower extremity 
The joints, hip, knee, and ankle are firmly, fixed or 
rather kept steadily under control, while the limbs 
are so set by their muscular apparatus that they 
form, as it were, part of the skate that glides over the 
smooth surface. To skate well and gracefully is a 
very high accomplishment indeed, and perhaps one 
of the very best exercises in which young women 

176 Romantic Love nnd Personal Beauty 

and girls can engage with a view to healthful develop- 

For the acquisition of a graceful gait women 
need such exercise more even than men ; and while 
engaged in it they should pay especial attention to 
exercising the left side of the body. On this point 
Sir Charles Bell has made the following suggestive 
remarks : 

"We see that opera-dancers execute their more 
difficult feats on the right foot, but their prepara- 
tory exercises better evince the natural weakness of 
the left limb ; in order to avoid awkwardness in the 
public exhibitions, they are obliged to give double 
practice to the left leg ; and if they neglect to do so 
an ungraceful preference to the right side will be 
remarked. In walking behind a person we seldom 
see an equalised motion of the body ; the tread 
is not so firm upon the left foot, the toe is not 
so much turned out, and a greater push is made 
with the right. From the peculiar form of woman, 
and from the elasticity of her step, resulting from the 
motion of the ankle rather than of the haunches, 
the defect of the left foot, when it exists, is more 
apparent in her gait." 

Those who wish to acquire a graceful gait will 
find several useful hints in this extract from Professor 
Kollmann's Plastische Anatomie, p. 506 : 

" Human gait, it is well known, is subject to indi- 
vidual variations. Differences are to be noted not only 
in rapidity of motion, but as regards the position of 
the trunk and the movements of the limbs, within 
certain limits. For instance, the gait of very fat 
persons is somewhat vacillating; other persons acquire 

The Lower- Limbs 177 

a certain dignity of gait by bending and stretching 
their limbs as little as possible while taking long 
steps ; and others still bend their knees very much, 
which gives a slovenly character to their gait. And 
as regards the attitude of the trunk, a different effect 
is given according as it is inclined backwards or 
forwards, or executes superfluous movements in the 
same direction or to the sides. All these peculiari- 
ties make an impression on our eyes, while our ears 
are impressed at the same time by the differences 
in rapidity of movement, so that we learn to re- 
cognise our friends by the sound of their walk as 
we do by the quality of their voice." 

Bell states that " upwards of fifty muscles of the 
arm and hand may be demonstrated, which must all 
consent to the simplest action." Walking is a no 
less complicated affair, to which the attention of 
men of science has been only quite recently directed. 
The new process of instantaneous photography has 
been found very useful, but much remains to be 
done before the mystery of a graceful gait can be 
considered solved. If some skilled photographer 
would go to Spain and take a number of instantane- 
ous pictures of Andalusian girls, the most graceful 
beings in the world, in every variety of attitude and 
motion, he might render most valuable service to 
the cause of personal aesthetics. 

The time will come, no doubt, when dancing 
masters and mistresses will consider the teaching of 
the waltz and the lancers only the crudest and 
easiest part of their work, and when they will have 
advanced classes who will be instructed in the refine- 
ments of movement as carefully and as intelligently 


178 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

as professors of music teach their pupils the proper 
use of the parts and muscles of the hand, to attain 
a delicate and varied touch. The majority of 
women might make much more progress in the art 
of gracefulness than they ever will in music ; and is 
not the poetry of motion as noble and desirable an 
object of study as any other fine art ? 


It is the essence of fashion to exaggerate every- 
thing to the point of ugliness. Instead of trying to 
remedy the disadvantages to their gait resulting from 
anatomical peculiarities (just referred to in a quota- 
tion from Bell), women frequently take pains to 
deliberately exaggerate them. As Alexander Walker 
remarks : " The largeness of the pelvis and the 
approximation of the knees influence the gait of 
woman, and render it vacillating and unsteady. 
Conscious of this, women, in countries where the 
nutritive system in general and the pelvis in par- 
ticular are large, affect a greater degree of this 
vacillating unsteadiness. An example of this is 
seen in the lateral and rotatory motion which is 
given to the pelvis in walking by certain classes of 
the women in London." 

The Egyptians and Arabians consider this ludi- 
crous rotatory motion a great fascination, and have 
a special name for it Ghung. 

But Fashion, the handmaid of ugliness, is not 
content with aping the bad taste of Arabians and 
Egyptians. It goes several steps lower than that, 
down to the Hottentots. The latest hideous craze 
of Fashion, against which not one woman in a 

The Lower Limbs 179 

hundred had taste or courage enough to revolt 
the bustle or "dress-improver "(!) was simply the 
milliner's substitute for an anatomical peculiarity 
natural to some African savages. 

" It is well known," says Darwin, " that with 
many Hottentot women the posterior part of the 
body projects in a wonderful manner ; they are 
steatopygous ; and Sir Andrew Smith is certain 
that this peculiarity is greatly admired by the men. 
He once saw a woman who was considered a beauty, 
and she was so immensely developed behind, that 
when seated on level ground she could not rise, and 
had to push herself along until she came to a slope. 
Some of the women in various negro tribes have the 
same peculiarity ; and, according to Burton, the 
Somal men ' are said to choose their wives by 
ranging them in a line, and by picking her out who 
projects farthest a tergo. Nothing can be more 
hateful to a negro than the opposite form.'" 

Evidently " civilised " and savage women do not 
differ as regards Fashion, the handmaid of ugliness. 
But the men do. While the male Hottentots ad- 
mire the natural steatopyga of their women, civilised 
men, without exception, detest the artificial imitation 
of it, which makes a woman look and walk like a 
deformed dromedary. 


The bustle is not only objectionable in itself as a 
hideous deformity and a revival of Hottentot taste, 
but still more as a probable forerunner of that most 
unutterably vulgar article of dress ever invented by 
Fashion the crinoline. For we read that when, in 

1 80 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

1856, the crinoline came in again, it was preceded 
by the " inelegant bustle in the upper part of the 
skirt " ; and it is a notorious fact that cunning 
milliners are making strenuous efforts every year 
to reintroduce the crinoline. 

In their abhorrence of the crinoline men do not 
stand alone. There are several refined women to- 
day who would absolutely refuse to submit to the 
tyranny of Fashion if it should again prescribe the 
crinoline. One of these is evidently Mrs. Haweis, 
who in The Art of Beauty remarks that "The crino- 
line superseded all our ''attention to posture ; whilst 
our long trains, which can hardly look inelegant [?] 
even on clumsy persons, make small ankles or thick 
ones a matter of little moment. We have become 
inexpressibly slovenly. We no longer study how to 
walk, perhaps the most difficult of all actions to do 
gracefully. Our fashionable women stride and loll 
in open defiance of elegance," etc. And again : 
" This gown in outline simply looks like a very ill-, 
shaped wine-glass upside down. The wide crinoline 
entirely conceals every natural grace of attitude" 

Another lady, writing in the Atlantic Monthly 
(1859), remarks concerning the crinoline : " A woman 
in this rig hangs in her skirts like a clapper in a bell ; 
and I never meet one without being tempted to take 
her by the neck and ring her." 

About 1710, says a writer in the Encyclopedia 
Britannica, " as if resolved that their figures should 
rival their heads in extravagance, they introduced 
the hooped petticoat, at first worn in such a manner 
as to give to the person of the wearer below her 
very tightly-laced waist a contour resembling the 

The Lower Limbs 181 

letter V inverted A. The hooped dresses, thus 
introduced, about 1740 attained to an enormous 
expansion ; and being worn at their full circum- 
ference immediately below the waist, they in many 
ways emulated the most outrageous of the fardin- 
gales of the Elizabethan period." 

" About 1 744 hoops are mentioned as so ex- 
travagant," says Chambers's Encyclopedia, "that a 
woman occupied the space of six men." .George IV. 
had the good taste to abolish them by royal com- 
mand, but they were revived in 1856. The news- 
papers of two decades ago daily contained accounts 
of accidents due to the idiotic crinoline. " The 
Spectator dealt out much cutting, though playful, 
raillery at the hoops of his day, but apparently 
with little effect ; and equally unavailing are the 
satires of Punch and other caricaturists of the 
present time against the hideous fashion of crino- 
line. . . . Owing to its prevalence, church - pews 
that formerly held seven are now let for six, and 
yet feel rather crowded. The hoops are sometimes 
made with a circumference of four or even five 

It is universally admitted that the human form, 
in its perfection, is Nature's chef d'ceuvre the most 
finished specimen of her workmanship. Yet the 
accounts of savage taste given by travellers and 
anthropologists show that the savage is never satis- 
fied with the human outlines as God made them, 
but constantly mars and mutilates them by altering 
the shape of the head, piercing the nose, filing or 
colouring the teeth, enlarging the lips to enormous 
dimensions, favouring an adipose bustle, etc. This 

1 82 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

is precisely what modern Fashion, the handmaid of 
ugliness, does. We have just seen how fashionable 
women, unable to comprehend the beauty of the 
human form, have for several generations endeavoured 
to give it the shape of " a very ill-shaped wine-glass, 
upside down," " a clapper in a bell," or " the letter 
V inverted." And concerning Queen Elizabeth the 
Atlantic writer already quoted says very pithily : 
" What with stomachers and pointed waist and 
fardingale, and sticking in here and sticking out 
there, and ruffs and cuffs, and ouches and jewels 
and puckers, she looks like a hideous flying insect 
with expanded wings, seen through a microscope 
not at all like a woman." 

Fortunately, for the moment, the crinoline, like 
the fardingale, is not " in fashion." But, as already 
stated, there is considerable danger of a new invasion 
every year ; and, should Fashion proclaim its edict, 
no doubt the vast majority of women would follow, 
as they did a decade or two ago. In the interest of 
good taste, as of common sense, it is therefore neces- 
sary to speak with brutal frankness on this subject. 
There is good evidence to show that the crinoline 
originated in the desire of an aristocratic dame of 
low moral principles to conceal the evidences of a 
crime. Hence the original French name for the 
crinoline Cache-Bdtard. Will respectable and re- 
fined women consent once more to have the fashion 
set for them by a courtesan ? 

The Waist 183 



In a well-shaped waist, as in every other part of 
the body, the curved line of Beauty, with its delicate 
gradations, exercises a great charm. Examination 
of a Greek statue of the best period, male or female, 
or of the goddess of beauty in the Pagoda at 
Bangalur, India, shows a slight inward curve at the 
waist, whereas in early Greek and Egyptian art this 
curve is absent. The waist, therefore, like the feet 
and limbs, appears to have been gradually moulded 
into accordance with the line of Beauty a notion 
which is also supported by the following remarks in 
Tylor's Anthropology : "If fairly chosen photographs 
of Kaffirs be compared with a classic model such as 
the Apollo, it will be noticed that the trunk of the 
African has a somewhat wall -sided straightness, 
wanting in the inward slope which gives fineness to 
the waist, and in the expansion below, which gives 
breadth across the hips, these being two of the 
most noticeable points in the classic model which 
our painters recognise as an ideal of manly beauty." 

In woman, owing to the greater dimensions of 
her pelvis, this curvature is more pronounced than 
in man ; yet even in woman it must be slight if the 
laws of Health and Beauty are to suffer no violation. 
" Moderation " is the one word which Mr. Ruskin 
says he would have inscribed in golden letters over the 
door of every school of art. For "the least appearance 
of violence or extravagance, of the want of modera- 
tion and restraint, is," as he remarks, " destructive of 

1 84 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

all beauty whatsoever in everything colour, form, 
motion, language, or thought giving rise to that 
which in colour we call glaring, in form inelegant, 
in motion ungraceful, in language coarse, in thought 
undisciplined, in all unchastened ; which qualities 
are in everything most painful, because the signs of 
disobedient and irregular operation. And herein we 
at last find the reason of that A'hich has been so 
often noted respecting the subtility and almost 
invisibility of natural curves and colours, and why it 
is that we look on those lines as least beautiful which 
fall into wide and far license of curvature, and as 
most beautiful which approach nearest (so that the 
curvilinear character be distinctly asserted) to the 
government of the right line, as in the pure and 
severe curves of the draperies of the religious 
painters," etc. 


But Fashion, the handmaid of ugliness, too vulgar 
to appreciate the exquisite beauty of slight and 
subtle curvature, makes woman's waist the most 
maltreated and deformed part of her body. There 
is not one woman in a hundred who does not 
deliberately destroy twenty per cent of her Personal 
Beauty by the way in which she reduces the natural 
dimensions of her waist. There is, indeed, ground 
to believe that the main reason why the bustle, and 
even the crinoline, are not looked on with abhorrence 
by all women is because they aid the corset in 
making the waist look smaller by contrast. The 
Wasp-waist Mania is therefore the disease which most 
imperatively calls for cure. But the task seems 

The Waist 185 

almost hopeless ; for, as a female writer remarks, it 
is almost as difficult to cure a woman of the corset 
habit as a man of intemperance in drink. 

" The injurious custom of tight lacing," says 
Planche in his Cyclopcedia of Costumes, " ' a custom 
fertile in disease and death,' appears to have been 
introduced by the Normans as early as the twelfth 
century ; and the romances of the Middle Ages 
teem with allusions to and laudations of the wasp- 
like waists of the dames and demoiselles of the 
period. . . . Chaucer, describing the carpenter's 
wife, says her body was ' gentyll and small as a 
weasel ' ; and the depraved taste extended to Scot- 
land. Dunbar, in The Thistle and the Rose, describ- 
ing some beautiful women, observes 

" ' Their middles were as small as wands.' 

And to make their middles as small as possible has 
been ever since an unfortunate mania with the 
generality of the fair sex, to the detriment of their 
health and the distortion of their forms." 

Ever since 1602, when Felix Plater raised his 
voice against the corset, physicians have written 
against tight lacing. But not only has it been found 
impossible to cure this mania, even its causes have 
remained a mystery to the present day. Certainly 
no man can understand the problem. Is it simply 
the average woman's lack of taste that urges her 
thus to mutilate her Personal Beauty ? Is it 
the admiration of a few vulgar " mashers " and 
barber's pets since educated men detest wasp- 
waists ? Or is it simply the proverbial feminine 
craze for emulating one another and arousing envy 
by excelling in some extravagance of dress, no 

1 86 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

matter at what cost ? This last suggestion is 
probably the true solution of the problem. The 
only satisfaction a woman can get from having a 
wasp-waist is the envy of other silly women. What 
a glorious recompense for her aesthetic suicide, her 
invalidism, and her humiliating confession that she 
considers the natural shape of God's masterwork 
the female body inferior in beauty to the contours 
of the lowly wasp ! 

With this ignoble pleasure derived from the envy 
of silly women and the admiration of vulgar men, com- 
pare a few of the disadvantages resulting from tight 
lacing. They are of two kinds hygienic and aesthetic. 

Hygienic Disadvantages. Surely no woman can 
look without a shudder at a fashionable Parisian 
figure placed side by side with the Venus of Milo 
in Professor Flower's Fashion in Deformity, in 
Mrs. Haweis's Art of Beauty, or in Behnke and 
Brown's Voice, Song, and Speech ; or look without 
horror at the skeletons showing the excessive com- 
pression of the lower ribs brought about by fashionable 
lacing, and the injurious displacement, in consequence, 
of some of the most important vital organs. Nor 
can any young man who does not desire to marry 
a foredoomed invalid, and raise sickly children, 
fail to be cured for ever of his love for any wasp- 
waisted girl if he will take the trouble to read the 
account of the terrible female maladies resulting 
from lacing, given in Dr. Gaillard Thomas's famous 
treatise on the Diseases of Women, in the chapter 
on " Improprieties in Dress." To cite only one 
sentence : Women, he says, subject their waist to a 
"constriction which, in autopsy, will sometimes be 

The Waist 187 

found to have left the impress of the ribs upon the 
liver, producing depressions corresponding to them" 

Says Dr. J. J. Pope : " The German physiologist, 
Sommering, has enumerated no fewer than ninety- 
two diseases resulting from tight lacing. . . . ' But 
I do not lace tightly,' every lady is ready to answer. 
No woman ever did, if we accept her own statement. 
Yet stay. Why does your corset unclasp with a 
snap? And why do you involuntarily take a deep 
breath directly it is loosened?" Young ladies who 
imagine they do not wear too tight stays, inasmuch 
as they can still insert their hand, will find the 
fallacy and danger of this reasoning exposed in Mr. 
B. Roth's Dress : its Sanitary Aspect. 

The last line which I have italicised is of extreme 
significance. Perhaps the greatest of all evils result- 
ing from tight lacing is that it discourages or pre- 
vents deep breathing, which is so absolutely essential 
to the maintenance of health and beauty. The 
" heaving bosom " of a maiden may be a fine poetic 
expression, but it indicates that the maiden wears 
stays and breathes at the wrong (upper) end of her 
lungs. " The fact of a patient breathing in this 
manner is noted by a physician as a grave symptom, 
because it indicates mischief of a vital nature in 
lungs, heart, or other important organ." Healthy 
breathing should be chiefly costal or abdominal ; 
but this is made impossible by the corset, which 
compresses the lower ribs, till, instead of being widely 
apart below, they meet in the middle, and thus pre- 
vent the lungs from expanding and receiving the 
normal share of oxygen, the only true elixir of life, 
youth, and beauty. 

1 88 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

This wrong breathing, due to tight lacing, also 
causes " congestion of the vessels of the neck and 
throat. . . . gasping, jerking, and fatigue in in- 
spiration, and unevenness, trembling, and undue 
vibration in the production and emission of vocal 

Further, as the Lancet points out, " tight stays are 
a common cause of so-called ' weak ' spine, due to 
weakness of muscles of the back." Lacing prevents 
the abdominal muscles from exercising their natural 
functions alternate relaxation and contraction : " A 
tight-laced pair of stays acts precisely as a splint to 
the trunk, and prevents or greatly impedes the action 
of the chief back muscles, which therefore become 
weakened. The unfortunate wearer feels her spine 
weaken, thinks she wants more support, so laces 
herself still tighter ; she no doubt does get some 
support in this way, but at what a terrible cost !" 

In regard to tight corsets, as another physician 
has aptly remarked, women are like the victims of 
the opium habit, who also daily feel the need of a 
larger dose of their stimulant, every increment of 
which adds a year to their age, and brings them a 
few steps nearer disease and ugly decrepitude. 

^Esthetic Disadvantages. Among the aesthetic 
disadvantages resulting from the Wasp-waist Mania, 
the following may be mentioned, besides the loss of 
a clear, mellow, musical voice already referred to : 

(i) A stiff, inflexible waist, with a coarsely ex- 
aggerated contour, in place of the slight and subtle 
curvature so becoming to woman. In other words, 
a violation of the first law of personal aesthetics 
imposing the shape of a vulgar garment on the 

The Waist 189 

human form, instead of making the dress follow the 
outlines of the body. 

(2) A sickly, sallow complexion, pale lips, a red 
nose, lack of buoyancy, general feebleness, lassitude, 
apathy, and stupidity, resulting from the fact that the 
compression of the waist induces an oxygen-famine. 
The eyes lose their sparkle and love-inspiring magic, 
the features are perceptibly distorted, the brow is pre- 
maturely wrinkled, and the expression and temper 
are soured by the constant discomfort that has to be 
silently endured. 

(3) Ugly shoulders. A woman's shoulders should 
be sloping and well rounded, like every other part of 
her body. Regarding the common feminine deformity 
of square shoulders Drs. Brinton and Napheys re- 
mark, in their work on Personal Beauty, that " in four 
cases out of five it has been brought about by too 
close-fitting corsets, which press the shoulder-blades 
behind, and collar-bones in front, too far upwards, 
and thus ruin the appearance of the shoulders." 

(4) An ugly bust. Tight lacing " flattens and 
displaces the breasts." 

(5) Clumsiness. The corset is ruinous to grace. 
"Almost daily," says Dr. Alice B. Stockham 
(Tokology], "women come to my office [in Chicago] 
burdened with bands and heavy clothing, every vital 
organ restricted by dress. It is not unusual to count 
from sixteen to eighteen thicknesses of cloth worn 
tightly about the pliable structure of the waist." 
And Dr. Lennox Browne advances the following 
crushing argumentum ad feminam : 

" It is impossible for the stiffly-corseted girl to be 
other than inelegant and ungraceful in her move- 

1 90 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

ments. Her imprisoned waist, with its flabby 
muscles, has no chance of performing beautiful un- 
dulatory movements. In the ballroom the un- 
graceful motions of our stiff-figured ladies are bad 
enough ; there is no possibility for poetry of motion ; 
but nowhere is this more ludicrously and, to the 
thoughtful, painfully manifest than in the tennis 
court. Let any one watch the movements of ladies 
as compared with those of male players, and the 
absolute ugliness of the female figure, with its stiff, 
unyielding, deformed, round waist, will at once be 
seen. Ladies can only bend the body from the hip- 
joint. All that wonderfully contrived set of hinges, 
with their connected muscles, in the elastic column 
of the spine, is unable to act from the shoulders 
downwards ; and their figures remind one of the 
old-fashioned modern Dutch doll." 


Many women consider the corset necessary as a 
figure-improver, especially if they suffer from exces- 
sive fatness. They will be surprised to hear that 
the corset is one of the principal causes of their cor- 
pulence. Says Professor M. Williams : " There is one 
horror which no lady can bear to contemplate, viz. 
fat. What is fat ? It is an accumulation of unburnt 
body-fuse. How can we get rid of it when accumu- 
lated in excess ? Simply by burning it away this 
burning being done by means of the oxygen inhaled 
by the lungs. If, as Mr. Lennox Browne has shown, 
a lady with normal lung capacity of 125 cubic 
inches, reduces this to 78 inches by means of her 
stays, and attains 1 1 8 inches all at once on leaving 

The Waist 191 

them off, it is certain that her prospects of becoming 
fat and flabby as she advances towards middle age 
are greatly increased by tight lacing, and the conse- 
quent suppression of natural respiration." 

Thus corpulence may be put down as a sixth 
or rather seventh aesthetic disadvantage resulting 
from the use of corsets. 

The reason why women, although inferior to men 
in muscular development, have softer and rounder 
forms, is because there is a greater natural tendency 
in women than in men towards the accumulation of 
fatty tissue under the skin. The least excess of 
this adipose tissue is, however, as fatal as emaciation 
to that admiration of Personal Beauty which con- 
stitutes the essence of Love. Leanness repels the 
aesthetico- amorous sense because it obliterates the 
round contours of beauty, exposes the sinews and 
bones, and thus suggests old age and disease. Cor- 
pulence repels it because it destroys all delicacy of 
form, all grace of movement, and in its exaggerated 
forms may indeed be looked upon as a real disease 
imperatively calling for medical treatment ; as Dr. 
Oscar Maas shows most clearly and concisely in his 
pamphlet on the " Schwenninger Cure," which should 
be read by all who suffer from obesity. 

Although the very "father of medicine," Hippo- 
krates, studied the subject of corpulence, and formu- 
lated rules for curing it, doctors still disagree 
regarding some of the details of its treatment. 
Some forbid all fatty food, others prescribe it in 
small quantities, and Dr. Ebstein specially recom- 
mends fat viands and sauces as preventives ; but the 
preponderance of the best medical opinion is against 

192 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

him. Dr. Say recommends the drinking of very 
large quantities of tea, while Professor Oertel urges 
the diminution of fluids in the body, first by drinking 
little, and secondly by inducing copious perspira- 
tion, either artificially (by hot air and steam baths, 
etc.), or, what is much better, by brisk daily exer- 
cise. Dr. Schwenninger, who secured so much fame 
by reducing Bismarck's weight about 40 pounds, 
forbids the taking of liquids during or within an 
hour or two of meal-time ; in other words, he 
counsels his patients not to eat and drink at the 
same time. 

On the two most important points all authorities 
are practically agreed. They are that the patient 
must avoid food which contains large quantities ot 
starch and sugar (such as cake, pastry, potatoes, 
bread, pudding, honey, syrup, etc.); and secondly, 
that he must take as much exercise as possible in 
the open air, because during walking the bodily fat 
is consumed as fuel, to keep the machine going. 

The notorious Mr. Banting, who reduced his 
weight in a year from 202 to 150 pounds, "lived 
on beef, mutton, fish, bacon, dry toast and biscuit, 
poultry, game, tea, coffee, claret, and sherry in small 
quantities, and a night-cap of gin, whisky, brandy, or 
wine. He abstained from the following articles : 
pork, veal, salmon, eels, herrings, sugar, milk, and all 
sorts of vegetables grown underground, and nearly 
all fatty and farinaceous substances. He daily 
drank 43 ounces of liquids. On this diet he 
kept himself for seven years at 150 pounds. He 
found, what other experience confirms, that sugar 
was the most po^verful of all fattefiers " (Dr. G. M. 

The Waist 193 

Beard, in Eating and Drinking, a most entertaining 
and useful little volume). 

Lean persons wishing to increase their weight 
need only reverse the directions here given as 
regards the choice or avoidance of certain articles of 
food. Not so, however, with regard to exercise. If 
you wish to reduce your corpulence, take exercise ; 
if you wish to increase your weight, again take exer- 
cise. The apparent paradox lurking in this rule is 
easily explained. If you are too fat and walk a 
great deal, you burn up the superfluous fat and lose 
weight. If you are too lean and walk a great deal 
you increase the bulk of your muscles, and thus gain 
weight. Moreover, you greatly stimulate your 
appetite, and become able to eat larger quantities of 
sweet and starchy food more than enough to 
counteract the wear and tear caused by the exercise. 
Muscle is the plastic material of beauty. Fat 
should only be present in sufficient quantity to 
prevent the irregular outlines of the muscles from 
being too conspicuously indicated, at the expense of 
rounded smoothness. What the ancient Greeks 
thought on this subject is vividly shown in the fol- 
lowing remarks by Dr. Maas : " According to the 
unanimous testimony of Thukydides, Plato, Xeno- 
phon, the gymnastic exercises to which the Greeks 
were so passionately addicted, and which constituted, 
as is well known, a very essential part of the public 
education of the young, had for their avowed object 
the prevention of undue corpulence, since an exces- 
sive paunch did not only offend the highly-developed 
aesthetic sense of this talented nation, but was justly 
regarded as an impediment to bodily activity. In 
VOL. it. o 

194 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

order, therefore, to make the youths not only beauti- 
ful, but also vigorous and able to resist hardship, and 
thus more capable of serving their country, they were, 
from their childhood, and uninterruptedly, exercised 
daily in running, wrestling, throwing the discus, etc. ; 
so that the prevention of corpulence was practically 
raised to a formal state-maxim, and as such enforced 
occasionally with unyielding persistence." 

The ruinous consequences of an exaggerated 
abdomen to the harmonious proportions of the body, 
and to grace of attitude and gait, are so universally 
known that it would be superfluous to apply any of 
our negative tests of Beauty such as the facts that 
apes and savages are commonly characterised by 
protuberant bellies, and that intemperance and 
gluttony have the same disastrous effect on Personal 
Beauty. In civilised communities, indolence and 
beer- drinking are the chief causes predisposing to 
corpulence. In Bavaria, where enormous quantities 
of beer are consumed, almost all the men are de- 
formed by obesity ; but in other countries, as a rule, 
women suffer more from this anomaly than men, 
because they lead a less active life. 

It may be stated as a general rule that girls 
under eighteen are too slight and women over thirty 
too heavy " fat and forty." This calamity is com- 
monly looked on as one of the inevitable dispensa- 
tions of Providence, whereas it is simply a result of 
indolence and ignorance. With a little care in 
dieting, and two or three hours a day devoted to 
walking, rowing, tennis, swimming, dancing, etc., any 
young lady can add ten to fifteen pounds to her 
weight in one summer, or reduce it by that amount, 

The Waist 195 

as may be desired. But as the consumption of 
enormous quantities of fresh air by the unimprisoned 
lungs is the absolute condition of success in this 
beautifying process, it is useless to attempt it without 
laying aside the corset. 

The plea that corsets are needed to hold up the 
heavy clothing is of no moment. Women, like 
men, should wear their clothing suspended from the 
shoulder, which is a great deal more conducive to 
health, comfort, and gracefulness than the clumsy 
fashion of attaching everything to the waist. 

Still less weight can be attached to the monstrous 
argument that women need stays for support. What 
an insulting proposition to assert that civilised 
woman is so imperfectly constructed that she alone 
of all created beings needs artificial surgical support 
to keep her body in position ! If there are any 
women so very corpulent or so very lean that they 
need a corset as a figure-improver or a support, then 
let them have it for heaven's sake, and look upon 
themselves as subjects ripe for medical treatment. 
What is objected to here is that strong, healthy, 
well-shaped girls should deform themselves deliber- 
ately by wearing tight, unshapely corsets, rankly 
offensive to the aesthetic sense. 


Once more the question must be asked, " Why 
do women wear such hideous things as crinolines, 
bustles, and corsets, so universally abhorred by 
men ?" Is it because they are inferior to men in 
aesthetic taste ? Is Schopenhauer right when he 
says that " women are and remain, on the whole, 

196 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

the most absolute and incurable Philistines ?" They 
are deficient in objectivity, he adds : " hence they 
have no real intelligence or appreciation for music 
or poetry, or the plastic arts ; and if they make any 
pretences of this sort, it is only apish affectation to 
gratify their vanity. Hence it would be more correct 
to call them the unasthetic than the beautiful sex." 

The pessimistic woman-hater no doubt ex- 
aggerates. Yet without alluding to the paucity 
of women who have distinguished themselves in the 
fine arts is it credible that the average woman 
would so readily submit to a repulsive fashion like 
the bustle, or a hat " adorned " with the corpse of 
a murdered bird, if she had even a trace of aesthetic 
feeling? If women had the refined aesthetic taste 
with which they are commonly credited, is it con- 
ceivable that they would voluntarily adopt the 
African bustle, because fashionable, in preference 
to a more becoming style ? Have you ever heard 
that a person of acknowledged musical taste, for 
example, gave up his violin or piano to learn the 
African banjo, because that happened to be the 
fashionable instrument ? 

Yet there are, no doubt, many women whose eyes 
even custom cannot blind to the hideousness of most 
Parisian fashions. But they have not the courage 
to show their superior taste in their dresses, being 
overawed and paralysed in presence of a monstrous 
idol, the Fashion Fetish. 

Never has a stone image, consecrated by cunning 
priests, exercised a more magic influence on a super- 
stitious heathen's mind than the invisible Fashion 
Fetish on the modern feminine intellect. It is both 

The Waist 197 

amusing and pathetic to hear a woman exclaim : 
" Our women are most blind and thoughtless fol- 
lowers of fashions still imposed upon them, Heaven 
knows wherefore and by whom " (Mrs. Haweis). 

So great is the awe in which this Fetish is held 
that no one has yet dared to lay violent hands on it. 
Yet if we now knock it on the head, we shall find 
it hollow inside ; and the fragments, subjected to 
chemical analysis, show that they consist of the 
following five elements : 

(1) Vulgar Display of Wealth. A certain number 
of rich people, being unable to distinguish themselves 
from poorer mortals in any other way, make a parade 
of their money by constantly introducing changes in 
the fashion of their apparel which those who have 
less income are unable to adopt at once. This, and 
not the love of novelty, is the real cause of the minute 
variations in styles constantly introduced. Of course 
it is generally understood that to boast of your wealth 
is as vulgar as to boast of your wit or wisdom ; but 
this makes no difference, for Fashion in its very 
essence is vulgar. 

(2) Milliners' Cunning. Milliners grow fat on 
fashionable extravagance. Hence it is the one 
object of their life to encourage this extravagance. 
So they constantly invent new styles, to prevent 
women from wearing the same dress more than one 
season. And every customer is slyly flattered into 
the belief that nothing was ever so becoming to her 
as the latest style, though it probably makes her 
look like a fright. As a little flattery goes a great 
way with most women, the milliner's hypocrisy 
escapes detection. " The persons who devise fashions 

198 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

are not artists in the best sense of the word, nor are 
they persons of culture or taste," as Mr. E. L. 
Godkin remarks : " their business is not to provide 
beautiful costumes but new ones." 

It is to such scheming and unscrupulous artisans 
that women entrust the care of their personal ap- 
pearance. And they will continue doing so until 
they are more generally taught the elements of the 
fine arts and a love of beauty in Nature. 

To make sure of a rich harvest, milliners, when a 
new fashion has appeared, manufacture all their goods 
in that style, so that it is almost impossible to buy 
any others, all of which are declared "bad form." 
And their poor victims meekly submit to this tyranny! 

(3) Tyranny of the Ugly Majority. This is 
another form of tyranny from which ladies suffer. 
Most women are ugly and ungraceful, and resent 
the contrast which beautiful women, naturally and 
becomingly attired, would present to their own 
persons : hence they favour the crinolette, the bustle, 
the corset, the long, trailing dresses, the sleeve-puffs 
at the shoulders, etc., because such fashionable devices 
make all women look equally ugly and ungraceful. 

Mrs. Armytage throws light on the origin of 
some absurd fashions when she refers to the cases 
of " the patches first applied to hide an ugly wen" ; 
of cushions carried to equalise strangely-deformed 
hips ; of long skirts to cover ugly feet ; and long 
shoes to hide an excrescence on the toe." 

Surely it is sufficient to expose the origin of such 
fashions to make sensible women turn away from 
them in disgust. There are indeed indications that 
the handsome women have at last begun to find out 

The Waist 199 

the trick which the ugly majority have been playing 
on them ; and many are now dressing in such a way 
as to show their personal beauty to advantage, un- 
daunted by the fact that ugly women pretend to be 
shocked at short dresses which allow a pretty ankle 
to be seen, and jerseys which reveal the outlines of 
a beautiful bust and waist. 

(4) Cowardice. Many women adopt a fashion 
which they dislike simply because they do not dare 
to face the remark of a rival that they are not 
in fashion. As one of them frankly confesses : 
" We women dress not to be simple, genuine, and 
harmonious, or even to please you men, but to 
brave each other's criticism? A noble motive, truly ! 

One is often tempted to doubt the old saying 
that the first desire of women is to be considered 
beautiful, on observing how ready they are to sacri- 
fice fifty per cent or more of their beauty for the sake 
of being in fashion. Last summer, for instance, the 
edict seems to have gone forth that the hair was no 
longer to be allowed to form a graceful fringe over 
the forehead, but was to be combed back tightly. 
So back it was combed, and beautiful faces became 
rarer than ever. Leigh Hunt had written in vain 
that the hair should be brought over large bare fore- 
heads " as vines are trailed over a wall." Th^ophile 
Gautier, " the most perfect poet in respect of poetical 
form that France has ever produced " (Saintsbury), 
agreed with Schopenhauer regarding woman's aesthetic 
sense : " Women," he says, " have only the sense of 
fashion and not that of beauty. A woman will 
always find beautiful the most abominable fashion if 
it is the genre supreme to wear that style." He 

2oo Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

commends the women of Granada for their good 
taste in preferring their lovely mantillas to the 
hideous French hats, and hopes Spain may never 
be invaded by French fashions and milliners. 

(5) Sheepishness. It may seem ungallant to apply 
this term to the conduct of a woman who imitates 
the habits of a sheep ; but, after all, which is the 
more gallant action : to applaud a woman's self- 
chosen ugliness, or, at least, to ignore it for fear of 
offending her ; or, on the other hand, to restore her 
beauty by boldly holding up the mirror and allowing 
her to see herself as others see her ? It is the nature 
of a flock of sheep to jump into the sea without a 
moment's hesitation if their leader does so. It is 
the nature of fashionable women to commit aesthetic 
suicide if their leader sets the example. Where is 
the difference? 

It is surprising that Darwin did not refer to 
Fashion as furnishing a most convincing proof of 
his theory that men are descended from apelike 
ancestors. One of the ape's most conspicuous traits 
is imitativeness blind, silly, slavish imitation : hence 
the verb "to ape." Blind, silly, slavish imitation is 
also the essence of Fashion. Imitativeness implies 
a low order of mind, a lack of originality. The 
more a man is intellectually removed from the ape, 
the less is he inclined to imitate blindly. Men of 
genius are a law unto themselves, while inferior 
minds can only re-echo or plagiarise. Just so the 
prevalent anxiety to be in fashion is a tacit confes- 
sion of mental inferiority, of insufficient independence 
of taste and originality to choose a style suited to 
one's individual requirements. 

The Waist 201 


Fashion is a deadly enemy of Romantic Love, not 
only because it makes women sacrifice their Beauty to 
unhealthful garments and habits, but because it oblit- 
erates individuality, on which the ardour of Love de- 
pends. " Why don't girls marry?" asks Mrs. Haweis. 
" Because the press is great, and girls are undistinguish- 
able in the crowd. The distinguishable ones marry 
those who are beautiful or magnetic in some way, 
whose characters have some definite colouring, and 
who can make their individuality felt. I would have 
said' who can make themselves in any way conspicu- 
ous, but that the word has been too long associated with 
an undesirable prominence. Yet after all, prominence 
is the thing needed prominence of character, or in- 
dividuality. Men, so to speak, pitch upon the girls they 
can see : those who are completely negative, unnotice- 
able, colourless, formless, invisible, are left behind." 

Women, in their eagerness to sacrifice their in- 
dividuality to Fashion, forget that fashion leaders are 
never in fashion, i.e. that they always adopt a new 
style as soon as the crowd has aped them : where- 
fore it is doubly silly to join the apes. 

Mile. Sarah Bernhardt never allows a corset to 
deform her figure and mar her movements : and who 
has not had occasion to admire the inimitable grace 
of this actress ? But how many women have the 
courage thus to sacrifice Fashion to Grace and 
Beauty ? 

Yet, notwithstanding the continuance of the 
corset and the bustle mania and Parisian hats, it 
may be asserted that women are just at present 

2O2 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

more sensibly dressed than they have been for some 
generations, and there is some disposition to listen to 
the artistic and hygienic advice of reformers. Un- 
fortunately, the history of Fashion does not tend to 
confirm any optimistic hopes that may be based on 
this fact. There have been periods heretofore when 
women became comparatively sensible, only to re- 
lapse again into utter barbarism. Thus we read 
that " after the straight gown came the fardingale, 
which in turn developed into the hoop with its con- 
comitants of patches, paint, and high-heeled shoes." 
Then came the reaction : " Short waists and limp, 
clinging draperies came in to expose every contour ; 
stays and corsets were for a time discredited, only 
to be reintroduced, and with them the whole cycle 
of fashions which had once already had their day." 

Experience shows that argumentation, ridicule, 
malicious or good-natured, and satire, are equally 
powerless against Fashion. Progress can only be 
hoped for in two ways by instructing women in 
the elementary laws of beauty in nature and man- 
kind, and by destroying the superstitious halo around 
the word Fashion. It has just been shown that a 
disposition to imitate a fashion set by others is 
always a sign of inferior intellect and rudimentary 
taste ; and the time no doubt will come when 
this fact will be generally recognised, and when it 
will be considered anything but a compliment to 
have it said that one follows the flock of fashionable 

The progress of democratic institutions and senti- 
ments will aid in emancipating women from the 
slavery of Fashion. Empresses who can set the 

The Waist 203 

fashion for two continents are becoming scarce ; 
and the woman of the future will no doubt open 
her eyes wide in astonishment on reading that in 
the nineteenth century most women allowed some 
mysterious personage to prescribe what they should 
wear. " Can it be possible" she will exclaim, " that 
my poor dear grandmothers did not know that 
what is food for one person is poison for another, 
and that any fashion universally followed means 
aesthetic suicide for nine-tenths of the women who 
adopt it ? / am my own fashion-leader, and wear 
only what is becoming to my individual style of 
beauty. What a preposterous notion to proclaim 
that any particular colour or cut is to be exclusively 
fashionable this year for all women, for blondes and 
brunettes, for the tall and the short, the stout and 
the slim alike ! What could have induced those 
women thus to annihilate their own beauty deliber- 
ately ? And not only their beauty, but their 
comfort as well. For I see that in New York, 
Fashion used to decree that women must ex- 
change their light, comfortable summer clothes for 
heavier autumn fabrics exactly in the middle of Sep- 
tember, although the last two weeks of September 
are often the hottest part of the year. And the 
women, almost without exception, obeyed this decree 1 
" And then those long trailing dresses ! How 
they must have added to their ease and grace of 
movement in the ballroom, tucked up clumsily or 
held in the hand ! And it seems that these trails 
were even worn in the dirty streets, for I see that 
at one time the Dresden authorities forbade women 
to sweep the streets with their dresses ; and in one 

204 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

of Mr. Ruskin's works I find this advice to girls : 
' Your walking dress must never touch the ground at 
all. I have lost much of the faith I once had in 
the common sense, and even in the personal delicacy, 
of the present race of average English women, by 
seeing how they will allow their dresses to sweep the 
streets if it is the fashion to be scavengers' " 


In his emancipation from Fashion man has made 
much more progress than woman. There is still 
a considerable number of shallow -brained young 
" society men " who naively and minutely accept the 
slight variations introduced every year in the cut 
and style of cravats, shirts, and evening -dress by 
cunning tailors, in order to compel men to throw 
away last season's suits and order new ones. But 
much larger is the number of men who disregard 
such innovations, and laugh at the silly persons 
who meekly accept them, even when their taste 
is offended by such new fashions as the hideous 
collars and hats with which the market is occasionally 

There was a time when men spent as much time 
and money on dress in a week as they now do in a 
year ; a time when men were as strictly ruled by 
capricious, cunning Fashion as women are to-day. 
Lord March, we read, " laid a wager that he would 
make fashionable the most humiliating dress he 
could think of. Accordingly, he wore a blue coat 
with crimson collar and cuffs a livery, and not a 
tasteful livery but he won his bet." After the 
battle of Agincourt, it is said, "the Due de Bourbon, 

The Waist 205 

in order to ransom King John, sold his overcoat to 
a London Jew, who gave no more than its value, 
we may be pretty sure, but nevertheless gave 5200 
crowns of gold for it. It seems to have been a mass 
of the most precious gems." The Duke of Bucking- 
ham " had twenty-seven suits of clothes made, the 
richest that embroidery, lace, silk, velvet, silver, 
gold, and gems could contribute ; one of which 
was a white uncut velvet, set all over, both suit and 
cloak, with diamonds valued at fourscore thousand 
pounds, besides a great feather stuck all over with 
diamonds, as were also his sword, girdle, hat, and 

Mr. Spencer cites two amusing instances of 
masculine subjection to fashion in Africa and 
mediaeval Europe. Among the Darfurs in Africa, 
" If the sultan, being on horseback, happens to 
fall off, all his followers must fall off likewise ; 
and should any one omit this formality, however 
great he may be, he is laid down and beaten." 
"In 1461, Duke Philip of Burgundy, having had 
his hair cut during an illness, issued an edict that 
all the nobles of his states should be shorn also. 
More than five hundred persons sacrificed their 

So far as men are still subject to the in- 
fluence of ugly fashions, they differ from women 
in at least frankly acknowledging the ugliness of 
these fashions. Whereas most women admire, or 
pretend to admire, corsets, high -heeled boots, crino- 
lettes, bustles, etc., there are few men who do not 
detest e.g. the unshapely, baggy trousers, which 
were so greatly abhorred by the aesthetic sense of 

206 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

the ancient Greeks ; and most men to-day (except 
those who have ugly legs) would gladly wear 
knee-breeches, if they could do so without making 
themselves too conspicuous. Herein lies the 
greatest impediment to dress reform. To make 
oneself very conspicuous is justly considered a 
breach of good manners ; and few have the courage, 
like Mr. Oscar Wilde, to make martyrs and butts 
of ridicule of themselves. 

But if individuals are comparatively powerless, 
clubs of acknowledged standing might make them- 
selves very useful to the cause of Personal Beauty, 
as affected by dress, if they would vote to adopt in 
a body certain reforms as regards trousers, hats, and 
evening-dress. Then it would no longer be said of 
a man rationally dressed that he is eccentric, but 

that he belongs to the X Club ; and many 

outsiders would immediately follow suit for the 
coveted distinction of being taken for members of 
that club. Thus both the wise and the foolish 
would be gratified. 

As showing how invariably and consistently 
Fashion is the handmaid of ugliness, it is curious 
to note that the several styles of dress worn by 
men are fashionable in proportion to their ugliness. 
For the greatest occasions the swallow-tail or even- 
ing-dress is prescribed. Next in rank is the 
ugly frock coat, for morning calls. Of late, it is 
true, the more becoming "cut-away" has been 
tolerated in place of the frock coat ; but the 
sack-coat, which alone follows the natural outlines 
of the body, and neither has a caudal appendage, 
like the evening -dress, nor, like the frock coat, 

The Waist 207 

gives the impression that a man's waist extends 
down to his knees, is altogether tabooed at social 
gatherings, except those of the most informal kind. 

Man's evening-dress is so uniquely unaesthetic 
and ugly that fashionable women have of course 
long been eyeing it with envy, and have gradually 
adopted some of its features. One of these is the 
chimney-pot hat, the cause of so much premature 
baldness and discomfort. But women are not quite 
so foolish as men in this matter ; for they do not 
wear tall hats at evening-parties and the opera, but 
only when out riding, where the necessity of dodging 
about to keep them on against the force of the 
wind and the blows of overhanging boughs, compels 
them to go through all sorts of grotesque gymnastics 
with neck and head. If they wore a more rational 
and becoming head-dress on horseback they might 
easily look pretty and graceful, which would be 
fatal to their chances of being considered fashion- 

In comparing masculine and feminine fashions, 
we must note that trousers and swallow-tailed coats, 
though ugly, are harmless ; while high-heeled shoes, 
corsets, chignons, etc., are as fatal to health as to 
Personal Beauty. 

It is sometimes claimed in behalf of Fashion that, 
though it often favours ugliness, it establishes a rule 
and model for all ; whereas, if everything were left 
to individual taste, the result might be still more 
disastrous. Nonsense. Rare as good taste is among 
women, a modicum is commonly present ; and there 
are extremely few who, if not overawed by the 
Fashion Fetish, would ever invent or adopt such 

2o8 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

hideous irrepressible monstrosities as bustles, crino- 
lines, chignons, trailing dresses, Chinese boots, bird- 
corpse hats, etc. 

A protest must, finally, be made against the 
horrible figures which in our fashion papers are 
constantly offered as models of style and appearance. 
Even in the best of them, such as Harper's Bazar, 
which frequently points out the injuriousness of 
tight lacing, female figures are printed every week 
with hideously narrow waists, such as no woman 
could possibly possess unless she were in the last 
stages of consumption, or some other wasting disease. 



Burke, in his chapter on " Gradual Variation " as 
a characteristic of Beauty, begs us to " observe that 
part of a beautiful woman where she is perhaps the 
most beautiful, about the neck and breasts ; the 
smoothness, the softness, the easy and insensible 
swell ; the variety of the surface, which is never for 
the smallest space the same ; the deceitful maze 
through which the unsteady eye slides giddily, without 
knowing where to fix, or whither it is carried. Is 
not this a demonstration of that change of surface, 
continual, and yet hardly perceptible at any point, 
which forms one of the greatest constituents of 
beauty ? " 

There is reason to believe that the beautifully- 
rounded form of the female bosom is a result of 
aesthetico- sexual selection ; for primitive human 
tribes resemble in this respect the lower animals. 

Chest and Bosom 209 

Says the famous anatomist Hyrtl : " It is only 
among the white and yellow races that the breasts, in 
their compact virginal condition, have a hemispheric 
form, while those of negresses of a corresponding 
age and physique are more elongated, pointed, 
turned outwards and downwards ; in a word, more 
like the teats of animals." Even the Arabian poets 
sing of the charms of a goatlike breast. In the 
Soudan older women, when at work, sometimes 
throw their breasts over the shoulder to prevent 
them from being in the way ; and " the women of 
the Basutos, a Kaffir tribe, carry their children on 
the back, and pass the breast to them under the 

It is a very interesting and important fact that 
not only do we find more beauty among the higher 
than among the lower races of mankind, but the 
superior beauty of civilised races is also of a more 
permanent kind. This truth is admirably illustrated 
in the following remarks by Dr. Peschuel Lceschke : 
The breasts of the Loango negress, he says, 
"approach the conic rather than the hemispheric 
form ; they often have a too small and insufficiently 
gradated basis, and in rare extreme cases have 
almost the appearance of teats, besides being 
unequally developed. Breasts of such a shape are 
naturally much more easily affected by the law of 
gravitation, and soon become changed into the 
pendent bags which we find so ugly, especially 
among Africans, although they also occur among 
other tribes, and are not unknown among civilised 
peoples. The superior form, with a broad basis, is 
naturally the more enduring, and remains in many 


2 1 o Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

cases an ornament of women of a more advanced 

Savages and Orientals, being deficient in aesthe- 
tic taste, admire an excessively -developed bust. 
Europeans, on the other hand, long ago recognised 
the connection between such a bust and clumsy, 
unhealthy corpulence, suggesting advanced age. The 
same appears to have been true of the most refined 
nations of antiquity. Says Professor Kollmann : 
"The ancient as well as the modern inhabitants of 
the Nile region appear, in the majority of cases, like 
those of India, to possess hemispheric breasts, for 
neither in the sphinxes or other superhuman beings, 
nor in the images of human beauties, do we come 
across pointed breasts. . . . The Romans did not 
consider large bosoms a mark of beauty. Among 
European women the Portuguese are said to have the 
largest busts, the Castilians the smallest. To judge 
by Rubens's nude figures, the Netherland women 
appear to rival the Portuguese in exuberant bosoms." 
In Greek works of art, says Winckelmann, " the 
breast or bosom of female figures is never exuberant." 
" Among ideal figures, the Amazons alone have 
large and fully-developed breasts." " The form of 
the breasts in the figures of divinities is virginal in 
the extreme, since their beauty was made to consist 
in the moderateness of their size. A stone, found 
in the Island of Naxos, was smoothly polished and 
placed upon them for the purpose of repressing an 
undue development." 

Modern Fashion, for a wonder, endorses the 
Greek standard of beauty as regards a moderately- 
developed bust. But it was not always thus. It 

Chest and Bosom 211 

is Fashion that induces some savages whose breasts 
are naturally long and hanging to use bandages 
which make them still more hanging and elongated 
in form. In Spain, during the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth century, and in other parts of Europe, on the 
contrary, Fashion prescribed flat chests. Plates of 
lead were tied on the breasts of young girls with 
such force that sometimes the natural form was re- 
placed by an actual depression where "love's pillows" 
should have been. In some parts of South Germany 
and the Tyrol a similar fashion prevails to the pre- 
sent day among the lower classes, the result being 
not only a sacrifice of beauty, but a great mortality 
among the children, that have to be reared artificially 
in consequence of it. 

But if modern Fashion has a correct standard of 
taste in this matter, it nevertheless encourages prac- 
tices which lead to as disastrous results as the Spanish 
fashions of three centuries ago. " The horrible 
custom of wearing pads," says the author of the 
Ugly Girl Papers, " is the ruin of natural figures, by 
heating and pressing down the bosom. ... A low, 
deep bosom, rather than a bold one, is a sign of 
grace in a full-grown woman, and a full bust is 
hardly admirable in an unmarried girl. Her figure 
should be all curves, but slender, promising a fuller 
beauty when maturity is reached. One is not fond 
of over-ripe pears. . . . Due attention to the general 
laws of health always has its effect in restoring the 
bust to its roundness. . . . Weakness of any kind 
affects the contour of the figure, and it is useless to 
try to improve it in any other way than by restoring 
the strength where it is wanting." 

212 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

The same author, whose book is brimful of use- 
ful advice, not only to " ugly girls," but to those 
who have beauty and wish to preserve it, also re- 
commends battledore, swinging the skipping - rope 
over the shoulder, swinging by the hand from a 
rope, as well as playing ball, " bean bags," pillow 
fights, and especially daily vocal exercises, with 
corset off and lungs deeply inflated as excellent 
means of improving the bust. 

If women could be made to realise how rarely 
they succeed, even with the aid of the cleverest 
milliner, in counterfeiting a properly developed 
chest, they would, perhaps, be more willing to 
submit to the exercise or regimen requisite for the 
acquirement and preservation of Personal Beauty. 
Flat chests are a consequence of insufficient mus- 
cular exercise, insufficient fresh air, and insuffi- 
cient food. The main reason why the majority 
of girls in the world are over- delicate and fragile 
is because they do not get enough properly - 
cooked food in which fat is introduced in such a 
way as to be palatable and digestible. The adi- 
pose layer between the skin and the muscles con- 
tributes so much to the undulating roundness of 
contour peculiar to feminine beauty, that Kollmann 
places it among the differentiating sexual charac- 

Too exuberant busts, on the other hand, are the 
result of too much indulgence in fattening food, 
combined with lack of exercise in the open air, 
which would consume the fat. Maternity, with 
proper hygienic precautions, is never fatal to a 
fine bust. 

Chest and Bosom 2 1 3 

That savages, like their civilised brethren and 
sisters, owe their deformed chests entirely to their 
indolence and neglect of the laws of health, is shown 
by the fact that there are notable exceptions 
energetic tribes living healthy lives, and therefore 
blessed with beautiful figures. Thus Mr. A. R. 
Wallace tells us regarding some of the Amazon 
valley Indians that "their figures are generally 
superb ; and I have never felt so much pleasure in 
gazing at the finest statue as at these living illus- 
trations of the beauty of the human form. The 
development of the bust is such as I believe never 
exists in the best-formed European, exhibiting a 
splendid series of convex undulations ; without a 
hollow in any part of it" And what he says in 
another place regarding a neighbouring tribe ex- 
plains the secret of this Beauty : " Though some of 
them were too fat, most of them had splendid figures, 
and many of them were very pretty. Before day- 
light in the morning all were astir and came to the 
river to wash. It is the chilliest hour of the twenty- 
four, and when we were wrapping our sheet or 
blanket more closely around us, we could hear the 
plunges and splashings of these early bathers. Rain 
or wind is all alike to them : their morning bath is 
never dispensed with." 


Winckelmann remarks that, among the ancient 
Greeks, " a proudly-arched chest was regarded as a 
universal attribute of beauty in male figures. The 
father of the poets describes Neptune with such a 
chest, and Agamemnon as resembling him ; and 

214 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

such a one Anakreon desired to see in the image 
of the youth whom he loved." 

"A prominent, arched chest," says Professor 
Kollmann, " is an infallible sign of a vigorous, 
healthy skeleton ; whereas a narrow, fiat, and, still 
more, a bent thorax is a physical index of bodily 
weakness and inherited decrepitude. An arched 
chest imparts to a man's whole figure an aspect 
of physical perfection, not to say sublimity, as may 
be seen in the ancient statues of gods, in which 
the chest is intentionally made more prominent 
than it ever can be in a man, presumably in 
order to weaken the impression of the chest's 
more animal neighbour, the abdomen. There is a 
deep meaning in our phraseology which localises 
courage, boldness, martial valour, in a man's vigor- 
ous breast." 

I have italicised several words in this quotation, 
because they tersely show how writers on art are 
guided both by the positive and negative tests of 
Beauty formulated in another part of this volume. 


Indolence is the mother of ugliness. No one 
who realises the absolute necessity to Health of a 
sufficient supply of fresh air can wonder at the 
rarity of Beauty in the world, if he considers that 
nineteen people out of every twenty are too lazy to 
breathe properly. 

It is estimated that there are from 75 to 100 
cubic inches of air which always remain in a man's 
lungs. About an equal amount of " supplemental " 
air remains after an ordinary expiration ; and only 

Chest and Bosom 2 i 5 

20 to 30 inches of what Professor Huxley calls 
"tidal air" passes in and out. But this "tidal air" 
can be largely increased in amount by the habit of 
breathing deeply and slowly, whereby an additional 
supply of oxygen is supplied to the lungs, which is 
a thousand times better for the health than quinine, 
iron pills, or any other tonic. There are few persons 
whose health and personal appearance would not be 
improved vastly if they would take several daily 
meals of fresh air consisting of 20-50 deep in- 
spirations in a park or some other place where the 
air is pure and bracing. Slowly inhale as much air 
as you can get into the lungs without discomfort 
(avoiding a strain), and then exhale again just as 
slowly. After a while the habit will be formed of 
constantly breathing more deeply than formerly, both 
awake and asleep ; thus bringing into regular use a 
larger part of the lungs' surface. It is the slight 
sense of fatigue at first accompanying deep breath- 
ing which prevents most people from enjoying its 
benefits ; but when once this natural indolence is 
overcome the reward of deep breathing is analogous 
to 'the delicious exhilaration which follows a brisk 
walk or a cold bath. 

It is important to note that all breathing, whether 
deep or ordinary, should be done through the nose, 
as thus the air is warmed before it reaches the 
delicate lungs, and the mucous membranes remain 
moist, thus preventing those disagreeable enemies 
of refreshing sleep a dry mouth and snoring. 

Habitual deep breathing adds to Personal Beauty 
not only by exercising the muscles of the chest, 
which thus becomes more arched and prominent 

216 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

relatively to the abdomen, but also by throwing 
back the neck and head and compelling the whole 
body to assume a straight, military attitude. We 
are all taught as children, says Professor Kollmann, 
to hold ourselves straight ; but rarely is the informa- 
tion added that the best way to secure an erect, 
manly bearing and a dignified gait is by cultivating 
the habit of deep breathing. " It is worthy ot 
notice that forcible breathing, such as results from 
a correct bearing, from prolonged sojourn and ex- 
ercise in the open air, in hunting, gymnastic exercises, 
riding, etc., not only increases the chest for the 
moment, but permanently. . . . There are proofs 
in abundance that even with young persons of 
eighteen to twenty years, the whole circumference 
of the chest is capable of considerable widening 
under such circumstances." 

A medical writer, referring to the fact that 
children frequently become round-shouldered from 
sitting for hours and bending over a desk, makes 
these very sensible suggestions : 

" In the first place, the lungs should be fully 
expanded by drawing in all the air that is possible ; 
this process will be aided by throwing the shoulders 
well back, and you should encourage your children 
to do this frequently in the open air when going to 
and coming from school. Children are easily bribed, 
and we would suggest to school teachers a simple 
and effective way of accomplishing this desirable 
end. This forcible expansion of the lungs will 
enlarge the chest and increase its circumference. 
Then let the teacher, at the beginning of the session, 
measure each child's chest and record the circumfer- 

Chest and Bosom 2 1 7 

ence, then explain and demonstrate to them how to 
forcibly fill the lungs, and offer a premium at the end 
of the session to the child who shall have most 
increased the circumference of his chest ; make it 
worth their while to expand their lungs, as much so 
as we now do for them to expand their minds, and 
the result will be wonderful." 


An eminent authority on the physiology of the 
vocal organs, Dr. Lennox Browne, remarks (in Voice, 
Song, and Speech} that " respiratory exercises, and 
subsequently lessons in reading, reciting, and singing, 
are oftentimes of the greatest use in strengthening 
a weak chest ; and, indeed, it is not too much to 
say, in arresting consumption." Another excellent 
authority, Mr. A. B. Bach, points out (in his Musical 
Education and Vocal Culture, which should be con- 
sulted by all who wish to learn the art of Deep 
Breathing) that " very few vocalists die of consump- 
tion," owing to the fact that they properly exercise 
their lungs and chests. 

This brings us face to face with a moral question 
of enormous importance, to which writers on ethics 
have by no means as yet given the attention it 
loudly clamours for. Consumption, we read, " is a 
disease of great frequency and severity, which, in the 
civilised nations of Europe, produces from one-sixth 
to one-tenth of the total mortality, in ordinary times." 
Now if, as we have just seen, consumption can be 
arrested and cured by proper exercise of the lungs 
and chest in pure air, does it not follow that the 
neglect of such exercises makes certain parties 

2 1 8 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

criminally responsible for the greater number of 
deaths from consumption ? It is " proved by care- 
ful inquiries that the workshops of tailors, printers, 
and other businesses carried on in close, ill-ventilated 
apartments, by large numbers of workmen, are, in 
a very aggravated sense, nurseries of consumption. 
Cotton and linen factories have also been shown, 
when ill-regulated, to be largely responsible for the 
death of their inmates from this disease." 

Why should not the owners of factories who 
refuse to ventilate their buildings be held respon- 
sible for the ill-health, the early decrepitude and 
death of many of the workers, and the workers' 
weakly, consumptive children who die young ? As 
England alone has over three hundred thousand 
women engaged in cotton manufacture, the amount 
of ill-health, early senility, ugliness, consumption, etc., 
bred by criminal neglect of hygienic precautions, 
is appalling to the imagination. A case was men- 
tioned in the American papers a few years ago, 
where the windows in a factory were nailed fast 
to prevent the poor, suffocating girls from open- 
ing them. And, strange to say, the owner of 
that factory was not immediately lynched. Surely, 
if ever a monster deserved to be hanged to the 
nearest tree, it was the man who ordered those 
windows to be nailed down. 

But factory owners are by no means the only 
persons who are thus responsible for indirect man- 
slaughter by foul-air poisoning. Thousands of loving 
mothers and fathers blaspheme their Creator in 
attributing the early death of their children to a 
" dispensation of Providence," when the plain truth, 

Neck and Shoulder 2 1 9 

brutally expressed, is that they killed them with the 
poisoned air, indigestible food, and insufficient exer- 
cise that brought on the fatal consumption. To 
say that the disease was hereditary is only to shift 
the hygienic crime on to the shoulders of the grand- 

In human courts of justice ignorance of the law 
is not considered an excuse for the commission of 
crime. If the same principle holds true in some 
future world where human actions will be judged, 
what terrible indictments will be brought against 
some parents for crimes committed against the 
health and life of their children and grandchildren, 
for neglecting to learn the laws of health, as laid 
down in physiological and hygienic textbooks ! 

Inasmuch as Personal Beauty is the flower and 
symbol of perfect Health, it might be shown, by 
following out this argument, that iigliness is a sin> 
and man's first duty the cultivation of Beauty. 


Nowhere are the aesthetic laws of Gradation and 
gentle Curvature more beautifully illustrated than 
in the neck the column of the head. Note how 
a lovely woman's neck repeats on a small scale the 
delicate contours of the trunk widened at the base 
and at the top, with a subtle inward slope towards 
the middle. Note, also, how imperceptibly it passes 
into the shoulders, which continue the gentle curve 
in a downward slope, unless prevented by the deform- 
ing corset. 

Man's neck is less cylindrical than woman's, and 

22O Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

presents four slightly flattened surfaces ; while his 
shoulders are not sloping, but square. We not only 
pardon, but even admire and demand this conforma- 
tion in man ; because in judging masculine beauty 
we are guided by dynamic as much as by aesthetic 
considerations, while the fair sex is judged by the 
laws of beauty alone. A masculine neck is in good 
form if it shows traces of the sinews and muscles 
which give it strength ; but in a woman's neck the 
feminine adipose layer under the skin must obliter- 
ate all such traces of masculinity, -especially the 
bones at the junction of neck and breast, the pro- 
minence of which suggests emaciation and disease. 

In the face of such considerations, how can any 
one maintain that man is more beautiful than 
woman ? He may show more character, more 
individuality, more originality than a fine woman, 
but more beauty never. And the fact that in 
Sexual Selection women have always been chiefly 
guided by dynamic considerations i.e. vigour, bold- 
ness, " manliness " whereas men have been fascinated 
by beauty alone, explains why, as Schopenhauer asserts, 
women are the " unaesthetic sex," and why their taste 
for Personal Beauty, not being exercised, like that of 
man, in the selection of a mate, is so lamentably 
callous to the deformities resulting from corsets and 
other instruments of torture. 

The neck being the pivot on which the head 
executes its movements, it is evident that it requires 
attention from the point of view of Grace as well as 
of Beauty. To how many women has it ever 
occurred that as the feet are taught to dance lithely, 
the arms to execute eloquent gestures, so the neck 

Arm and Hand 2 2 i 

should be trained to naturally assume graceful 
attitudes ? Great paintings and famous actresses 
should be studied from this point of view. Always 
bear in mind that grace of movement often excels 
beauty of form in the power of inspiring Romantic 
Love. And remember that any pains you take to 
acquire grace will not only multiply your own 
charms, but will establish a habit of graceful move- 
ment in your muscles which will be inherited by 
your children. It is owing to this circumstance 
that the children of truly refined families are born 
with an ease, grace, and dignity of movement 
and mien which it is impossible for " self-made " 
persons to acquire in a lifetime, because they are 
not born with an inherited talent for graceful move- 



One of the redeeming features of what is ironi- 
cally called " full-dress " is the opportunity it gives 
of admiring a woman's shapely neck, shoulders, and 
arms if she has such. No healthy woman of the 
well-to-do classes need have an ill-favoured arm if 
she has a sensible mother, who compels her from her 
childhood to exercise her muscles. The great pre- 
ponderance of leathery, angular, bony arms at ball- 
rooms shows, therefore, how shamefully the hygienic 
arts of personal adornment are neglected in our best 
society. The stifling heat which commonly prevails 
at social gatherings suggests the thought that many 
ladies are indifferent to the display of their bony 

222 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

arms on the grounds given in Sydney Smith's ex- 
clamation : " Heat, ma'am ! it was so dreadful here 
that I found there was nothing left for it but to take 
off my flesh and sit in my bones." 

A meagre, skinny arm is objectionable not only 
because it offends against all the conditions of 
Beauty plump roundness, softness, fresh colour, 
smoothness, gradual tapering to the wrist but be- 
cause it is associated with the aspect of old age and 
disease ; and again, because it suggests man's lowly 
origin by its approximation to the appearance of the 
arms in our simian country cousins. 

Man's arm has become differentiated from the 
ape's not only in the matter of greater muscular 
rotundity and smoothness, i.e. loss of hair, but also 
in regard to length. An ape's arms are much longer 
than a white man's, the negro's being intermediate. 
Says Mr. Tylor: " In an upright position and reaching 
down with the middle finger, the gibbon can touch 
its foot, the orang its ankle, the chimpanzee its knee, 
while man only reaches partly down his thigh. . . . 
Negro soldiers standing at drill bring the middle 
finger-tip an inch or two nearer the knee than white 
men can do, and some have been even known to 
touch the knee-pan." Taking this in connection 
with the fact that the arms of sailors, who use them 
constantly in climbing, are longer than those of soldiers, 
we may safely infer that man's arms have gradually 
become shorter because he has ceased to climb trees ; 
while the greater muscular rotundity, especially of 
the forearm, has been acquired through the varied 
activity and movements of the hand and fingers : a 
circumstance almost self-evident on physiological 

Arm and Hand 223 

principles, and furthermore corroborated by the fact 
that negroes, unskilled in trades which call for ma- 
nipulation of the separate fingers, again occupy an 
intermediate position. " Even in muscular negroes 
the arms are less rotund," says Professor Carl Vogt ; 
and, according to Van der Hceven, the skin between 
the fingers reaches up higher in the negro, which 
must impede activity. 

The peculiar arrangement of the hair on man's 
arm has been referred to by Wallace and Darwin as 
one of the countless signs arguing our descent from 
apelike ancestors. On the arm of man, as of most 
anthropoid apes, the hair " tends to converge from 
above and below to a point at the elbow." Now it 
is known that the gorilla, as well as the orang, " sits 
in pelting rain with his hands over his head " ; and 
Mr. Wallace, therefore, suggests that the present in- 
clination of the hair on man's arms is simply a 
survival of the time when his arboreal ancestors 
used to sit in that fashion, the hair having gradually 
assumed the direction which would most easily allow 
the rain to run off. 

The evolution theory that the hair on the arm, as 
on the body in general, was lost through Sexual 
Selection, is corroborated by the fact that woman's 
arm has made more progress toward complete 
smoothness than man's, owing to the circumstance 
that man is in Sexual Selection more guided by 
aesthetic, woman by dynamic, considerations. Yet 
there can be no doubt that a hairy arm and hand 
are always ugly, in man as in woman, not only on 
account of their simian suggestiveness, but because 
they cover the smooth skin and its delicate tints, and, 

224 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

moreover, especially if black, are very apt to make 
the arm and hand look as if they needed a good 
scrubbing. Hair on the hand may sometimes be 
permanently removed by passing the hand quickly 
and repeatedly through a large flame a much less 
painful process than the use of pincers. 

The muscular deviations from the lines of beauty 
are much more pardonable in a man's arm than the 
hair, although it is evident that a professional 
athlete's excessively muscular arm is aesthetically 
objectionable, however much it may be admired on 
other grounds. To feminine beauty, and the 
chances of inspiring Love, an arm which is so 
muscular as to obliterate the lines of beauty is 
absolutely fatal. Among the labouring classes 
there are many women whose arms are so hard 
and sinewy that the very bones to which they are 
attached have become heavy and masculine, so 
that it becomes difficult to tell a woman's from a 
man's skeleton, which ordinarily is very easy. 


It is, however, hardly necessary to refer to these 
facts as a warning to girls not to use their arms too 
much. The danger almost always lies the other 
way, and what girls need is a set of intelligent 
directions for securing a shapely arm. If the arm is 
too plump the method discussed in preceding pages 
for the general reduction of corpulence will also 
affect the arm. If too thin, which is much more 
frequently the case in young women, don't be afraid 
that exercise will make them thinner on the ground 
that hard labourers are commonly meagre. It is 

Arm and Hand 225 

only excessive exercise that produces leanness, by 
burning away all the fat. Moderate exercise 
develops the muscles the plastic material of 
beauty and stimulates the appetite, so that the 
fat-cushion under the skin also increases in depth, 
covering up the angular outlines of bones, muscles, 
and sinews. 

It is a suggestive fact that the word calisthenics 
" the art of promoting the health of the body by 
exercise " comes from two Greek words meaning 
" beautiful " and " strength." 

So many books have been written on calisthenics 
that it is needless to repeat here minute directions 
for training the muscles of the arm or any other 
part of the body. One bit of sensible advice may, 
however, be quoted from the Ugly Girl Papers : 
" Throwing quoits and sweeping are good exercises 
to develop the arms. There is nothing like three 
hours of housework a day for giving a woman a 
good figure, and if she sleep in tight cosmetic 
gloves, she need not fear that her hands will be 
spoiled. The time to form the hand is in youth, 
and with thimbles for the finger -tips, and close 
gloves lined with cold cream, every mother might 
secure a good hand for her daughter." 

It is an ill wind that blows no man good. 
The incessant piano-banging and violin-scraping of 
thousands of unmusical young ladies has at least 
one thing to be said in its favour : it helps to round 
and beautify the arms of these young players. 

Active exercise is the surest and quickest way 
of securing muscular rotundity. But in cases where, 
owing to some infirmity, long-continued spontaneous 


226 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

exertion is out of the question, massage, which has 
been defined as "passive exercise," may be resorted 
to as of calisthenic value. It should only be per- 
formed by an expert, and always centripetally, i.e. 
in the direction of the heart. It facilitates the flow 
of the venous current, which in the arms and lower 
limbs has to struggle upwards against the force of 
gravitation ; and to this is partly due its refreshing 
effect. As Americans are the most nervous and 
sensitive people in the world, it seems probable that 
the feeling of ease following the facilitating of the 
venous flow has taught them instinctively to assume 
that peculiar position, with the feet on a chair or 
table, which has been so often ridiculed by Europeans. 


" The beauty of a youthful hand," says Winckel- 
mann, " consists in a moderate degree of plumpness, 
and a scarcely observable depression, resembling a 
soft shadow, over the articulations of the fingers, 
where, if the hand is plump, there is a dimple. The 
fingers taper gently towards their extremities, like 
finely-shaped columns ; and, in art, the articulations 
are not expressed. The fore part of the terminating 
joint is not bent over, nor are the nails very long, 
though both are common in the works of modern 

Balzac pointed out that " men of superior intellect 
almost always have beautiful hands, the perfection of 
which is the distinctive indication of a high destina- 
tion. . . . The hand is the despair of sculptors and 
painters when they wish to express the changing 
labyrinth of its mysterious lineaments." 

Arm and Hand 227 

A fine hand is, indeed, a sign of superior intelli- 
gence in a much more comprehensive sense than 
that which Balzac had in mind. The difference 
between the simian and human faces is hardly 
greater than the progress from an ape's hand to a 
man's in beauty of outline, smoothness of surface, 
grace of movement, and varied utility. The ape's 
hand is hairy on the upper surface, hard and callous 
on the lower. Except in climbing, its movements 
are clumsy. The fingers have adapted themselves 
to the need of climbing, and have become per- 
manently bent in front, so that when the animal 
goes on all fours it cannot walk on the palm, but 
only on the bent knuckles. 

A step higher we have the negro's hands, in 
which the fingers are less independent and nimble, 
and the palmar fat- cushions less developed and 
sensitive, than in our hands. These fat -cushions 
serve to protect the blood-vessels as well as the 
delicate nerves, which make the hand the principal 
organ of touch. The muscles of the hand are more 
easily and instantaneously obedient to the will than 
those of any other part of the body, except those of 
the mouth and eyes ; and hence it is that the hands 
are almost as good an index of a man's character, 
habits, and profession as his face, and have been 
aptly called his " second face." 

Division of labour is the index of progress in the 
evolution of organs. To the fact that his feet have 
become exclusively adapted to locomotion, leaving 
the hands free to serve as tools, man chiefly owes 
his superiority to other animals. For what would 
superior intellect avail him without the implements 

228 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

needed to carry out its schemes ? Feeling, grasping, 
handling, writing, sewing, playing an instrument, 
squeezing, caressing, these are a few of the in- 
numerable functions of the human hand ; while the 
ape's is good for little but climbing. The finger 
language of deaf mutes shows to what subtle in- 
tellectual uses the hands can be put ; and as for 
emotional expression, are there any facial muscles 
which can indicate finer shades of feeling than the 
infinitely varied touch with which a pianist or 
violinist gives utterance to every mood and phase 
of human passion ? 

No wonder that, just as the face has had its 
physiognomists and phrenologists, so the hand its 
chiromancers, who pretended, by looking at its lines, 
not only to read character, but even to foretell one's 
fate. Books on this subject are indeed still pub- 
lished, which shows that the race of fools is in no 
immediate danger of extinction. Wrinkles in the 
face do bear some relation to character and experi- 
ence ; but surely no one needs to be told that the 
palmar lines are purely accidental caused by the 
manner in which the skin is folded when we close 

the hand. 


Our nails are modified claws modified to their 
advantage. When properly cared for, they are one 
of the greatest personal ornaments beginning and 
ending as they do with a delicate curve, rounded 
on the surface, suffused with a gentle blush, and 
smooth as ivory. They may also serve as a mode 
of expression and index of nationality, as seen in 
these remarks by Mr. E. B. Tylor : " In the Southern 

Arm and Hand 229 

United States, till slavery was done away a few 
years ago, the traces of Negro descent were noted 
with the utmost nicety. Not only were the mixed 
breeds regularly classed as mulattos, quadroons, and 
down to octoroons, but even where the mixture was 
so slight that the untrained eye noticed nothing 
beyond a brunette complexion, the intruder, who 
had ventured to sit down at a public dinner-table, 
was called upon to show his hands, and the African 
taint detected by the dark tinge at the root of the 

Becker remarks that among the ancient Greeks " it 
was considered very unseemly to appear with nails 
unpared " ; nor did the Greeks consider it beneath 
their dignity, like the Romans, to pare their own nails. 

The Greeks, being an aesthetic nation, were 
guided in the treatment of their nails by the sense 
of beauty. Elsewhere, however, the idiotic notion that 
laziness is aristocratic led to a different treatment 
of the nails. Mr. Tylor, in his Anthropology, gives 
an illustration of the hand of a Chinese ascetic whose 
finger-nails are five or six times as long as his 
fingers. " Long finger - nails," he remarks, " are 
noticed even among ourselves as showing that the 
owner does no manual labour, and in China and 
neighbouring countries they are allowed to grow to 
a monstrous length as a symbol of nobility, ladies 
wearing silver cases to protect them, or at least as 
a pretence that they are there." 

Useless hands, with elongated nails, reverting to 
a claw-like character, as " symbols of nobility !" The 
study of evolution throws much sarcastic light on 
the fashionable follies of mankind. 

230 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 


According to the New York Analyist: "There 
are not nearly as many secrets in manicure as 
people imagine. A little ammonia or borax in the 
water you wash your hands with, and that water 
just lukewarm, will keep the skin clean and soft. 
A little oatmeal mixed with the water will whiten 
the hands. Many people use glycerine on their 
hands when they go to bed, wearing gloves to keep 
the bedding clean ; but glycerine don't agree with 
every one. It makes some skins harsh and red. 
These people should rub their hands with dry oat- 
meal and wear gloves in bed. The best preparation 
for the hands at night is white of egg, with a grain 
of alum dissolved in it. ... The roughest and 
hardest hands can be made soft and white in a 
month's time by doctoring them a little at bedtime, 
and all the tools you need are a nail-brush (avoid 
metal), a bottle of ammonia, a box of powdered 
borax, and a little fine white sand to rub the stains 
off, or a cut of lemon. Manicures use acids in their 
shops, but the lemon is quite as good, and isn't 
poisonous, while the acids are." 

In the Ugly Girl Papers the following recipes 
are given : 

" To give a fine colour to the nails, the hands and 
fingers must be well lathered and washed with scented 
soap ; then the nails must be rubbed with equal parts 
of cinnabar and emery, followed by oil of bitter 
almonds. To take white specks from the nails, melt 
equal parts of pitch and turpentine in a small cup ; 
add to it vinegar and powdered sulphur. Rub this 

Arm and Hand 231 

on the nails and the specks will soon disappear. 
Pitch and myrrh melted together may be used with 
the same results." 

But, after all, what is the use of beautifying one's 
hands as long as ladies bow to the Fashion Fetish, 
which compels them to conceal them in the skins of 
animals ? To wear gloves on going out, as a pro- 
tection against rough weather and for the sake of 
cleanliness, is rational enough ; but to wear them at 
social gatherings is almost as absurd as the com- 
pulsory impenetrable veils of Turkish women ; for 
does not the hand rank next to the face as an index 
of character ? 

Another stupidity of fashion is our enforced and 
cultivated right-handedness. Despite the force of 
inherited habit, children show a natural inclination 
toward using both their hands equally ; but they are 
constantly scolded and punished, until they have 
succeeded, like their parents, in reducing one hand 
to a state of imbecility, so to speak, which is con- 
stantly betrayed in awkward, ungraceful action. 
Practising on a musical instrument, with special 
attention to the left hand, has a tendency to correct 
this awkwardness. Indeed, is there any part of the 
body that music does not benefit ? Dancing to a 
Strauss waltz gives elasticity to the limbs and grace 
to the gait ; singing is the most useful kind of lung- 
gymnastics, and develops the chest ; a musically- 
trained ear modulates the voice to sweeter expres- 
sion ; while equally skilled and graceful hands are 
acquired by practice on a musical instrument. So 
that the word music, though much less compre- 
hensive than among the ancient Greeks, has lost 

232 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

none of the magic, beautifying power they ascribed 
to it. 

Much of the ugliness in the world is due to the 
neglect of parents in properly supervising the actions 
of their children, to prevent the formation of bad 
habits, which ruin beauty irretrievably. As an 
instance of what can be done in this direction may 
be cited the following remark by a Philadelphia 
surgeon : " The school-girl habit of biting the nails 
must be broken up at once. If in children, rub a 
little extract of quassia on the finger-tips. This is 
so bitter that they are careful not to taste it twice. 
Not only the nails, but the whole finger and hand 
is often forfeited by neglect in this respect." 

By travelling from the shoulder down to the 
finger-tips we have apparently interrupted our steady 
progress from toe to tip of the body. But we shall 
see in a moment that the interruption is only 
apparent, for our subject leads naturally " from 
Hand to Mouth." 



Just as among some male ruminants the growth 
of horns as a means of defence has apparently led to 
the disappearance of the canine teeth, so man's erect 
attitude, by leaving his hands free to do much of 
the work which inferior animals do with their jaws 
and teeth, has gradually modified the appearance of 
his face, greatly to its advantage. " The early male 
forefathers of man," says Darwin, " were probably 
furnished with great canine teeth ; but as they 

Jaw, Chin, and Mouth 233 

gradually acquired the habit of using stones, clubs, 
or other weapons, for fighting with their enemies or 
rivals, they would use their jaws and teeth less and 
less. In this case the jaws, together with the teeth, 
would become reduced in size, as we may feel almost 
sure from innumerable analogous cases." And in 
another place he remarks : " As the prodigious 
difference between the skulls of the two sexes in 
the orang and gorilla stands in close relation with 
the development of the immense canine teeth in the 
males, we may infer that the reduction of the jaws 
and teeth in the early progenitors of man must have 
led to a most striking and favourable change in his 

Why a " favourable " change ? No doubt a male 
gorilla, if it could be taught to pronounce an aesthetic 
judgment, would indignantly scout the notion that 
our weak, delicate jaw is preferable to its own mas- 
sive bones ; nor would a prognathous or " forward- 
jawed " African or Australian admit that he is less 
beautiful than the orthognathous or " upright-jawed " 
European. What right, then, have we to claim that 
we alone have beautiful faces ? Must we not admit, 
with the Jeffrey-Alison school, that it is all "a 
matter of taste," and that in so far as a heavy, pro- 
jecting jaw appears beautiful to a gorilla or a savage, 
it is beautiful to them ? 

The general answer to such questions as these 
has already been given in another part of this volume. 
We need therefore only say in brief resumt that a 
heavy, projecting, clumsy, brutal jaw probably appears 
to a gorilla or a Hottentot neitJier ugly nor beautiful. 
The aesthetic sense as we can see among ourselves 

234 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

is the last and highest product of civilisation. 
Monkeys are apparently excited by brilliant colours, 
but to beauty of form neither apes nor the lower 
races and classes of man appear to be susceptible. 

Should a negro, however, on having his attention 
called to this matter, claim that his prognathous face 
is more beautiful than our orthognathous face, the 
retort simple would be that his imagination is not 
sufficiently educated to understand our more refined 
and delicate beauty ; just as an Esquimaux prefers 
a rotten egg to a fresh one, a working man a glass 
of fusil oil to one of tokay simply because their 
senses of taste and smell are not sufficiently refined 
to appreciate or even detect the delicate flavour of a 
fresh egg and the subtle bouquet of wine. 

Of the positive tests of beauty, Delicacy is the 
one which most emphatically condemns the heavy, 
prognathous jaw and the accompanying big mouth. 
Massive bones and clumsy movements are every- 
where the signs of excessive toil, fatal to beauty, as 
may be seen on comparing the angular and almost 
masculine skeleton of a labouring woman with the 
delicately-articulated joints of a " society woman " ; 
or the heavy structure of a dray-horse with the fine 
contours of a race-horse ; showing that Delicacy is 
always associated with the other elements of beauty 
Curvature, Gradation, Expression, etc. 

On the manner in which the beauty of the mouth 
is proportioned to its capability for Expression, Mr. 
Ruskin has made the following interesting obser- 
vations : " Taking the mouth, another source of 
expression, we find it ugliest where it has none, as 
mostly in fish ; or perhaps where, without gaining 

Jaw, Chin, and Mouth 235 

much in expression of any kind, it becomes a 
formidable destructive instrument, as again in the 
alligator ; and then, by some increase of expression, 
we arrive at birds' beaks, wherein there is much 
obtained by the different ways of setting on the 
mandibles (compare the bills of the duck and the 
eagle); and thence we reach the finely -developed 
lips of the carnivora (which nevertheless lose their 
beauty in the actions of snarling and biting) ; and 
from these we pass to the nobler, because gentler 
and more sensitive, of the horse, camel, and fawn, 
and so again up to man : only the principle is less 
traceable in the mouths of the lower animals, because 
they are only in slight measure capable of expression, 
and chiefly used as instruments, and that of low 
function ; whereas in man the mouth is given most 
definitely as a means of expression, beyond and 
above its lower functions. . . . The beauty of the 
animal form is in exact proportion to the amount of 
moral or intellectual virtue expressed by it." 

Shakspere, by the way, seems to differ from 
Ruskin's theory implied in this last sentence. Ac- 
cording to Ruskin, animals " lose their beauty in the 
actions of snarling and biting." But man has an 
action similar to snarling, namely, what Bell calls 
" that arching of the lips so expressive of contempt, 
hatred, and jealousy." It is to this that Shakspere 
refers in these lines 

" O what a deal of scorn looks beautiful 
In the contempt and anger of his lip." 

But the word " beautiful " is here evidently taken by 
Shakspere in the wider sense of interesting and 

236 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

characteristic, and not in the special aesthetic sense 
of formal and emotional beauty. 

Delicacy and the capacity for varied and subtle 
Expression these, we may conclude, are the chief 
criteria of beauty in the lower part of the face. 
Anatomically, it may be well to state here, the word 
" face " does not include the forehead, but only 
extends from the chin to the eyebrows. The upper 
and posterior part is called the cranium or skull. It 
seems odd at first not to include the forehead in the 
face, but there are scientific grounds for making such 
a division, for a discussion of which the reader must 
be referred to some anatomical textbook (vide 
Kollmann, pp. 82-85). 

To a certain extent the face and the cranium are 
independent of one another in development and 
physiognomic significance. And it should be noted 
that, contrary to the general impression, in estimating 
the degree of intelligence and refinement, the face is 
a safer guide than the cranium ; for there are many 
powerful brains in low and even receding foreheads, 
whereas a large projecting jaw is almost invariably a 
sign of vulgarity or lack of delicate feeling. We do 
not find a dog ugly because of his receding forehead ; 
but we do find that the most infallible way of giving 
a man's picture a brutal expression is by enlarging 
the jaw and mouth. It is the deadliest weapon of 
the caricaturist. 

What makes a gorilla so frightfully ugly is the 
prominence and massive preponderance of his face 
over his cranium. It is his monstrous jaws, with 
their " simply brutal armature " of teeth, that give him 
such a repulsive appearance. The gorilla's mouth, 

Jaw, Chin, and Mouth 237 

as Professor Kollmann remarks, is a caricature even 
from the animal point of view. How much more 
delicate and refined are a dog's or cat's jaws and teeth 
in comparison ! Unfortunately, while man is a 
savage, or when he relapses into brutal habits, it is 
the gorilla's mouth and teeth that his resemble, and 
not the cat's or the dog's. 

A small face being therefore a test of refined 
beauty, we have here another proof of the superiority 
of feminine over masculine beauty. For although 
woman has a smaller cranium than man, it is 
larger than man's relatively to the face. In other 
words, women have smaller and less massive faces 
than men, both absolutely and relatively to their 
size. Kollmann, who is not an evolutionist, en- 
deavours to account for this difference on the ground 
that men are more addicted to the pleasures of the 
table than women. But surely, though women eat 
less than men, they do not make much less use 
of their teeth ; and for any deficiency in this respect 
they more than make up by the constant wagging of 
their jaws in small-talk. It is infinitely more prob- 
able that Darwin is right in attributing the massive- 
ness of the masculine jaws to the accumulated, 
inherited effects of constant use in fighting with 
enemies and rivals contests from which the passive 
females have as a rule been exempt. 

It is the assumption by the hands of many of the 
former functions of the teeth that has led to the 
decrease in the size of the teeth, and, in consequence, 
of the jaw-bones to which they are attached. Some 
writers have even claimed that the wisdom-teeth are 
becoming rudimentary, and will ultimately disappear, 

238 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

because there will be no room for them in our 
gradually diminishing jaws. We may feel confident, 
however, that if this reduction in the size of the jaws 
tended to go too far, the sense of beauty and Sexual 
Selection, i.e. Love, would step in to arrest the 
process, by favouring the survival of those who gave 
their teeth sufficient exercise to prevent the lower 
part of the face from becoming too much reduced in 
size. Our sense of beauty demands that the distance 
from tip of chin to nose should be about the same as 
the length of the nose and the height of the forehead. 
Should these proportions be violated, Love will 
restore the balance ; for no lover would ever select 
a face in which the chin almost touches the nose, 
as in infants, whose teeth and jaws are not yet 
developed, or as in old men and women, in whom 
the loss of the teeth has led to a collapse of the 
jaws, resulting in a loss of proportion, clumsy move- 
ments, and prognathism. 


An oval, well-rounded chin is one of the most 
important elements of formal beauty, and is a 
characteristic trait of humanity ; for man is the only 
animal that has a chin. Lavater distinguishes three 
principal varieties of chin : the receding chin, which 
is peculiar to lower races and types ; the chin which 
does not project beyond a line dropped from the 
lips ; and the chin which does project beyond that 
line. Of all parts of the face the chin has the least 
variety of form and capability of emotional expres- 
sion. Physiognomists have expended much ingenuity 
in attempting to trace a connection between various 

Jaw, Chin, and Mouth 239 

forms of the chin and traits of character ; but their 
generalisations have no scientific value. It is prob- 
able that often a very small, weak chin indicates 
weak desires and a vacillating character, while an 
energetic chin, like Richard Wagner's, indicates the 
iron will of a reformer. But the connection between 
the development of the brain and special modifica- 
tions of the bones of the chin is too remote to permit 
a safe inference in individual cases. 

In ancient Egyptian art, as Winckelmann points 
out, " the chin is always somewhat small and reced- 
ing, whereby the oval of the face becomes imper- 

One of the most essential conditions of beauty in 
a chin, if we may judge by the descriptions of novel- 
ists, is a dimple. Yet it is doubtful whether a dimple 
can ever be accepted as a special mark of beauty. 
Temporary dimples (for the production of which 
there seems to be a special muscle) are interesting 
as a mode of transient emotional expression. But 
permanent dimples interrupt the regular gradation 
of the beauty-curve, and too often indicate that the 
plump roundness, so fascinating in a woman's face, 
has passed the line which indicates corpulence 
and obliterates the delicate lines of expression. 

Dimples occur not only in the chin, but also in 
the cheek, at the elbow-joints, on the back, and in 
plump female hands at the knuckles. They are 
caused by a dense tissue of fibres, blood-vessels, and 
nerves holding down the skin tightly in one place, 
and thus preventing such an accumulation of fat 
between the skin and muscles as is seen in the sur- 
rounding parts. 

240 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

Tommaseo (quoted by Mantegazza) probably had 
in mind the connection between corpulence and 
mental indolence when he said that " a dimple in 
the chin indicates more physical than mental grace." 

"As a dimple by the Greeks termed vv^rj 
is an isolated and somewhat accidental adjunct to 
the chin, it was not," says Winckelmann, " regarded 
by the Greek artists as an attribute of abstract and 
pure beauty, though it is so considered by modern 
writers." With a few unimportant exceptions, it is 
not found in "any beautiful ideal figure which has 
come down to us." And although Varro prettily 
calls a dimple in a statue of Bathyllus an impress 
from the finger of Cupid, Winckelmann thinks that 
when dimples do occur in Greek art works they 
must be attributed to a conscious deviation from the 
highest principles of art for the sake of personal 
portraiture. " In images whose beauties were of a 
lofty cast, the Greek artists never allowed a dimple 
to break the uniformity of the chin's surface. Its 
beauty, indeed, consists in the rounded fulness of its 
arched form, to which the lower lip, when full, 
imparts additional size." 


Whereas the beauty of the chin is purely physi- 
cal, its neighbour, the mouth, has the emotional 
charm of expression besides the formal beauty of 
outline. When we come to speak of the ears we 
shall find that some animals have five times as 
many muscles as man, wherewith they can execute 
expressive movements with those organs. But in 
the number and delicacy of the muscles of the 

Jaw, Chin, and Mouth 241 

mouth no animal approaches man, in whom they 
are more numerous even than those which serve for 
the varied expression of the eyes. Great as is the 
difference between an animal's forefoot and man's 
hand, it is not so great as the difference between an 
animal's and a man's mouth. Chewing and sucking 
are almost the only functions of the animal's mouth, 
while man moulds his lips into a thousand shapes in 
singing, whistling, pouting, blowing, speaking, smiling, 
kissing, etc. From being a mere mechanism for 
masticating food, it has become the most delicate 
instrument for intellectual and emotional expres- 

Sir Charles Bell's testimony that " the lips are, 
of all the features, the most susceptible of action, 
and the most direct index of the feelings," has 
already been quoted in the chapter on Kissing. 
Could Rubinstein himself express a wider range 
of emotions, by subtle variations of pianistic touch, 
than our lips can express degrees and varieties of 
affection in the family, friendly, conjugal, and love 
kisses ? And can we find, even in the music of 
Chopin and Wagner, harmonic changes more in- 
finitely varied than the countless subtle modulations 
of the human lips, as revealed in the fact that deaf 
mutes can be taught to understand what we say to 
them merely by watching the movements of our 

" The mouth, which is the end of love " (Dante), 
is also the seat of Love's smiles ; " and in her smile 
Love's image you may see." We often read of 
smiling eyes, and the eyes do partake in the ex- 
pression of smiling, by increased brightness and the 


242 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

wrinkling of the surrounding muscles. But that the 
mouth is a more important factor in this expression 
can be shown by painting the face of a man with a 
sad expression, and then pasting on a smiling mouth, 
which will give the man at once a happy expression, 
notwithstanding the unchanged eyes. In life the 
muscles of the mouth and eyes execute certain 
movements in harmony. " In all exhilarating emo- 
tions," says Bell, " the eyebrows, the eyelids, the 
nostril, and the angle of the mouth are raised. In 
the depressing emotions it is the reverse." 

For the execution of these diverse movements, 
which make it the most expressive organ of the 
body, the mouth employs more than a dozen im- 
portant groups of muscles, some of which originate 
in the chin, some in the cheeks, some in the lips 
themselves, enabling them to execute independent 

While surpassing the eyes in expressiveness, the 
mouth rivals them in beauty of form and colour. 
" The lips answer the purpose of displaying a more 
brilliant red than is to be seen elsewhere," says 
Winckelmann. " The under lip should be fuller than 
the upper." In Greek divinities the lips are not 
always closed : " and this is especially the case with 
Venus, in order that her countenance may express 
the languishing softness of desire and love." At the 
same time, " very few of the figures which have been 
represented laughing, as some Satyrs or Fauns are, 
show the teeth." This is natural enough, for the 
long-continued exposure of the teeth would only 
result in a grimace. It is only in the transient 
smile that the teeth may peep forth ; and then what 

Jaw, Chin, and Mouth 243 

a charming contrast their ivory curve and lustrous 
colour presents to the full-blooded, soft, pink lips ! 

" Lillies married to the rose, 
Have made her cheek the nuptial bed ; 
Her lips betray their virgin red, 
As they only blushed for this, 
That they one another kiss." 

Health, Beauty, and Love everywhere we see 
them inseparably associated. Who could ever fall 
in love with a pair of thin, pallid lips that have 
lost their pink and plump loveliness through anaemic 
indolence, or disease, or tight lacing ? The very 
teeth, though the hardest substance of the body, 
lose their natural colour and beauty in ill-health. 
Not only do they decay and become blackish, but 
" in bilious people they become yellow, and in 
consumptive patients they show occasionally an un- 
naturally pearly and translucent whiteness" (Brinton 
and Napheys). 

Negroes have, normally, teeth of a dazzling white- 
ness, which is often regarded as a racial peculiarity, 
but is due, according to Waitz, to the use of chalk or 
vegetal fibres. But various savages are dissatisfied 
with the natural form and colour of their teeth, and 
disfigure them in various ways. " In different 
countries the teeth are stained black, red, blue, 
etc., and in the Malay Archipelago it is thought 
shameful to have teeth like those of a dog " (Darwin). 

" In Macassar the women spend a part of the 
day in painting their teeth red and yellow, in such 
a way that a red tooth follows a yellow one, and 
alternately." In Japan, Fashion compels married 
women to blacken their teeth, not, however, as an 

244 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

ornament, but to make them ugly and save them 
from temptation. 

Some African tribes knock out two or more ot 
their front teeth, on the ground that they do not 
wish to look like brutes. The Batokas " think the 
presence of incisors most unsightly, and on behold- 
ing some Europeans, cried out, ' Look at the great 
teeth !' . . . In various parts of Africa, and in the 
Malay Archipelago, the natives file the incisors into 
points like those of a saw, or pierce them with holes, 
into which they insert studs." 

In case of the lips, primitive Fashion prescribes 
still more atrocious mutilations. One would think 
that a negro's swollen lips were ugly enough to 
suit even a devotee of African Fashion ; but no ! 
Her lips being naturally large, the fashionable negro 
belle considers it incumbent on her to exaggerate 
them into additional hideousness, just as European 
and American fashionable women exaggerate the 
slight and beautiful natural curve of their waist into 
the atrocious hour-glass shape. 

" Among the Babines, who live north of the 
Columbia River," says Sir John Lubbock, " the size 
of the under lip is the standard of female beauty. 
A hole is made in the under lip of the infant, in 
which a small bone is inserted ; from time to time 
the bone is replaced by a larger one, until at last a 
piece of wood, three inches long and an inch and a 
half wide, is inserted in the orifice, which makes the 
lip protrude to a frightful extent. The process 
appears to be very painful." 

" In Central Africa," says Darwin, " the women 
perforate the lower lip and wear a crystal, which, 

Jaw, Chin, and Mouth 245 

from the movement of the tongue, has 'a wriggling 
motion indescribably ludicrous during conversation.' 
The wife of the chief of Latooka told Sir S. Baker 
that Lady Baker ' would be much improved if she 
would extract her four front teeth from the lower 
jaw, and wear the long pointed polished crystal in 
her under lip.' Further south, with the Makalolo, 
the upper lip is perforated, and a large metal and 
bamboo ring, called a peleti, is worn in the hole. 
This caused the lip to project in one point two 
inches beyond the tip of the nose ; and when the 
lady smiled, the contraction of the muscles elevated 
it over the eyes. ' Why do the women wear these 
things ?' the venerable chief Chinsurdi was asked. 
Evidently surprised at such a stupid question, he 
replied, ' For beauty ! They are the only beautiful 
things women have ; men have beards, women have 
none. What kind of a person would she be without 
a peleti ? She would not be a woman at all, with a 
mouth like a man but no beard.'" 

In New Zealand, according to Tylor, " it was 
considered shameful for a woman not to have her 
mouth tattooed, for people would say with disgust, 
'She has red lips.'" 

Compare these two pictures for a moment : on 
the one side, the protuberant mouth -borders of 
the negro woman, swollen as by disease or an 
insect's sting, enlarged, in smiling, to the very ears, 
and showing not only the teeth but the gums, the 
tongue and the unsesthetic oesophagus ; on the 
other side, the full but delicate cherry lips of civilised 
woman, capable of an infinite variety of subtle, grace- 
ful movements, a keyboard on which the whole gamut 

246 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

of human feelings finds expression, and revealing, in 
a smile, only the tips of the pearly, undeformed teeth. 
Shall we say, with Alison and Jeffrey, that it is all a 
matter of taste, and that the negro has as much right 
to his taste as we have to ours ? Or have we not 
plentiful reasons for claiming that Personal Beauty 
is a fine art, and that the reason why the negro pre- 
fers his coarse mouth to our refined lips is because 
he does not understand our highly-developed and 
specialised Beauty ? 

There are cogent scientific reasons for believing 
that, just as the skull has been modified and 
developed from the upper part of the spinal column, 
and the brain from its contents, so the facial muscles 
are all developed from the broad muscle of the neck. 
In the orang, according to Professor Owen, we find 
already all the important facial muscles which man 
uses to express emotions. But, as Darwin remarks, 
" distinct uses, independently of expression, can . . . 
be assigned with much probability for almost all the 
facial muscles." 

On the other hand, the facial muscles " are, as is 
admitted by every one who has written on the subject, 
very variable in structure ; and Moreau remarks that 
they are hardly alike in half a dozen subjects. They 
are also variable in function. Thus the power of 
uncovering the canine tooth on one side differs much 
in different persons. The power of raising the wings 
of the nostrils is also, according to Dr. Piderit, vari- 
able in a remarkable degree ; and other such cases 
could be given." 

The facts that the facial muscles blend so much 
together that their number has been variously esti- 

Jaw, Chin, and Mouth 247 

mated at from nineteen to fifty-five, and that they 
vary so much in details of structure and function in 
individuals, are of extreme significance. For, in the 
first place, this variableness allows Love or Sexual 
Selection to favour the survival of those modifica- 
tions of the features which are most in harmony 
with the laws of Beauty ; and, secondly, it affords 
the means of further specialisation and increased 
accuracy in the modes of emotional expression. 

When we see a friend reading a letter, we fancy 
his face a perfect mirror, reflecting every mood 
touched upon in its contents. Yet many of our 
expressions are vague, and there is much room for 
improvement in definiteness. Darwin, in the intro- 
duction to his work on the Expression of Emotions in 
Man and Animals, has remarked how difficult it 
often is to name the exact emotion intended to be 
expressed in a picture of a man, unless we regard 
the accessories by which the painter illustrates the 
situation ; and how apt people are to disagree in 
naming the emotions expressed by a series of 
physiognomic portraits. With monkeys, he says, 
" the expression of slight pain, or of any painful 
emotion, such as grief, vexation, jealousy, etc., is not 
easily distinguished from that of moderate anger." 

Savages, as we saw in a previous chapter, are 
strangers to many of the tender emotions which 
enter into our daily life ; hence it would be absurd 
to look for muscles specially trained to express them. 
And even with Europeans the refined emotions are 
of such recent development that, as just stated, they 
are capable of much further specialisation. To take 
only one case : it is probable that, whereas in the 

248 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

present stage of human evolution, it is almost im- 
possible, without accessories, to distinguish the facial 
expression of feminine Romantic Love from that of 
maternal love, future generations will have specially 
modified muscles for those modes of expression. 
Duchenne has pointed out on the side of the nose 
a series of transient folds expressive of amorous 
desire. As Romantic Love displaces coarse passion, 
may not these or another set of muscles be pressed 
into the special service of refined Love as a sign 
of encouragement to lovers about to propose ? 
Coquettes, of course, would immediately cultivate 
this expression, as a new wile or "wrinkle." 

Between the facial muscles that are thus utilised 
for the expression of emotions and other muscles of 
the body, there is one difference which is of the utmost 
importance from the point of view of Personal Beauty. 
The function of ordinary muscles is to move bones, 
whereas the muscles of expression in the face are 
only concerned with the movements of the skin. 
Hence they do not enlarge the bones of the face, 
which would destroy its delicacy. Their exercise 
gives elasticity and plump roundness to the outlines 
of the face ; and as they are subtly subdivided in 
function, they cannot easily become too plump from 

Individual peculiarities of expression are of course 
due to the frequent exercise of certain sets of muscles, 
leading gradually to a fixed physiognomic aspect ; 
for form is merely crystallised expression. Hence 
no one can be beautiful without being good. Vice 
soon destroys Personal Beauty. If the muscles of 
anger, envy, jealousy, spite, cruelty, etc., are too fre- 

Jaw, Chin, and Mouth 249 

quently called into exercise, the result is a face on 
which the word vicious is written as legibly and in 
as many corners as the numerals X and 10 are 
printed on a United States banknote. 

One of the reasons why Fashion encourages the 
blas^ nil admirari attitude, and the stolid suppression 
of emotional expression, is to hide these signs of 
moral and hygienic sins. 

Oliver Wendell Holmes, anatomist and poet, 
says of Emerson that he had "that look of refine- 
ment centring about the lips which is rarely found 
in the male New Englander, unless the family 
features have been for two or three cultivated genera- 
tions the battlefield and the playground of varied 
thoughts and complex emotions, as well as the 
sensuous and nutritive port of entry." 

Dr. Holmes need not have limited his generalisa- 
tion to " male New Englanders." Refined mouths 
are rare in every country, among women as well as 
among men. As a writer in the Victoria Magazine 
exclaims : " It is wonderful how far more common 
good foreheads and eyes are amongst us than good 
mouths and chins." Yet there is a special reason 
for singling out the average male New Englander 
as a " warning example." He inherits the thin, 
famished, pale, stern, forbidding lips of his Puritan 
ancestors, whose sins are thus visited on later 
generations. Sins ? Yes, sins against health. 
Without cheerfulness there can be no sound health, 
and the Puritans made the systematic pursuit of 
unhappiness the chief object of their life. They 
made cruel war on all those innocent pursuits and 
amusements which bring the bloom of health and 

250 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

beauty to the youthful cheek, and exercise the lips 
in the expression of refined aesthetic emotion. Even 
music, the most innocent of the arts, was included 
in their fanatic ostracism, to which historians also 
trace the rarity of musical taste of the highest order 
in England. 

There is reason to believe that it is especially 
aesthetic culture which betrays itself in the refined 
contours and expression of the lips. Men of genius, 
though their cast of features is not always handsome, 
commonly have finely-cut mouths. Among German 
women addicted to music and love of nature, though 
beauty is comparatively rare owing to causes which 
will be considered in a later chapter good mouths 
are more common than in some other countries 
which boast a higher general average of Personal 
Beauty. Among Americans in general, all the 
features are apt to be finely cut, hence the lips also 
partake of this advantage. 

But it is among Spanish maidens that perhaps 
the most inviting, full-blooded yet delicate, soft, and 
refined lips are to be sought. True, the Spanish 
maiden seems to lack refined feelings when she goes, 
as commonly supposed, to be thrilled by a bull- 
fight. Yet it is well known that the upper classes 
of women in Spain do not commonly attend these 
spectacles ; and if they did, would they be more 
cruel than our fashionable women ? Which is the 
more glaring evidence of callous emotions, to volun- 
tarily witness the slaughter of an infuriated, danger- 
ous beast, or to wear on one's hat the painted 
corpses of innocent song-birds ? 

The following passage in one of Washington 

Jaw, Chin, and Mouth 251 

Irving's works shows that the Spanish have genuine 
aesthetic feeling and taste : 

" ' How near the Sierra looks this evening !' said 
Mateo ; ' it seems as if you could touch it with your 
hand, and yet it is many leagues off.' While he 
was speaking a star appeared over the snowy sum- 
mit of the mountain, the only one yet visible in the 
heavens, and so pure, so large, so bright and beauti- 
ful as to call forth ejaculations of delight from honest 

" ' Que lucero hermoso ! que clara y limpio es ! 
no pueda ser lucero mas brillante.' (What a 
beautiful star ! how clear and lucid ! no star could 
be more brilliant !) 

" I have often remarked this sensibility of the 
common people of Spain to the charms of natural 
objects. The lustre of a star the beauty or fra- 
grance of a flower the crystal purity of a fountain, 
will inspire them with a kind of poetical delight 
and then what euphonious words their magnificent 
language affords with which to give utterance to 
their transports!" 

Possibly the constant pronouncing of these 
" euphonious words " is one of the causes of the 
beauty of Spanish lips. But one need not go into 
such subtle details for an explanation of the pheno- 
menon. Sexual Selection accounts for it sufficiently. 
The admiration of Beauty is the strongest factor in 
Romantic Love. The Spaniard's sense of Beauty is 
refined through his love of Beauty in natural objects. 
Hence in Sexual Selection he is guided by a taste 
which abhors equally the coarse, protuberant lips 
suggestive of mere animality, and the leathery, life- 

252 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

less lips indicating neglect of the laws of health and 
a lack of lusty vitality. For true labial refinement 
consists not in ascetic elimination of sensuous fulness, 
but in aesthetic harmony between sense and intellect 
The lips, like all other parts of the body, are natu- 
rally plump and full-blooded in Southern nations, 
saturated with sunshine and fresh air ; and when 
this plumpness is checked by mental refinement and 
the exigencies of varied expression, then it is that 
lips become ideally beautiful. 

It is with the lips as with Love, of which they 
are the perch. Neither Zola nor Dante are the true 
painters of the romantic passion, but Shakspere, who 
pays respect to flesh and blood as well as to emotion 
and intellect. 


Although the size and shape of the lips afford 
an index of coarse or refined ancestry, the mouth 
is commonly the most self-made feature in the 
countenance, because it is such an important seat of 
individual expression. Herein lies a soothing balm 
to those who, owing to the stupidly irregular and 
incalculable laws of heredity, have inherited an ugly 
mouth from a grandfather or a more remote ancestor. 

A pleasing impression, oft repeated, leaves its 
traces on the facial muscles. Kant gives this advice 
to parents : " Children, especially girls, must be ac- 
customed early to smile in a frank, unconstrained 
manner ; for the cheerfulness and animation of the 
features gradually leave an impression on the mind 
itself, and thus create a disposition towards gaiety, 
amiableness, and sociability, which lay an early 
foundation for the virtue of benevolence." 

Jaw, Chin, and Mouth 253 

So Kant evidently believed that we can beautify 
the soul by beautifying the body. And the reverse is 
equally true. As Mr. Ruskin remarks : " There is not 
any virtue the exercise of which, even momentarily, 
will not impress a new fairness upon the features. 
. . . On the gentleness and decision of just feeling 
there follows a grace of action which by no discipline 
may be taught or obtained." 

If educators and parents would thoroughly im- 
press on the minds of the young the great truth that 
good moral behaviour and the industry which leads to 
intellectual pre-eminence are magic sources of youth- 
ful and permanent Personal Beauty, they would find 
it the most potent of all civilising agencies, especially 
with women. 

Drs. Brinton and Napheys, in their work on 
Personal Beauty (1870), which is especially valuable 
from the point of view of medical and surgical cos- 
metics, but which is unfortunately out of print, offer 
the following suggestions as to how the shape and 
expression of the mouth may be improved : 

" For cosmetic reasons, immoderate laughter is 
objectionable. It keeps the muscles on the stretch, 
destroys the contour of the features, and produces 
wrinkles. It is better to cultivate a ' classic repose.' 

" Still more decidedly should the habit of 
' making mouths ' be condemned, whether it occur 
in conversing in private or to express emotions. It 
never adds to the emphasis of the discourse, never 
improves the looks, and leads to actual malforma- 

" Children sometimes learn to suck and bite their 
lips. This distorts these organs, and unless they are 

254 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

persuaded to give it up betimes, a permanent deform- 
ity will arise. 

" When the lips have once assumed a given form, 
it is difficult to change them. Those that are too 
thin can occasionally be increased by adopting the 
plan of sucking them. This forces a large quantity 
of blood to the part, and consequently a greater 
amount of nutriment. When too large, compresses 
can sometimes, but not always, be used with effect. 
We have employed silver plates connected by a wire 
spring, or a mould of stiff leather. Either may be 
worn at night, or in the house during the day." 

It is astonishing to note how many persons are 
utterly unconcerned regarding the appearance of 
their mouths in talking, smiling, and laughing, 
sometimes revealing the whole of the teeth and 
even the gums, like savages, or as if they were 
walking tooth-powder advertisements. Self-observa- 
tion before a mirror is the best antidote against 
such grimaces. 

Chapped lips sometimes call for constitutional 
treatment, but ordinarily they can be easily cured 
by obtaining a lip-salve of some reputable chemist 
Glycerine is almost always adulterated and injurious, 
and should only be used on any part of the skin 
when chemically pure. 

Pale lips are commonly an indication of ill-health, 
and therefore call for exercise, tonics, or other 
medical treatment. And the colour of the lips is 
an index of emotion as well as of health 

" Whispering, with white lips, ' The foe ! They come ! They 
come ! ' " BYRON. 

That sound teeth, though they should never be 

The Cheeks 255 

seen except in glimpses, are an extremely important 
element in facial beauty, may be seen by the fact 
that the loss of a few front teeth makes a person 
look ten years older at once. The art of dentistry 
has reached such marvellous perfection that there is 
no excuse for having unsightly teeth. They may 
be easily preserved to a good age, if properly ex- 
ercised on solid food bread crusts, etc. Very hot 
and very cold food and drink is injurious, especially 
if cold and hot things are taken in immediate suc- 
cession. The teeth should be cleaned twice a day, 
on rising and before retiring. The brush should 
not be too hard, and a harmless powder, wash, or 
soap should be obtained of a trustworthy chemist 
for the threefold purpose of whitening the teeth by 
removing tartar, of killing the numerous microbes 
in the mouth, and purifying the breath. An 
offensive breath is shockingly common, probably 
owing to the fact that many brush only the out- 
side surface of their teeth. They should be brushed 
inside as well, and on the top, and the tooth wash 
or soap should be brought into contact with every 
corner and crevasse of the mouth and teeth. An 
offensive breath ought to be good cause for divorce, 
and certainly it is a deadly enemy of Romantic 



When we look at a Mongolian, the flat nose and 
oblique eyes at once attract our attention, but hardly 
to such a degree as his high and prominent cheek- 

256 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

bones. The North American Indians, who are 
probably the descendants of Mongolians, resemble 
them in their prominent cheek - bones ; and the 
Esquimaux likewise possess these in a most ex- 
aggerated form. "The Siamese," says Darwin, 
" have small noses with divergent nostrils, a wide 
mouth, rather thick lips, a remarkably large face, 
with very high and broad cheek-bones. It is there- 
fore not wonderful that ' beauty, according to our 
notion, is a stranger to them. Yet they consider 
their own females to be much more beautiful than 
those of Europe.'" 

Here is another " matter of taste," which is 
decided in our favour by the general laws of Beauty, 
positive and negative. 

High, prominent cheek-bones are ugly, in the 
first place, because they interfere with the regularly 
gradated oval of the face. Secondly, because, like 
projecting bones and angles in any other part of the 
body, they interrupt the regular curve of Beauty. 
Thirdly, because they are coarse and inelegant, 
offending the sense of delicacy and grace, like big, 
clumsy ankles and wrists. Fourthly, because they 
suggest the decrepitude of old age and disease. In 
the healthy cheek of youth and beauty there is a 
large amount of adipose tissue, both under the skin 
and between the subjacent muscles. When age or 
disease makes fatal inroads on the body, this fat 
disappears and leaves the impression of starva- 
tion. " Famine is in thy cheeks," exclaims Shaks- 
pere ; and again 

" Meagre were his looks, 
Sharp misery had worn him to the bones." 

The Cheeks 257 

When the malar bones are too high, the fleshy 
cheeks, instead of including them in a plump curve, 
are made by contrast to appear hollow, thus simulat- 
ing and suggesting the appearance of disease to 
those whose imagination is sufficiently awake to 
notice such suggestions. And besides emaciation, 
hollow cheeks suggest another sign of age and 
decrepitude the loss of the teeth, which on the 
sides of the jaws help to give youthful cheeks their 
plump outlines. 

Finally, prominent cheek-bones are objectionable 
because they are concomitants of the large, clumsy, 
brutal jaws which characterise savages and apes. 
To the cheek-bones the upper jaw-bone is directly 
attached ; hence the larger the teeth are, and the 
more vigorously they are exercised in fighting and 
picking bones, the more massive must be the cheek- 
bones, to prevent the upper jaw from being pushed 
out of position. Moreover, there is attached to the 
cheek-bones a powerful muscle which connects it 
with the lower jaw, and by its contraction brings 
the two jaws together ; and this is a second way in 
which violent exercise of the jaws tends to enlarge 
the cheek-bones, for all bones become enlarged if 
the muscles attached to them are much exercised. 

At a recent meeting of the British Association, 
Sir George Campbell advanced the theory that the 
Aryan race, to which we belong, originally had 
prominent cheek-bones, like those of lower races. 
On general evolutionary grounds this is indeed a 
foregone conclusion ; as is the corollary that our 
cheek-bones have become smaller, for the same 
reason that our jaws have become more delicate ; 


258 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

viz. because we no longer use them to fight and 
tear our food like wild beasts, but to masticate soft 
cooked food, to talk, etc. Thus does the progress 
of civilisation enhance our Personal Beauty. 

An excessive diminution in the size of the cheek- 
bones, as of the jaws, will be prevented by Romantic 
Love (Sexual Selection), which ever aims at establish- 
ing and preserving those proportions and outlines of 
the features which are most in harmony with the 
general laws of beauty. 

Among the lower animals cruel Natural Selec- 
tion eliminates those individuals who are ugly, i.e. 
unnatural, unhealthy, clumsy. With mankind charity 
and pity have checked the operation of this cruel 
though beneficial law, and progress in the direction 
of refinement and Beauty would therefore be fatally 
impeded were it not that Sexual Selection, or Love 
guided by the sense of Beauty, steps in to eliminate 
the ill-favoured, who bear in their countenance too 
conspicuously the marks of their savage and animal 
ancestry. Perhaps Mr. Wallace had some such 
thought in his mind when he anticipated the time 
when man's selection shall have supplanted natural 

Yet there are thousands of good people who still 
profess to believe that " beauty is only skin deep," 
and that Romantic Love and aesthetic culture are 
of no practical importance, but mere gaudy soap- 
bubbles to delight our vision for a transient 
moment ! 

In future ages, when aesthetic refinement will be 
more common, and Romantic Love, its offspring, 
less impeded by those considerations of rank and 

The Cheeks 259 

money and imaginary " prudence " which lead parents 
to sacrifice the physique and wellbeing of their grand- 
children to the illusive comfort of their sons and 
daughters (in " marriages of reason ") what an im- 
petus will then be given to the development of 
Personal Beauty ! Refined mouths and noses, rosy 
cheeks, sparkling eyes, plump and graceful healthy 
figures, now so lamentably rare, will then become as 
plentiful as blackberries in the autumn. 


Although the heart's warm blood is not carried 
to the cheeks in so dense a network of arteries, nor 
so near the surface as in the lips, yet the cheeks 
come next to the lips in delicate sensibility a fact 
which Love has discovered instinctively ; for a kiss 
on the cheeks is still a kiss of love, whereas a kiss 
on the forehead or eyelids indicates less ecstatic 
forms of affection or esteem. 

What makes the cheeks so sensitive is the great 
delicacy of their transparent skin, which readily 
allows the colour of the blood to be seen as through 
a veil, not only in blushing, but in the natural rosy 
aspect of youth and health. 

Though the cheeks may not vie with the lips and 
teeth, the hair and the eyes, in lustrous depth of 
colour, they have an advantage in their chamaeleonic 
variety and changes of tint, and their delicious 
gradations. Even the delicate blushes on an apple 
or a peach, caused by the warm and loving glances 
of the sun, what are they compared to the luscious, 
mellow tints on a maiden's ripe cheeks ? Nor is it 
possible to find in the leaves of an autumnal 

260 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

American forest more endless individual nuances 
and shades of red and rose and pink than in the 
cheeks of lovely girls unless indolence or other 
sins against health have painted them with ghastly 
repulsive pallor, or the hideous Hottentot habit of 
bedaubing them with brutal paint has ruined their 
translucent delicacy. 

Says the author of the Ugly Girl Papers : " Some 
cheeks have a winelike, purplish glow, others a 
transparent saffron tinge, like yellowish -pink por- 
celain ; others still have clear, pale carmine ; 
and the rarest of all, that suffused tint like apple- 

At summer resorts where girls drink in daily 
draughts of the elixir of youth and beauty, commonly 
known as fresh air, one of their greatest love-charms 
is these colour-symphonies on their cheeks, changing 
their melody with every pulse-beat. These charms 
they might possess all the year round did not their 
parents commonly convert their dwelling-houses into 
hothouses, reeking with stagnant, enervating air. 

If, therefore, we read that Africans prefer the 
opaque, inky, immutable ebony of their complexion 
to the translucent, ever-changing tints, eloquent of 
health and varied emotions, in a white maiden's 
face, we well, we simply smile, on recalling the 
fact that even among ourselves a cheap, gaudy 
chromo is preferred by the great multitude to the 
work of a great master which they do not under- 
stand. The slow growth of aesthetic refinement is 
illustrated by the fact that it is only a few years 
since Fashion has set its face against the use of 
vulgar paints and powders, which ensure a most 

The Cheeks 261 

questionable temporary advantage at the expense of 
future permanent defacement. 

The colours of the cheeks, so far under considera- 
tion, are to a certain extent subject to our will and 
skill ; for no one who cultivates the complexion and 
has plenty of pure air need be without these bloom- 
ing buccal roses. But the " thousand blushing 
apparitions " that start into our faces are, as Shak- 
spere's well-chosen words imply, as independent of our 
will and control as any other apparitions. 

Are blushes ornamental or useful ? That is, 
were they developed through Sexual or through 
Natural Selection ? Such Shaksperian expressions 
as " Bid the cheek be ready with a blush, modest as 
morning ; " " Thy cheeks blush for pure shame to 
counterfeit our roses ; " and " To blush and beautify 
the cheek again," suggest the notion that the great 
poet regarded blushes as beautiful ; while the follow- 
ing permit a different interpretation : " Her blush 
is guiltiness, not modesty ; " " Blushing cheeks by 
faults are bred, and fears by pale white shown ; " 
" You virtuous ass, you bashful fool, must you be 
blushing ?" " His treasons will sit blushing in his face." 

Let us see if any light is thrown on the problem 
by going back to the beginning, and tracing the 
development of the habit of blushing. That blush- 
ing is a comparatively recent human acquisition is 
made apparent from the facts that it is not seen in 
animals, nor in very young children, nor in idiots, as 
a rule ; while among savages the faculty of blush- 
ing seems to be dependent on the presence of a 
sense of shame, which is almost, if not entirely, un- 
known to the lowest tribes. 

262 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

That animals never blush, Darwin thinks, is 
almost certain. " Blushing," he says, " is the most 
peculiar and the most human of all expressions. 
Monkeys redden from passion, but it would require 
an overwhelming amount of evidence to make us 
believe that any animal could blush." Concerning 
children he says : " The young blush much more 
freely than the old, but not during infancy, which is 
remarkable, as we know that infants at a very early 
age redden from passion. I have received authentic 
accounts of two little girls blushing at the ages of 
between two and three years ; and of another 
sensitive child, a year older, blushing when reproved 
for a fault." 

" In the dark-brown Peruvian," says Mr. Tylor, " or 
the yet blacker African, though a hand or a ther- 
mometer put to the cheek will detect the blush by 
its heat, the somewhat increased depth of colour is 
hardly perceptible to the eye." Dr. Burgess re- 
peatedly had occasion to observe that a scar in the 
face of a negress " invariably became red whenever 
she was abruptly spoken to, or charged with any 
trivial offence." And Darwin was assured by several 
trustworthy observers " that they have seen on the 
faces of negroes an appearance resembling a blush, 
under circumstances which would have excited one 
in us, though their skins were of an ebony -black 
tint. Some describe it as a blushing brown, but 
most say that the blackness becomes more intense." 

Now evidence has already been quoted in a 
previous chapter showing that negroes admire a 
black skin more than a white one (vide Descent of 
Man, 1885, p. 579). Is it likely, therefore, that 

The Cheeks 263 

the blush was admired by negroes, and became a 
ground of selection, because it intensified the black- 
ness of the skin ? It hardly seems probable that 
the coarse negro can be influenced in his amorous 
choice by any such subtle, almost imperceptible 
difference ; and even the great originator of the 
theory of Sexual Selection does not believe that it 
accounts for the origin of blushes : " No doubt a 
slight blush adds to the beauty of a maiden's face ; 
and the Circassian women who are capable of blush- 
ing invariably fetch a higher price in the seraglio of 
the Sultan than less susceptible women. But the 
firmest believer in the efficacy of sexual selection 
will hardly suppose that blushing was acquired as a 
sexual ornament. This view would also be opposed 
to what has just been said about the dark-coloured 
races blushing in an invisible manner." 

On the other hand, it seems equally difficult to 
account for the origin of blushing on utilitarian 
grounds. No one likes to be caught blushing ; on the 
contrary, every one tries to conceal such a state by 
lowering or averting the face. How could such an 
unwelcome, embarrassing habit prove of advantage 
to us ? Sir Charles Bell's remarks on the subject 
may serve as a clue to the answer. That blushing 
" is a provision for expression may be inferred," he 
says, " from the colour extending only to the surface 
of the face, neck, and breast the parts most ex- 
posed. . . . The colour caused by blushing gives 
brilliancy and interest to the expression of the face. 
In this we perceive an advantage possessed by the 
fair family of mankind, and which must be lost to 
the dark ; for I can hardly believe that a blush may 

264 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

be seen in the negro. . . . Blushing assorts well 
with youthful and with effeminate features, while 
nothing is more hateful than a dog-face that ex- 
hibits no token of sensibility in the variations of 

The poet Young tells us that " the man that 
blushes is not quite a brute " ; and Darwin quotes 
from Humboldt a sneer of the Spaniard, " How can 
those be trusted who know not how to blush ? " 
Darwin's remark that some idiots, " if not utterly 
degraded, are capable of blushing," also accords with 
Bell's notion that blushing is a provision for expres- 
sion. Bell's assertion that it is " indicative of excite- 
ment " is, however, not sufficiently definite. What 
is it that a blush expresses ? Evidently nervous 
sensibility, a moral sense, modesty, innocence. The 
Circassian who can blush is more highly valued 
than another, because the blush is eloquent of 
maiden modesty and heart untainted. The fact 
that there is also a blush of violated modesty, a 
blush of shame, and of guilt, does not argue against 
this view, any more than the fact that we blush 
if, though innocent, we are accused of guilt. It is 
the association of ideas and of emotions that evokes 
the blush in such cases. 

We may therefore conclude that a blush is use- 
ful on account of its moral beauty, i.e. its expressive- 
ness of presumptive innocence, or at least of a desire 
to be considered innocent ; whereas the unblushing 
front and cheek indicate a brutal, callous indifference 
to virtue. We admire a blush as " the most peculiar 
and the most human of all expressions." And we 
admire it also, to some extent, on purely aesthetic 

The Cheeks 265 

grounds, if not exaggerated. A slight blush has a 
rosy charm of its own, and it is only when it becomes 
a too diffused and deep facial aurora borealis that it 
loses its charm, because suggestive of the hectic or 
fever flush, or the redness caused by anger, heat, 
violent exertion, etc., which has a physiological 
origin distinct from that of blushing. 

According to Bell, " the colour which attends 
exertion or the violent passions, as of rage, arises 
from general vascular excitement, and differs from 
blushing. Blushing is too sudden and too partial to 
be traced to the heart's action." Darwin endeavours 
to find the explanation of blushing in the intimate 
sympathy which exists between the capillary circula- 
tion of the surface of the head and face, and that of 
the brain, which would account for the mental con- 
fusion of shyness, modesty, etc., being so immediately 
photographed on the face. He sums up his theory 
in these words : 

" I conclude that blushing whether due to shy- 
ness to shame for a real crime to shame from a 
breach of the laws of etiquette to modesty from 
humility to modesty from an indelicacy depends 
in all cases on the same principle ; this principle 
being a sensitive regard for the opinion, more par- 
ticularly for the depreciation of others, primarily in 
relation to our personal appearance, especially of our 
faces ; and secondarily, through the force of associa- 
tion and habit, in relation to the opinion of others 
on our conduct." 

He gives various illustrations showing how by 
directing our attention to certain parts of the body 
we can increase their sensitivity and activity in a 

266 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

manner analogous to that postulated by the theory 
of blushing. But for these the reader must be 
referred to his essay on this subject in the Expres- 
sion of Emotions a masterpiece of physiological 
and psychological analysis. One more passage, 
however, may be cited, as it helps to justify this 
long discussion of blushing by showing its special 
relations to Romantic Love and Personal Beauty : 
" It is plain to every one that young men and 
women are highly sensitive to the opinion of each 
other with reference to their personal appearance ; 
and they blush incomparably more in presence of 
the opposite sex than in that of their own. A 
young man, not very liable to blush, will blush 
intensely at any slight ridicule of his appearance 
from a girl whose judgment on any important 
subject he would disregard. No happy pair of 
young lovers, valuing each other's admiration and 
love more than anything else in the world, probably 
ever courted each other without many a blush. Even 
the barbarians of Tierra del Fuego, according to Mr. 
Bridges, blush ' chiefly in regard to women, but 
certainly also at their own personal appearance.'" 



The shell of the ear appears to be the only part 
of man's visible body which has ceased to be useful 
and become purely ornamental. " Persons whose 
ears have been cut off hear just as well as before," 
says Professor Haeckel. Dr. J. Toynbee, F.R.S., 
" after collecting all the evidence on this head, con- 

The Ears 267 

eludes that the external shell is of no distinct use;" 
and Darwin was informed by Professor Preyer that 
after experimenting on the functions of the shell 
of the ear he had come to nearly the same con- 

To infer from this that our external ears have 
been developed, through Sexual Selection, for purely 
ornamental purposes, would not be in accord with 
scientific analogies. For, often as existing organs 
(horns, feathers, etc.) are modified for ornamental 
purposes, there are no known instances of any that 
have been specially developed for that purpose ; 
even the facial muscles of expression being, as we 
have seen, in this predicament. Hence we are led 
to conclude that man has inherited the shell of his 
ear from a remote apelike ancestor, to whom it was 
of use in catching faint sounds, and who consequently 
had the power, common to other animals, not only 
of directing the ears as a whole to different points 
of the compass, but of temporarily altering its shape. 
Indeed, one of the strongest proofs of our descent 
from lower animals lies in the fact that man still 
possesses, in a rudimentary form, the muscles needed 
to move the ears. Some savage tribes have con- 
siderable control over these muscles. The famous 
physiologist, Johannes Miiller, after long and patient 
efforts, succeeded in recovering the power of moving 
his ears ; and Darwin writes : " I have seen one man 
who could draw the whole ear forwards ; other men 
can draw it upwards ; another who could draw it 
backwards ; and from what one of these persons 
told me, it is probable that most of us, by often 
touching our ears, and thus directing our attention 

268 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

towards them, could recover some power of move- 
ment by repeated trials." 

Ordinary monkeys still possess the power to 
move their ears ; but the manlike or anthropoid 
apes resemble us in the rudimentary condition of 
their ear-muscles ; and Darwin was assured by the 
keepers in the London Zoological Gardens that these 
animals never move or erect their ears. He suggests 
two theories to account for the loss of this power : 
first, that, owing to their arboreal habits and great 
strength, these apes were not exposed to much 
danger, and thus gradually, through disuse, lost 
control over these organs, just as birds on oceanic 
islands where they are not subject to attacks have 
lost the use of their wings ; secondly, that the 
freedom with which they can move the head in a 
horizontal plane enabled them to dispense with 
mobile ears. 

The remarkable variability of the ears greater, 
by the way, in men than in women is another 
reason for regarding them as rudimentary organs, 
inherited from remote semi -human ancestors, to 
whom they were useful ; for great variability is a 
characteristic of all rudimentary organs. Haeckel 
facetiously suggests that " at large assemblies, where 
our interest is not sufficiently enchained, nothing is 
more instructive and entertaining than a comparative 
study of the countless variations in the form of the 
ears." The ancient Greek artists were aware of this 
variability, for Winckelmann speaks of " the infinite 
variety of forms of the ear on heads modelled from 
life." " It was customary with the ancient artists to 
elaborate no portion of the head more diligently than 

The Ears 269 

the ears." "In portrait figures, when the counte- 
nance is so much injured as not to be recognised, we 
can occasionally make a correct conjecture as to the 
person intended, if it is one of whom we have any 
knowledge, merely by the form of the ear ; thus we 
infer a head of Marcus Aurelius from an ear with an 
unusually large inner opening." 

If we compare a man's ears with those of a dog 
or horse, differences of shape appear no less con- 
spicuous than differences in mobility. Two points 
are especially characteristic of man the folded 
upper margin and the lobule. Our cousins, the 
anthropoid apes, are the only other animals which 
have the margin of the ear thus folded inwards, the 
lower monkeys having them simple and pointed, like 
other animals. The sculptor, Mr. Woolner, called 
Darwin's attention to " a little blunt point, projecting 
from the inwardly-folded margin or helix." Darwin, 
on investigating the matter, came to the conclusion 
that these points " are vestiges of the tips of former 
erect and pointed ears " ; being led to think so " from 
the frequency of their occurrence, and from the 
general correspondence in position with that of the 
tip of a pointed ear." 

The lobule is still more peculiar to man than the 
folded margin, since he does not even share it with 
the anthropoid apes, although, according to Professor 
Mivart, " a rudiment of it is found in the gorilla." 
An intermediate stage between man and ape is 
occupied by some savage tribes in whom the lobule 
is scantily developed or even absent. 

270 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 


The lobule of the human ear has been presum- 
ably developed through the agency of Sexual Selection, 
as it is an ornament the absence of which is at once 
felt. And there are other ways in which this organ 
has been gradually brought into harmony with the 
laws of beauty. Thus the loss of the hair (of which 
rudiments are still occasionally present) made visible 
the soft skin and the delicate tint of the ear, which, 
like that of the cheeks, may be momentarily height- 
ened by a blush, and thus become an index of 
emotional expression. A permanently -heightened 
colour of the ear, however, caused by exposure to 
extreme cold or by rough treatment, is almost as 
great a blemish as a red nose or pallid lips. If 
boxers are anxious to deform their ears, no one has 
a right to object ; but children have a right to ask 
of their parents and teachers not to redden their 
ears permanently by pulling or boxing them. That 
a delicate and important sense-organ like the ear 
should be so frequently chosen as a place to inflict 
punishment, shows the necessity of a general diffu- 
sion of hygienic knowledge. It may not be super- 
fluous to add a caution to lovers, that the ears should 
never be taken as an osculatory substitute for the 
lips or cheeks, as cases are known in medical practice 
where the tympanum, and consequently the hearing, 
has been destroyed by a vigorous kiss implanted by 
a foolish lover on his sweetheart's ears. 

An ear to be beautiful should be about twice as 
long as broad. It should be attached to the head 
almost straight, or slightly inclined backwards, and 

The Ears 271 

should almost touch the head with the back of its 
upper point. Many poor girls are deformed for life 
through the ignorance of their mothers, who allow 
them to wear their hair or bonnets in such a way as 
to make the ears stand out obliquely. As the ears 
contain no bones, but consist entirely of cartilages 
and skin, they can be, more readily even than the 
nose, moulded into a fine shape at an early age. 
As Drs. Brinton and Napheys remark, " Even when 
the ear is in part or altogether absent, the case is 
not desperate. An ' artificial ear ' can be made of 
vulcanised rubber, or other material, tinted the 
colour of the flesh, and attached to the side of the 
head with such deftness that its character will escape 
every ordinary eye." There is therefore no excuse 
for having badly-shaped or wrongly-inclined ears in 
these days of cosmetic surgery. 

In the most beautiful ears the lobe is free, and 
not attached to the head in its lower part. Heavy 
earrings, which have a tendency to unduly enlarge 
the lobules, are now tabooed by Fashion ; but very 
small jewels in the ear may be looked on, like small 
finger-rings, necklaces, and bracelets, as unobjection- 
able from an aesthetic point of view, though real 
beauty unadorned is adorned the most. 

Formerly Fashion maltreated the pooj ears quite 
as badly as it still does the waist and the feet. 
Lubbock remarks that the East Islanders enlarge 
their ears till they come down to the shoulders ; 
and Darwin, after referring to liberties taken with 
the nose, says that " the ears are everywhere pierced 
and similarly ornamented, and with the Botocudos 
and Lenguas of South America the hole is gradually 

272 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

so much enlarged that the lower edge touches the 

Among the Greeks, as Becker remarks, " it was 
considered a dishonour, or a token of foreign man- 
ners, for men to have their ears bored. . . . Women 
and girls, however, not only used earrings, ev&ria, 
eXXoySta, ehiKTrjpes, which are seen perpetually in 
vases, but also wore numerous articles of jewellery 
about the neck, the arms, and on the leg above the 

The ancients, too, had heard of the malformed 
ears of primitive peoples. " It is possible," says 
Tylor, " that there may be some truth in the favour- 
ite wonder-tale of the old geographers, about the 
tribes whose great ears reached down to their 
shoulders, though the story had to be stretched a 
good deal when it was declared they lay down on 
one ear and covered themselves with the other for 
a blanket." 

Such blanket-ears would be the aesthetic equiv- 
alent of modern bustles, crinolettes, and wasp-waists. 


Ever since the days of ancient Greek philosophy 
ingenious attempts have been made to find a special 
meaning for this or that particular form of the ear. 
According to Aristotle, a long ear indicates a good 
memory, whereas modern physiognomists incline to 
the opinion that a long ear shows a man's mental 
relationship to a certain unjustly-maligned animal. 
Small ears, Lavater thinks, are a sign of an active 
mind, while a deep shell indicates a thirst for know- 

The Ears 273 

As a matter of fact, the ears have no connection 
whatever with intellectual or emotional expression, 
except that a well-shaped ear indicates in a general 
way that its possessor comes of a stock in which the 
laws of cosmetic hygiene have been observed during 
many generations. To many of the lower animals 
the ears are a means of emotional expression. What, 
for instance, could be more expressive and droll than 
the way a dog expresses mild surprise or expectation 
by pricking up his ears ? Or what a more certain 
sign of vlciousness in a horse than the drawing back 
of the ears? a movement of which Darwin has 
found the reason in the fact that all animals that 
fight with their teeth retract their ears to protect 
them ; whence, through habit and association, it 
comes that they draw them back whenever a fight- 
ing mood comes over them. Man, on the other 
hand, never uses his ears for emotional expression, 
because they are the least mobile part of the body. 
Now form is merely crystallised expression : and 
the absence of special movements for emotional ex- 
pression necessarily prevents individual alterations 
indicative of character. Hence the absurdity of 
trying to use the ears as a basis for physiognomic 


What is the cause of the folding of the margin 
of the human ear, which distinguishes it from that of 
all other animals? Darwin remarks that it "appears 
to be in some manner connected with the whole 
external ear being permanently pressed backwards ;" 
but this does not explain the mysterious phenomenon. 


274 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

After many hours of profound meditation on this 
subject I have come to the conclusion that this 
slight folding of the ear's margin is the beginning of 
a new phase of human evolution. In course of time 
this cannot be disproved the fold of the margin 
will become larger and larger, until finally the shells 
of the ear will have been transformed into mobile 
lids for shutting out at will disagreeable noises, even 
as the eyelids have been developed to shut out 
glaring light. This would account for the provi- 
dential preservation of the rudimentary ear-muscles 
referred to above. When this process of evolution 
is completed men coming home late will no longer 
have to listen to curtain-lectures. The innovation will 
tend to make them polite, for instead of telling the 
lecturer to "shut up," they will shut up themselves. 

Seriously speaking, such movable ear -lids are 
very much needed in this transition stage of civilisa- 
tion. The present age of steam will by future 
historians be classified as the age of noise. It is 
almost impossible to find a place within ten miles of 
a city where one can rest without having one's 
sleep constantly disturbed, or at least deprived of its 
refreshing depth, by the blowing of railway and 
factory whistles. Both are unnecessary, inasmuch as 
railway signals would be quite as effective if not so 
murderously loud and prolonged, while factory 
whistles are either blown at the moment when the 
operatives go to work, when a simple bell would do 
as well, or they are blown an hour earlier to wake 
up the workmen, a most outrageous proceeding, as 
everybody else sleeping within a radius of a mile or 
more is thus waked up at six o'clock. 

The Ears 275 

The fact that these nuisances have so long been 
tolerated shows how primitive is as yet the aesthetic 
development of the average human ear. Some 
people even smile at you for being so " nervous," 
and boast of their indifference to such hideous, brain- 
racking noises. The Esquimaux and Chinese would 
doubtless assume a similar attitude regarding their 
indifference to noisome stenches. In mediaeval 
times, Europeans in general were quite as indifferent 
to the emanations from their gutters as they still are 
to the hideous noises in the streets. It has often 
been noted with surprise that the death-rate in 
London and the general aspect of health should be 
so much more favourable than that of continental 
cities, which are free from the depressing London 
fogs. The reason, doubtless, lies chiefly in the facts 
that there are no vile sewer odours in London to 
poison the atmosphere, and that the pavement of 
the streets is of such a nature that one can sleep 
soundly at night, provided there are no steam 
whistles near. London, too, does not tolerate the 
brutal whip -cracking which transforms French, 
German, and Swiss towns and cities into Bedlams of 
noise. In this respect New York resembles London; 
but here the comparison ends. New York pave- 
ments are the noisiest, roughest, and dirtiest in the 
world. I have known of invalids who were advised 
to drive in the Central Park, but could not do so 
because they could not bear on their way to drive 
even up Fifth Avenue, a street lined with the 
houses of millionaires. And to walk on Broadway 
for twenty minutes, talking to a friend, makes one 
as hoarse as delivering a two-hour lecture. 

276 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

There can be no doubt that a horror of useless 
noise grows with the general refinement of the 
senses and the mind. Goethe's aversion to noise, 
especially at night, is well known. It led him to 
poison dogs that disturbed him. The delicate hear- 
ing of Franz, the great song composer, was ruined by 
the whistle of a locomotive. And Schopenhauer has 
put the whole matter into a nutshell in these admir- 
able words : " Intellectual persons, and all in general 
who have much esprit, cannot endure noise. Astound- 
ing, on the other hand, is the insensibility of ordin- 
ary people to noise. The quantity of noise which 
any one can endure without annoyance is really 
related inversely to his mental endowments, and 
may be regarded as a pretty accurate measure of 



It is self-evident that indifference to ear-splitting 
noises implies a lack of appreciation for the exquisite 
clang -tints of music ; for whenever the acoustic 
nerve is sufficiently refined to appreciate such subtle 
tints, it is affected as painfully by harsh sounds as the 
artistic eye is by glaring colours and flickering light. 
And an ear which is indifferent to the sweetness of 
musical sounds is of course indifferent also to the 
musical charm of the speaking voice. But a sweetly 
modulated voice is one of the most conspicuous 
attributes of Personal Beauty for Beauty refers to 
sounds as well as to sights 

" Her voice was ever soft, 
Gentle and low, an excellent thing in woman." SHAKSPERE. 

There is as much variety in voices as in faces ; 
and in estimating a person's general refinement, the 

The Nose 277 

voice is perhaps a safer guide than the face ; because 
the quality of the voice is largely a matter of indi- 
vidual training, whereas in reading faces the judg- 
ment is warped by the presence of inherited features 
speaking of traits which have not been modified by 
individual effort and culture. 

Many young men and women live in absolute 
indifference to the quality of their speaking voice, 
till one day Cupid arouses them from their unaes- 
thetic slumber with his golden arrows, and makes 
them eager not only to brush up their hats and im- 
prove their personal appearance, but also to modulate 
their voices into sweet, expressive accents. But the 
vocal cords, like a violin, can only be made to yield 
mellow sounds after long practice ; hence the usual 
result of a sudden effort to speak in love's sweet 
accents is a ridiculous lover's falsetto. 



"The fate of innumerable girls has been decided 
by a slight upward or downward curvature of the 
nose," says Schopenhauer ; and Pascal points out 
that if Cleopatra's nose had been but a trifle larger, 
the whole political geography of this planet might 
have been different. Owing to the fact that the 
nose occupies the most prominent part of the face, 
Professor Kollmann remarks that " the partial or 
complete loss of the nose causes a greater disfigure- 
ment than a much greater fault of conformation in 
any other part of the face." And Winckelmann thus 
bears witness to the importance of the nose as an 

278 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

element of Personal Beauty : " The proof, easy 
to be understood, of the superiority of shape of the 
Greeks and the present inhabitants of the Levant 
lies in the fact that we find among them no flattened 
noses, which are the greatest disfigurement of the face." 

Yet here again we find that " tastes differ." Thus 
we read in Darwin " that the ancient Huns during the 
age of Attila were accustomed to flatten the noses of 
their infants with bandages, 'for the sake of exaggerat- 
ing a natural conformation ' " [note the stamp of 
Fashion] ; that, " with the Tahitians, to be called 
long-nose is considered as an insult, and they com- 
press the noses and foreheads of their children for the 
sake of beauty " ; and that " the same holds true 
with the Malays of Sumatra, the Hottentots, certain 
Negroes, and the natives of Brazil." But the ne- 
plus -ultra of nasal ugliness is found among the 
Tartars and Esquimaux. " European travellers in 
Tartary in the Middle Ages," says Tylor, " described 
its flat-nosed inhabitants as having no noses at all, 
but breathing through holes in the face." And 
among the Esquimaux, as Mantegazza remarks, a 
rule can be placed on both the cheeks at once with- 
out touching the nose. Flat noses, says Topinard, 
" are either depressed as a whole, as among Chinese, 
or only in the lower half, as among Malays. Negroes 
have both forms." 

The yellow and black races, who naturally have 
flat noses, consider it fashionable to have them very 
flat. The same is true with our modern Fashion 
regarding wasp-waists and feet. But in regard to 
the face the white races including even the women 
have emancipated themselves from the tyranny of 

The Nose 279 

fashionable exaggeration. Hence, though we admire 
prominent noses, we do not admire them more 
and more in proportion to their size. On the 
contrary, every one looks upon the very large 
Jewish nose as ugly. The reason is that in 
judging of the face Fashion has been displaced 
by aesthetic Taste, whose motto is Moderation, and 
which is based on a knowledge of the cosmic laws 
of beauty. Savages have Fashion but no Taste. 
We have both ; but Taste is gradually demolishing 
Fashion, like other relics of barbarism. 

Sometimes our estimate of the nose, as of other 
features, may be influenced by non-aesthetic con- 
siderations by prejudices of race, aristocracy, etc. 
" In Italy," says Mantegazza, " we call a long nose 
aristocratic (especially if it is aquiline) perhaps 
because conquerors with long noses, Greeks and 
Romans, have subjected the indigenous small-nosed 
inhabitants." But the Italians are not the only 
people who, if asked to choose between a nose too 
large or one too small, would ask for the former. 
And the cause of this preference is suggested very 
forcibly in these remarks of Grose : " Convex faces, 
prominent features, and large aquiline noses, though 
differing much from beauty, still give an air of 
dignity to their owners ; whereas concave faces, flat, 
snub, or broken noses, always stamp a meanness and 
vulgarity. TJie one seems to have passed through the 
limits of beauty, the other never to have arrived at 



The flat, irregular nose of savages and semi- 
civilised peoples, with its visible nostrils and im- 

280 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

perfectly developed bridge, being intermediate be- 
tween the ape's nose and our own, we are naturally 
led to infer that the nose has been gradually 
developed into the shape now regarded as most 
perfect by good judges of Beauty. To what are we 
indebted for this favourable change to Natural or 
to Sexual Selection ? In other words, is the present 
perfected shape of the nose of any use to us, or is it 
purely ornamental ? 

It appears that both these laws have acted in 
subtle combination to improve our nasal organ. 
The nose is a sort of funnel for warming the air on 
its way to the sensitive lungs. In cold latitudes a 
long nose would therefore be an advantage favoured 
by Natural Selection ; and it is noteworthy that in 
general the flat-nosed peoples live in warm climes. 
There are exceptions, however notably the Esqui- 
maux showing that this hypothesis does not entirely 
cover the facts. 

Let us examine, therefore, the second function of 
the nasal organ. The external nose is a sort of filter 
for keeping organic impurities out of the lungs. At 
the entrance of the nostrils there are a number of 
fine hairs which serve to keep out the dust. If any 
particles manage to get beyond this first fortress, 
they are liable to be arrested by the rows of more 
minute, microscopic hairs, or cilia, which line the 
mucous membrane and keep up a constant down- 
ward movement, by means of which dusty intruders 
are expelled and the air filtered. Esquimaux living 
in snowfields, and savages in the forests and grass- 
carpeted meadows, do not need these filters so much 
as we do in our dusty cities and along dusty country 

The Nose 281 

roads ; hence their noses have remained more like 
those of the arboreal apes, while ours have grown 
larger, so as to yield a larger surface of sifting hairs 
and cilia. When we think of the dusty American 
prairies and the African and Asian deserts, can we 
wonder, accordingly, that the American Indians, as 
well as the nomadic Arabs and Jews, have such 
immense noses ? The theory seems fanciful, if not 
grotesque ; but perhaps there is more in it than 
appears at first sight. 

Even if both these hypotheses should prove 
untenable, there is a third consideration which alone 
suffices to account for the development of the 
European nose. The nose has a most important 
musico-pliilological function. The language of savages 
often consists of only a few hundred words, while 
ours is so complicated that it requires the co-opera- 
tion of the vocal cords, and the cavities of the mouth 
and the nose to produce the countless modifications 
of speech and song which make us listen with so 
much pleasure to an eloquent speaker or a great 
singer. The subject is far too complicated with 
anatomical details to be fully explained here, and 
the reader must be referred to a full discussion (not 
from the evolutionary point of view, however) to 
Professor Georg Hermann von Meyer's elaborate 
treatise on The Organs of Speech, chap. iii. 

A few points, however, must be noted here. The 
nasal air-passage, " with its two narrow openings and 
intermediate greater width, possesses the general 
form of a resonator, and there can be no doubt but 
that it has a corresponding influence, and that the 
tones with which the air passing through it vibrates 

282 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

are strengthened by its resonance. The larger the 
nasal cavity the more powerful the resonance, and, 
consequently, the reinforcement experienced by the 
tone. ... In consequence of the peculiarity of the 
walls of the nasal cavity, it appears that sounds 
uttered with the nasal resonance, particularly the 
nasal vowels, are fuller and more ample than the 
same sounds when strengthened by the resonance 
of the cavity of the mouth. The general impression 
of fulness and richness conveyed by the French 
language arises from its wealth in nasal vowels ; 
and it is for this reason that second-rate tragic actors 
like to give a nasal resonance to all the vowels in 
the pathetic speeches of their heroic parts." 

Further, it is of great importance to bear in mind 
" that tfo resonance of the nasal cavity also plays a 
part in the formation of non-nasal articulate sounds" 
appearing here as a mere reinforcement of the 
resonance of the cavity of the mouth, and free from 
the nasal twang. Indeed, paradoxical as it may 
seem, an infallible way to make our speech sound 
" nasal " is to keep the air out of the nose by clasp- 
ing it tightly ; whereas if the nasal passage remains 
open the nasal twang is replaced by an agreeable 
resonance. What could more forcibly illustrate the 
importance of a well-developed nose ? 

Now there are several groups of muscles attached 
to the lower cartilages of the nose, parts which are 
imperfectly developed in apes and negroes. The 
constant exercise of these, during many generations, 
in the service of speech, in expressing several emo- 
tions, and in heavy breathing, suffice to account, on 
accepted physiological principles, for the gradual 

The Nose 283 

enlargement of the resonant tube which we call the 

So much for Natural or Utilitarian Selection. 
But Sexual Selection or Romantic Love plays also 
a most important role in the development of the 
nose. The quotations from Pascal and Schopen- 
hauer made at the beginning of this chapter show 
that the efficacy of Sexual Selection was recognised 
long before Darwin had coined the term. As soon 
as a refined aesthetic taste appears, it rejects ugly 
forms of the nose. It rejects, for instance, open, 
visible nostrils, because they are a scavenging 
apparatus, unaesthetic to behold, though the savage, 
having no taste, is not thus offended. It gives the 
preference, in the second place, to the long nose, on 
musical grounds, because its owner has a more 
sonorous speech. It scorns the snub-nose because 
of its simian suggestiveness, and dislikes the ex- 
cessively large and aquiline nose because it is an 
exaggerated form, which has passed beyond the 
delicate dimensions and subtle curves of beauty. 


This checking of excessive development in the 
direction at first prescribed by the cosmic laws of 
beauty is indeed one of the main functions of 
Sexual Selection, without which our mouths would 
gradually become too small, our eyes and noses too 
large, our foreheads too high, our hair too scant, etc. 

Why, for instance, have the Jews such large 
noses compared with the Greeks ? Evidently because 
Taste which, though commonly associated with 
Romantic Love, may, in a highly aesthetic nation, 

284 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

act independently of it did not restrain the exces- 
sive development of the Jewish nose. The ancient 
Hebrews were not an aesthetic nation, like the 
Greeks. The finest works of sculpture ever created 
were made by the Greeks, while the Hebrews prac- 
tically had no sculpture at all not even such works 
as were produced by Assyrians and Egyptians. 
And if any further proof were needed of the state- 
ment that the ancient Hebrews had little taste for 
beauty it might be found in the fact that Solomon, 
esteemed a great judge of feminine charms, com- 
pares his love's nose to " the tower of Lebanon, 
which looketh toward Damascus." 

The admission which I have just made that 
there may be a sort of aesthetic selection independent 
of real Romantic Love, does not militate against 
the general thesis of this book : that Love is the 
cause of Beauty, as Beauty is the cause of Love. 
For though the Greek artists knew what the shape 
and size of a beautiful nose should be, there are 
cogent reasons for believing that " Greek noses " were 
rare even among the ancient Greeks, thanks to their 
habit of sacrificing Romantic Love to the dragon 
chaperon. Hear what Ruskin has to say, in his 
Aratra Pentelici, about the Greek features in general: 
" Will you look again at the series of coins of the 
best time of Greek art which I have just set before 
you ? Are any of these goddesses or nymphs very 
beautiful ? Certainly the Junos are not. Certainly the 
Demeters are not. The Siren and Arethusa have well- 
formed and regular features ; but I am quite sure that 
if you look at them without prejudice, you will think 
neither reaches even the average standard of pretty 

The Nose 285 

English girls. The Venus Urania suggests at first 
the idea of a very charming person, but you will find 
there is no real depth nor sweetness in the contours, 
looked at closely. And remember, these are chosen 
examples ; the best I can find of art current in Greece 
at the great time ; and even if I were to take the 
celebrated statues, of which only two or three are 
extant, not one of them excels the Venus of Melos ; 
and she, as I have already asserted in The Queen of 
tJie Air, has nothing notable in feature except 
dignity and simplicity. Of Athena I do not know 
one authentic type of great beauty ; but the intense 
ugliness which the Greeks could tolerate in their 
symbolism of her will be convincingly proved to you 
by the coin represented in Plate VI. You need 
only look at two or three vases of the best time to 
assure yourselves that beauty of feature was, in 
popular art, not only unattained, but unattempted ; 
and finally and this you may accept as a conclu- 
sive proof of the Greek insensitiveness to the most 
subtle beauty there is little evidence, even in their 
literature, and none in their art, of their having ever 
perceived any beauty in infancy or early childhood." 
Nevertheless, it was to the contours of childhood 
that the Greek artists apparently went for their ideal 
of the divine nose. Greek beauty was youthful 
masculine beauty ; and the " Greek nose " is one 
which not only is straight in itself, but forms a 
straight line with the forehead. In other words, 
there is no hollow at the root of the nose, where it 
meets the forehead. Now the absence of this 
cavity is characteristic of youth, and is owing to the 
imperfect development of the brain cavities. Later 

286 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

in life these cavities bulge forwards and produce the 
hollow, which, therefore, is an indication of superior 
cranial development and higher intellectual powers. 
Hence, as Professor Kollmann suggests, the object 
of the Greek artists in making the nose of their 
deities form a straight line with the forehead, was 
probably to give them the stamp of eternal youth ; 
which would thus appear to have been considered a 
more important attribute even than the expression 
of superior masculine intellectual power, which we 
associate with the hollow at the junction of nose and 
forehead, and for which reason we do not admire it 
in women if too pronounced. Nevertheless, even in 
women the cosmic laws of Beauty call for a gentle 
curve instead of a perfectly straight line ; but the more 
subtle the curve the greater is its beauty ; whereas 
the nose itself may be perfectly straight on its upper 
edge, because it forms a dividing line of the face into 
two symmetric halves, and by its contrasting straight- 
ness heightens the beauty of the surrounding facial 

To sum up : the Greek's admiration of such 
features as are naturally associated with youthful 
masculine beauty no doubt led him, in choosing a 
wife, to give the preference to similar features, in- 
cluding the " Greek " nose. Yet in the absence of 
opportunities for courtship, Sexual Selection could 
not operate very extensively ; hence it is probable 
that ungainly noses, though not so extravagant as 
among the Semitic races, were common enough in 
Greece as in Rome. In the Dark Ages hideous 
noses must have prevailed everywhere, as might be 
inferred from the facts that Romantic Love was 

The Nose 287 

unknown, and physical beauty looked on as a 
sinful possession, even if the painted and sculptured 
portraits did not prove it to our eyes in most 

Regarding modern noses it may be said that the 
nose is such a prominent feature that more has been 
done for its improvement, through the agency of 
Love or Sexual Selection, than for the mouth or any 
other feature, excepting the eye. The average 
Englishman's nose of to-day, for example, is a 
tolerably shapely organ, and yet his ancestors were 
not exactly distinguished for nasal beauty, according 
to a close observer and student of portraiture, Mr. 
G. A. Simcox, who remarks that " sometimes both 
Danes and Saxons had their fair proportions of snub- 
noses and pug-noses, but when they escaped that 
catastrophe the Danish nose tended to be a beak 
(rather a hawk's beak than an eagle's), while the 
Saxon nose tends to be a proboscis." 

Yet even at this date perfect noses are rare, and 
it is easy to see why. In the first place, it takes 
many generations to wipe out entirely the ugliness 
inherited from our unaesthetic ancestors ; secondly, 
Romantic Love, based on aesthetic admiration, is 
still very commonly ignored in the marriage market 
in favour of considerations of rank and wealth ; and 
thirdly, a lover, infatuated by his sweetheart's fas- 
cinating eyes, is apt to overlook her large nose or 
mouth till after the honeymoon. 

Inasmuch as the civilised races of Europe have 
so long been indifferent to their ugly noses, we can 

288 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

hardly wonder that barbarians should not only dis- 
regard their nasal caricatures, but even exaggerate 
their grotesqueness deliberately. We have already 
seen how certain tribes habitually flatten their 
already flat noses. Moreover, " in all quarters of the 
world the septum, and more rarely the wings, of the 
nose are pierced ; rings, sticks, feathers, and other 
ornaments being inserted into the holes." " In 
Persia one still finds the nose-ring through one side 
of a woman's nostril ; " and Professor Flower states 
that such rings are often worn by female servants who 
accompany English families returning from India. 

Captain Cook, in the account of his first voyage, 
says of the east-coast Australians : " Their principal 
ornament is the bone which they thrust through 
the cartilage which divides the nostrils from each 
other. ... As this bone is as thick as a man's 
finger, and between five and six inches long, it 
reaches quite across the face, and so effectually stops 
up both the nostrils that they are forced to keep 
their mouths wide open for breath, and snuffle so 
when they attempt to speak that they are scarcely 
intelligible even to each other." 

This last sentence bears out our assertion regard- 
ing the philological or conversational importance of 
the nose. And there is another lesson to be learned 
from these barbarian mutilations of the nose. If 
Huns, Tahitians, and Hottentots are able to make 
their noses as delightfully ugly as they please, why 
should not we utilise the plastic character of the 
nasal cartilages for beautifying ourselves ? Says a 
specialist : " Much can be done by an ingenious 
surgeon in restoration and improvement. A nose 

The Nose 289 

that is too flat can be raised, one with unequal 
apertures can be modified, one too thin can be 
expanded. Cosmetic surgery is rich in devices here, 
all of which are very available in children and young 
persons, less so when years have hardened and 
stiffened the cartilages and bones." 

Thus may Cupid employ a medical artist as an 
assistant in his efforts at improving the physical 
beauty of mankind. Needless to add that only a 
first-class surgeon should ever be allowed to meddle 
with the features. 

Cosmetic surgery has already reached such per- 
fection that it can even make " a good, living, fleshly 
nose. It will transplant you one from the arm 
or the forehead, Roman or Grecian, a volontt ; it 
will graft it adroitly into the middle of the face, 
with two regular nostrils and a handsome bridge ; 
and it will almost challenge Nature herself to im- 
prove on the model " (Brinton and Napheys). 

Medical men are daily complaining in a more 
clamorous chorus that their profession is overcrowded. 
Why don't some of them in every city and town 
make a specialty of cosmetic surgery and hygienic 
advice ? Why leave this remunerative field entirely 
in the hands of dangerous quacks who alone have 
enterprise and sense enough to advertise ? 

As illustrations of what may be done in this 
direction, two points may be noted. A French 
surgeon, Dr. Cid, noticed that persons who wear 
eyeglasses are apt to have long and thin noses. 
The thought occurred to him that this might be 
due to the compression of the arteries which carry 
blood to the nose, by the springs of the glasses ; so 


290 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

he constructed a special apparatus for compressing 
these arteries, and by attaching it to a young girl's 
large and fleshy nose, succeeded in reducing its 
size. Why should people worry themselves and 
frighten others with ugly noses when they can be 
so easily improved ? 

The second point is still more simple. It is 
important that the nose should occupy exactly the 
middle of the face, so as to secure bilateral symmetry. 
Yet Welcker, who made a number of accurate ob- 
servations on skulls, plaster casts of the dead, as well 
as on the living countenance, noted that perfect 
symmetry is very rarely found. The obliqueness is 
sometimes at the root, sometimes at the tip of the 
nose, and the cause of the deviation from a straight 
line is attributed to the habit most persons have of 
sleeping exclusively on one side, a practice which 
is also objectionable on other grounds. Mantegazza, 
however, suggests that, as he has found the deviation 
almost always toward the right side, it may be due 
to our habit of always taking our handkerchief 
in the right hand ; and the same view is held by 
Drs. Brinton and Napheys. So that we have 
here an additional argument in favour of ambidex- 

The New York Medical and Stirgical Reporter 
for November I, 1884, prints a lecture by Dr. J. B. 
Roberts on " The Cure of Crooked Noses by a New 
Method," which, as it is not conspicuous and hardly 
leaves a scar, may be commended to the attention 
of those afflicted with nasal deformities. The pin 
method, he says, is applicable " even to those slight 
deformities whose chief annoyance is an aesthetic 

The Nose 291 

and cosmetic one. I leave the pins in position for 
about two weeks." 

Red noses, if due to exposure, can be readily 
whitened by one of the methods to be discussed in 
the chapter on the complexion. If due to disease, 
they call for medical treatment ; if to intemperance 
or tight lacing, moral and aesthetic reform is the 
only possible cure. 


Owing to its tendency toward unsightly redness 
and malformation, the nose is very apt to be looked 
at from a comic point of view. Wits and caricatu- 
rists fix on it habitually for their nefarious purposes, 
as if it were a sort of facial clown. Indeed, ninety- 
nine persons in a hundred, if questioned regarding 
the functions of the nose, would know no answer 
but this : that it is sometimes ornamental, and is 
remotely connected with the " almost useless " sense 
of smell. 

We have seen, however, that besides being 
ornamental per se, the nose plays a most important 
aesthetic as well as utilitarian role in giving 
sonority and variety to human speech ; and that it 
is, further, of great use as an apparatus for warming, 
moistening, and filtering the air before it enters the 
lungs. Hence the importance of nose -breathing. 
Professor Reclam states that city people at the age 
of thirty usually have a whole gramme of calcareous 
dust in their lungs, which they can never again get 
rid of, and which may at any time engender 
dangerous disease. This is one of the bad results 
of mouth-breathing, but by no means the only one. 

292 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

" The continued irritation from dry, cold, and un- 
filtered air upon the mucous membrane of the upper 
air tract soon results," says Dr. T. R. French, " in 
the establishment of catarrhal inflammation, the 
parts most affected being the tongue, pharynx, and 
larynx. . , . The habit of breathing through the 
mouth interferes with general nutrition. The sub- 
jects of this habit are usually anaemic, spare, and 

That mouth -breathing at night leaves a dis- 
agreeable taste in the mouth and leads to snoring, 
thus interfering with refreshing sleep, has already 
been stated. It also injures the teeth and gums by 
exposing them all night to the dry air. And in 
the daytime it compels one to keep the mouth wide 
open, which imparts a rustic if not semi -idiotic 
expression to the face. Moreover, think of the 
filthy dust you swallow in walking along the street 
with your mouth open. However, it is useless to 
advise people on such matters. An attempt is 
made for a day or two to reform, and then the 
whole matter is forgotten. These points are there- 
fore noted here not with any missionary intentions, 
but merely for their scientific interest 

We come now to the fourth important function 
of the nose the sense of smell. What has this to 
do with Personal Beauty? A great deal. In the 
first place, is not the flower-like fragrance of a lovely 
maiden a personal charm that has been sung of by 
a thousand poets, of all times ? " The fragrant 
bosom of Andromache and of Aphrodite finds a place 

The Nose 293 

in Homer's poetry," as Professor Bain remarks ; 
and an eccentric German professor, Dr. Jager of 
Stuttgart, even wrote a book a few years ago on 
the Discovery of the Soul, in which he endeavoured 
to prove that the whole mystery of Love lies in the 
intoxicating personal perfumes. 

It is not with such fancies, however, that we are 
concerned here. It can be shown on purely scientific 
grounds that the cause of Personal Beauty would 
gain an immense advantage if people would train 
and refine their olfactory nerves systematically, as 
they do their eyes and ears. Unfortunately, Kant's 
absurd notion, expressed a century ago, that it is not 
worth while to cultivate the sense of smell, has been 
countenanced to the present day by the erroneous 
views held by the leading men of science, including 
Darwin, who wrote that " the sense of smell is of 
extremely slight service " to man. 

In an article on the " Gastronomic Value of 
Odours," which appeared in the Contemporary Review 
for November 1886, I pointed out that this under- 
valuation of the sense of smell is explained by the 
fact that the sense of taste has hitherto been credited 
with all the countless flavours inherent in food, 
whereas, in fact, taste includes only four sensations 
of gastronomic value sweet, sour, bitter, and saline, 
all other " flavours " being in reality odours ; as is 
proved by the fact that by clasping the nose we 
cannot distinguish between a lime and a lemon, 
different kinds of confectionary, of cheese, of nuts, 
of meat, etc. 

Now it is well known that most people show a 
most amazing tolerance to insipid, badly -cooked 

294 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

food, gulping it down as rapidly as possible ; and 
why ? Simply because they do not know that in 
order to enjoy our meals we must eat slowly, and, 
while masticating, continually exhale the aroma-laden 
air through the nose (mind, not inhale but exhale). 
This is what epicures do unconsciously ; and look 
at the results ! No dyspepsia, no anaemia and 
sickly pallor, no walking skeletons ; and surely 
a slight embonpoint is preferable to leanness from 
the point of view of Personal Beauty. 

If this gastronomic secret were generally known, 
people would insist on having better cooked food ; 
dyspepsia, and leanness, and a thousand infirmities 
hostile to Beauty would disappear, and in course 
of time everybody would be as sleek and hand- 
some and rosy-cheeked as a professional epicure. 

Nor is this the only way in which refinement of 
the sense of smell would benefit Personal Beauty. 
In consequence of the criminally superstitious dread 
of night air, the atmosphere in most bedrooms is as 
foul, compared to fresh air, as a street puddle after 
a shower compared to a mountain brook. I have 
seen well-dressed persons in America and Italy take 
into their mouths the shamefully filthy and disease- 
soaked banknotes current in those countries ; and I 
have seen others shudder at this sight who, if their 
smell were as refined as their sight, would have 
shuddered equally at the foul air in their bedrooms, 
which diminishes their vital energy and working 
power by one -half. Architects, of course, will 
make no provision for proper ventilation as long as 
they are not compelled to do so. Why should 
they? They don't even care, in building a theatre, 

The Nose 295 

how many hundreds of people will some day be burnt 
in it, in consequence of their neglect of the simplest 
precautions for exit. 

One more important consideration. When you 
leave the city for a few weeks everybody will exclaim 
on your return, " Why, how well you look ! where 
have you been?" But wherein lies this cosmetic 
magic of country air? Not in its oxygen, for it 
has been proved, by accurate chemical tests, that in 
regard to the quantity of oxygen there is not the 
slightest difference between city and country air. 
What, then, is the secret ? 

I am convinced, from numerous experiments, 
that the value of country air lies partly in its tonic 
fragrance, partly in the absence of depressing, foul 
odours. The great cosmetic and hygienic value of 
deep-breathing has been proved in the chapter on 
the Chest. Now the tonic value of fragrant meadow 
or forest air lies in this that it causes us involuntarily 
to breathe deeply, in order to drink in as many 
mouthfuls of this luscious aerial Tokay as possible ; 
whereas in the city the air is well, say unfragrant 
and uninviting ; and the constant fear of gulping 
down a pint of deadly sewer gas discourages deep 
breathing. The general pallor and nervousness of 
New York people have often been noted. The 
cause is obvious. New York has the dirtiest 
streets of any city in the world, except Constanti- 
nople and Canton ; and, moreover, it is surrounded 
by oil-refineries, which sometimes for days poison 
the whole city with the stifling fumes of petroleum, 
so that one hardly dares to breathe at all. No 
wonder that, by universal consent, there is more 

296 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

Fashion than Beauty in New York. And no 
wonder that it is becoming more and more custom- 
ary, for all who can afford it, to spend six to eight 
months of the year in the country. 



It has been stated already that, anatomically con- 
sidered, the forehead is not a part of the face but of 
the cranium. From an artistic and popular point 
of view, however, the forehead is a part of the face, 
and a most important one. Modern taste fully 
endorses the ancient law of facial proportion, which 
makes the height of the forehead equal to the length 
of the nose, and to the distance from the tip of the 
nose to the tip of the chin. " Foreheads villainous 
low " are objectionable, because associated with a 
vulgar unintellectual type of man, and too vividly 
suggestive of our simian ancestors. Foreheads 
abnormally high, though preferable to the other 
extreme, displease, because they violate the law of 
facial proportion. We excuse them in men, because 
they are commonly expressive of intellectual power. 
But in women a high forehead is always objection- 
able, because it gives them a masculine appearance. 
Hence Romantic Love, which cannot exist without 
sexual contrasts, and which aims at making woman 
a perfect embodiment of the laws of Beauty, 
eliminates girls with too high foreheads. Yet at the 
command of Fashion thousands of maidens deliber- 
ately prevent men from falling in love with them 
by combing back their hair and giving their foreheads 

The Forehead 297 

a masculine appearance, instead of coyly hiding it 
under a fringe or " bang." 

The fact that the feminine forehead, though more 
perpendicular than the masculine at the lower part, 
slants backward in its upper part in a more pro- 
nounced angle, is another reason why women should 
cover up this part of their forehead, which Sexual 
Selection has not yet succeeded in moulding into 
perfect shape. For the receding forehead is uni- 
versally recognised as a sign of inferior culture. 
Everybody knows what is meant by Camper's 
facial angle, which is formed by a horizontal line 
drawn from the opening of the ear to the nasal 
spine, and a perpendicular line touching the most 
prominent parts of the forehead and front teeth. 
In adult Europeans Camper's angle rarely exceeds 
85 degrees. The average in the Caucasian race is 
80 ; in the yellow races 75 ; in the negro 60 to 
70; in the gorilla 31. In antique Greek heads 
the angle is sometimes over 90. Says Camper : 
" If I cause the facial line to fall in front, I have 
an antique head ; if I incline it backwards, I 
have the head of a negro ; if I cause it to incline 
still further, I have the head of a monkey ; inclined 
still more, I have that of a dog, and, lastly, that of 
a goose." 

It appears, however, that this angle has more 
value as a test of beauty than as an absolute gauge 
of intellect. Generally speaking, there is no doubt 
a correlation between a bulging forehead and a 
superior intellect ; but individual exceptions to this 
rule are not infrequent. Nor is it at all difficult to 
account for them. For intellectual power does not 

298 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

depend so much on the size and shape of the skull 
as on the convoluted structure of the brain. 

Our brain consists of two kinds of matter the 
white, which is inside, and the gray, which covers it. 
The white substance is a complicated telegraphic 
network for conveying messages which are sent from 
the external gray cells. It has been proved, by 
comparing the brains of man and various animals, 
that the amount of intelligence depends not so much 
on the absolute size of the brain, as on the abun- 
dance of this gray matter. And, what is of extreme 
importance from a cosmetic point of view, the gray 
cells are increased in number, not by an addition to 
the absolute size or circumference of the brain, but 
by a system of furrows and convolutions which 
increase the surface lining of the brain without 
enlarging its visible mass. For the benefit of those 
who have never seen a human brain, it may be 
very roughly compared to the convoluted kernel of 
an English walnut. 

Wherein lies the aesthetic significance of this 
mode of cerebral evolution ? It prevents our head 
from becoming too large. Have you ever considered 
why infants appear so ugly to every one but their 
mothers? One of the principal reasons is that their 
heads are twice as large in proportion to the rest 
of the body as those of adults. A child's stature 
is equal to four times the height of its head, an 
adult's to eight heads. If our heads continued to 
grow larger as our mind's expanded, from generation 
to generation, all the proportions of human stature 
would ultimately be violated. But thanks to the 
peculiar mode of cerebral evolution just described, 

The Forehead 299 

Romantic Love may continue to " select " in accord- 
ance with our present standards of beauty, without 
thereby favouring the survival of lower intellectual 

This view of the question also solves a difficulty 
which has staggered even such a leading evolutionist 
as Mr. Wallace, viz., the fact that the oldest pre- 
historic skulls that have been found " surpass the 
average of modern European skulls in capacity." 
But if it is the easiest thing in the world to find 
an ordinary stupid man in our streets with a 
larger skull than that of many a clever brain-worker, 
why should we attach so much importance to those 
prehistoric skulls ? Had their brains been examined, 
they would doubtless have been found as scantily 
furrowed as those of a big-headed modern anarchist. 


That the intellectual powers are to a large 
extent independent of the particular conformation 
of the skull is shown further by the circumstance 
that so many savage tribes have for centuries fol- 
lowed the fashion of artificially shaping their heads, 
without any apparent effect on their minds. Man's 
brain incites him, as Topinard remarks, " to the 
noblest deeds, as well as to the most ridiculous 
practices, such as cutting off the little finger, scorch- 
ing the soles of the feet, extracting the front teeth, 
or deforming the head, because others have done so 
before him'.' But of all silly Fashions hostile to 
Beauty, that of deforming the head has found the 
largest number of followers always excepting, of 
course, the modern Wasp-Waist Mania. 

3oo Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

Deformed skulls have been found in the Caucasus, 
the Crimea, Hungary, Silesia, France, Belgium, 
Switzerland, in Polynesia, in different parts of 
Asia, etc. " But the classic country in which these 
deformations are found is America," says Topinard. 
" M. Gosse has described sixteen species of artificial 
deformation, ten of which were in American skulls." 
" Sometimes the infant was fastened on a plank or 
a sort of cradle with leather straps ; or they applied 
pieces of clay, pressing them down with small 
boards on the forehead, the vertex, and the occiput. 
. . . Sometimes the head was kneaded with the 
hands or knees, or, the infant being laid on the 
back, the elbow was pressed on the forehead. 
Circular bands were sometimes employed to support 
the sides of the head." 

" Many American Indians," says Darwin, " are 
known to admire a head so extremely flattened as 
to appear to us idiotic. The natives of the north- 
western coast compress the head into a pointed 
cone ; " while the inhabitants of Arakhan " admire a 
broad, smooth forehead, and in order to produce it, 
they fasten a plate of lead on the head of the new- 
born children." 

" The genuine Turkish skull is of the broad 
Tartar form," says Mr. Tylor, " while the nations of 
Greece and Asia Minor have oval skulls, which 
gives the reason why at Constantinople it became 
the fashion to mould the babies' skulls round, so 
that they grew up with the broad head of the . con- 
quering race. Relics of such barbarism linger on in 
the midst of civilisation, and not long ago a French 
physician surprised the world by the fact that nurses 

The Forehead 301 

in Normandy were still giving the children's heads 
a sugar-loaf shape by bandages and a tight cap, 
while in Brittany they preferred to press it round. 
No doubt they are doing so to this day." 

" Failure properly to mould the cranium of her off- 
spring," says Bancroft, " gives to the Chinook matron 
the reputation of a lazy and undutiful mother, and 
subjects the neglected children to the ridicule of 
their young companions, so despotic is fashion." 

Food for thought will also be found in these 
remarks by Darwin. Ethnologists believe, he says, 
" that the skull is modified by the kind of cradle in 
which infants sleep ; " and Schaffhausen is convinced 
that " in certain trades, such as that of a shoemaker, 
where the head is habitually held forward, the fore- 
head becomes more round and prominent." If this 
is true, then we have one reason, at least, why 
authors have such large foreheads. 


Wrinkles in the face are signs of advanced age, 
or disease, or habits of profound meditation, or 
frequent indulgence in frowning and grief. The 
wrinkles on a thinker's forehead do not arouse our 
disapproval, because they are often eloquent of genius, 
which excuses a slight sacrifice of the smoothness of 
skin that belongs to perfect Beauty. In women, how- 
ever, we apply a pure and strict aesthetic standard, 
wherefore all wrinkles are regarded as regrettable 
inroads on Personal Beauty. Old women, of course, 
form an exception, because in them we no longer 
look for youthful Beauty, and are therefore gratified 
at the sight of wrinkles and folds as stereotyped 

3O2 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

forms of expression bespeaking a life rich in ex- 
periences, and associated with the veneration due to 
old age. Such wrinkles are characteristic, but not 
beautiful ; and it may be stated, by the way, that 
Alison's whole book on Taste is vitiated by the ever- 
recurring argument in which he forgets that we may 
take a personal and even an artistic interest in a 
thing which is characteristic without being beautiful. 

In youth, while the skin is firm and elastic, the 
wrinkles on the forehead or around the eyes, caused 
by a frown or smile, pass away, leaving no more 
trace than the ripples on the surface of a lake. 
With advancing age the skin becomes looser and 
less elastic, so that frequent repetition of those move- 
ments which produce a fold in the skin finally leaves 
an indelible mark on the furrowed countenance. 
Woman's skin, being commonly better " padded " 
with fat than man's, is not so liable to wrinkles, 
provided attention is paid to the laws of health. 
Mantegazza suggests that the simplest antidote for 
wrinkles would be to distend the folded skin again 
by fattening up. The daily use of good soap and 
slight friction helps to ward off wrinkles by keeping 
the facial muscles toned up and the skin elastic. 

The (voluntary) mobility of the skin of the fore- 
head, to which we owe our wrinkles, affords an 
interesting illustration of the way in which facial 
muscles, once " useful," have been modified for mere 
purposes of expression. " Many monkeys have, and 
frequently use, the power of largely moving their 
scalps up and down." This may be of use in shaking 
off leaves, flies, rain, etc. But man, with his covered 
head, needs no such protection ; hence most of us 

The Forehead 303 

have lost the power of moving our scalps. A corre- 
spondent wrote to Darwin, however, of a youth who 
could pitch several heavy books from his head by 
the movement of the scalp alone ; and many other 
similar cases are on record, attesting our simian 
relationship. But lower down on the forehead, our 
skin has universally retained the power of move- 
ment, as shown in frowning and the expression of 
various emotions. 

At first sight it is somewhat difficult to under- 
stand why meditation should wrinkle the skin ; but 
Darwin explains it by concluding that frowning 
(which, oft repeated, results in wrinkles) " is not the 
expression of simple reflection, however profound, or 
of attention, however close, but of something difficult 
or displeasing encountered in a train of thought or 
in action. Deep reflection can, however, seldom be 
long carried on without some difficulty, so that it 
will generally be accompanied by a frown." 

Fashionable women sometimes endeavour (unsuc- 
cessfully) to distend the skin and remove wrinkles 
by pasting court-plaster on certain spots in the face. 
But the repulsive fashion of wearing patches of 
court -plaster all over the face as an ornament 
(" beauty-spots ! "), doubtless had its origin in the 
desire of some aristocratic dame to conceal pimples or 
other skin blemishes. At one time women even sub- 
mitted to the fashion of pasting on the face and 
bosom paper flies, fleas, and other loathsome creatures. 

The African monkeys who held an indignation 
meeting when they first heard of Darwin's theory of 
the descent of man, had probably just been reading 
a history of human Fashions. 

304 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 



"The charm of colour, especially in the intricate 
infinities of human flesh, is so mysterious and fascin- 
ating, that some almost measure a painter's merit by 
his success in dealing with it," says Hegel ; and 
again : " Man is the only animal that has flesh in 
its display of the infinities of colour." " No loveli- 
ness of colour, even of the humming birds or the 
birds of Paradise, is living, is glowing with its own 
life, but shines with the lustre of light reflected, and 
its charm is from without and not from within " 
(Esthetics, Kedney's edition). 

For a metaphysician, trained to scornfully ignore 
facts, the difference between man and animals is 
in these sentences pointed out with commendable 
insight. Regard for scientific accuracy, it is 
true, compels us to qualify Hegel's generalisation, 
for not only have monkeys bare coloured patches 
in their faces, and elsewhere, which are subject 
to changes, but the plumage of birds, too, is dulled 
by ill -health and brightened by health, reaching 
its greatest brilliancy in the season of Court- 
ship, thus showing a connection between internal 
states and external appearances. Nevertheless, 
these correspondences in animals are transient and 
crude ; and man is the only being whose nude 
skin is sufficiently delicate and transparent to in- 
dicate the minute changes in the blood's circulation 
brought about by various phases of pleasure and 

The Complexion 305 

To understand the exact nature of these tints of 
the complexion, which are so greatly admired 
though different nations, as usual, have different 
standards of " taste " it is necessary to bear in 
mind a few simple facts of microscopic anatomy. 

To put the matter graphically, it may be said 
that our body wears two tight-fitting physiological 
coats, called the epidermis or overskin, and the cutis 
or underskin. 

The overskin is not simple, but consists of an 
outside layer of horny cells, such as are removed by 
the razor on shaving, and an inside mucous layer, 
as seen on the lips, which have no horny covering. 

The underskin contains nerves, fat cells, hair- 
bulbs, and numerous blood-vessels, some as fine as 
a hair, all embedded in a soft, elastic network of 
connective tissue. 

The overskin has none of these blood-vessels ; 
but as it is very delicate and transparent, it allows 
the colour of the blood to be seen as through a veil. 
In the extremely blond races of the North nothing 
but the blood can be seen through this veil ; but in 
the coloured races the lower or mucous layer of the 
overskin contains a number of black, brown, or 
yellowish pigment cells. The colours of these cells 
blend with that of the blood, thus producing, accord- 
ing to their number and depth of coloration, the 
brunette, black, yellow, or red complexion. The palm 
of the negro's hand is whiter than the rest of his 
body, because there the horny epidermis is so thick 
that the black pigmentary matter cannot be seen 
through it. And the reason why every negro is 
born to blush unseen is because the pigmentary 


306 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

matter in his skin is so deep and abundant that it 
neutralises the colour of the blood. 

Now, why do the races of various countries differ 
so greatly in the colour of their skin ? This is the 
most vexed and difficult question in anthropology, 
on which there are almost as many opinions as 

The oldest and most obvious theory is that the 
sun is responsible for dark complexions. Are not 
those parts of our body which are constantly exposed 
to sunlight the hands, face, and neck darker than 
the rest of the body? and does not this colour 
become darker still if we spend a few weeks in the 
country or make a trip across the Atlantic ? Do 
we not find in Europe, as we pass from the sunny 
South to the cloudy North, that complexion, hair, 
and eyes grow gradually lighter ? And not only 
are the Spaniards and Italians darker than the 
Germans, but the South Germans are darker than 
the North Germans, and the Swedes and Norwegians 
lighter still than the Prussians. 

The same holds true not only of South America 
as compared to North America, but of the southern 
United States compared to the northern. It also 
holds true of the East, where, as Waitz tells us, 
" The Chinese from Peking to Canton show every 
shade from a light to a dark copper colour, while in 
the Arabians, from the desert down to Yemen, we 
find every gradation from olive colour to black." 
Moreover, aristocratic ladies in Japan and China 
are almost or quite white, whereas the labouring 
classes, as with us, are of a darker tint. 

These and numerous similar facts, taken in con- 

The Complexion 307 

nection with the circumstance that the blackest of 
all races lives in the hottest continent, and that Jews 
may be found of all colours according to the country 
they inhabit, lead almost irresistibly to the conclu- 
sion that it is the sun who paints the complexion 

Nevertheless there are numerous and striking 
exceptions to the rule that the warmer the climate 
the darker the complexion. To obviate this diffi- 
culty, Heusinger in 1829, Jarrold in 1838, and 
others after them have endeavoured to show that 
the moisture and altitude, as well as the direct action 
of the sun, had to be taken into consideration. But 
since " D'Orbigny in South America, and Livingstone 
in Africa, arrived at diametrically opposite conclu- 
sions with respect to dampness and dryness," Darwin 
excogitated the theory (which, he subsequently found, 
had already been advanced in 1813 by Dr. Wells), 
that inasmuch as " the colour of the skin and hair 
is sometimes correlated in a surprising manner with 
a complete immunity from the action of certain 
vegetable poisons, and from the attacks of parasites 
. . . negroes and other dark races might have 
acquired their dark tints by the darker individuals 
escaping from the deadly influence of the miasma 
of their native countries, during a long series of 

The testimony on this point being, however, con- 
flicting and unsatisfactory, Darwin gave up this 
notion too, and fell back on the theory that differ- 
ences in complexion are due to differences in taste, 
and were created through the agency of Sexual 
Selection. "We know," he says, "from the many 

308 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

facts already given that the colour of the skin is 
regarded by the men of all races as a highly import- 
ant element in their beauty ; so that it is a character 
which would be likely to have been modified through 
selection, as has occurred in innumerable instances 
with the lower animals. It seems at first sight a 
monstrous supposition that the jet-blackness of the 
negro should have been gained through sexual 
selection ; but this view is supported by various 
analogies, and we know that negroes admire their 
own colour." 

Doubtless there is some truth in Darwin's view, 
but it does not cover the whole ground. Natural 
as well as Sexual Selection has been instrumental in 
producing the diverse colours of various races. 
Hitherto the trouble has been that no one could 
understand how a black skin could be useful to an 
African negro. It ought to make him feel uncom- 
fortably hot for is it not well known that black 
absorbs heat more than any other colour ? and do 
we not feel warmer in summer if we wear black 
than if we wear white clothes ? 

No doubt whatever. But it so happens that the 
skin is not made of dead wool or felt. It contains, 
among various other ingenious arrangements, a vast 
number of minute holes or pores, through which, 
when we are very warm, the perspiration leaks, and, 
in changing into vapour, absorbs the body's heat and 
leaves it cool, or even cold. Now, in a negro's skin 
these pores are both larger and more numerous than 
in ours, which partly accounts for his indifference to 
heat, and the fact that his temperature is lower than 
ours. Yet it does not solve the problem in hand ; 

The Complexion 309 

for there is no visible reason why Natural Selection 
should not succeed in enlarging the number and 
size of the pores in a white skin as easily as in a 
black one. 

A year or two ago Surgeon-Major Alcock sent a 
communication to Nature in which, as I believe, he 
for the first time suggested the true reason why 
tropical man is black, and why his blackness is 
useful to him. He pointed out that since the pig- 
ment-cells in the negro's skin are placed in front of 
the nerve terminations, they serve to lessen the 
intensity of the nerve vibrations that would be 
caused in a naked human body by exposure to a 
tropical sun ; so that the pigment plays the same 
part as a piece of smoked glass held between the sun 
and the eyes. 

This ingenious theory at once explains some 
curious and apparently anomalous observations com- 
municated to Nature by Mr. Ralph Abercrombie 
from Darjeeling. They are that " In Morocco, and 
all along the north of Africa, the inhabitants blacken 
themselves round the eyes to avert ophthalmia from 
the glare off hot sand ; " that "In Fiji the natives, 
who are in the habit of painting their faces with red 
and white stripes as an ornament, invariably blacken 
them when they go out fishing on the reef in the full 
glare of the sun ; " and' that " In the Sikkim hills the 
natives blacken themselves round the eyes with char- 
coal to palliate the glare of a tropical sun on newly- 
fallen snow." 

How, on the other hand, are we to account for 
the white complexion of northern races ? It is 
well known that there is a tendency among arctic 

3io Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

animals to become white. This, in many cases, can 
be accounted for by the advantage white beasts of 
prey, as well as their victims, thus gain in escaping 
detection. But it is probable that another agency 
comes into play, first suggested by Craven in I 846, 
and thus summarised by a writer in Nature, 2d April 
1885 : "It is well known that white, as the worst 
absorber, is also the worst radiator of all forms of 
radiant energy, so that warm-blooded creatures thus 
clad would be better enabled to withstand the 
severity of an arctic climate the loss of heat by 
radiation might, in fact, be expected to be less 
rapid than if the hairs or feathers were of a darker 

This argument, which may be applied to man as 
well as to animals, is greatly strengthened by a cir- 
cumstance which at first appears to oppose it the 
fact, namely, that insects in northern regions, instead 
of being light -coloured, show a tendency toward 
blackness. But this apparent anomaly is easily ex- 
plained. Insects, being cold-blooded, cannot lose 
any bodily heat through radiation ; whereas a black 
surface, by absorbing as much solar heat as possible 
while it lasts, adds to their comfort and vitality. 

The question now arises, Which was the original 
colour of the human race, white or black ? This 
question, too, we are enabled to answer with the aid 
of a principle of evolution which, so far, has stood 
every test, the principle that the child's develop- 
ment is an epitome of the evolution of his race. 
Before birth there is no colouring matter at all in 
the skin of a negro child. " In a new-born child 
the colour is light gray, and in the northern parts of 

The Complexion 3 1 1 

the negro countries the completely dark colour is not 
attained till towards the third year," says Waitz ; 
and again, in speaking of Tahiti : " The children are 
here (as everywhere in Polynesia) white at birth, 
and only gradually assume their darker colour under 
the influence of sunlight ; covered portions of their 
bodies remain lighter, and since women wear more 
clothes than men, and dwell more in the shade, they 
too are often of so light a colour that they have red 
cheeks and blush visibly." 

So we are entitled to infer that primitive man 
was originally white, or whitish. As he moved south, 
Natural Selection made him darker and darker by 
continually favouring the survival of those individuals 
whose colour owing to the spontaneous variation 
found throughout Nature was of a dark shade, and 
therefore better able to dull the ardour of the sun's 
rays. In the north, on the contrary, a light com- 
plexion was favoured for its quality of retaining the 
body's heat. The yellow and red varieties need not 
be specially considered, for it has been shown that 
the different tints of the iris are merely due to the 
greater or less quantity of the same pigmentary 
matter ; and as the colouring matter of the com- 
plexion and the hair is similar to that of the eye, 
it is probable that the same holds true of different 
hues of the skin ; so that yellowish, brown, and 
reddish tints may be looked upon as mere inter- 
mediate stages between white and black. A trace 
of pigment, indeed, is found even in our skins ; 
and I believe that the reason why we become 
brown on exposure to the sun is that the skin, when 
thus exposed and irritated, secretes a larger amount 

312 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

of this colouring matter, to serve, like a dimly-smoked 
glass, as a protection against scorching rays. 

From all these considerations we may safely infer 
that the particular hue of man's skin in each climate 
is useful to him, and not merely an ornamental pro- 
duct of " taste," as Darwin believed. Yet to some 
extent Sexual Selection, doubtless, does come into 
play in most cases. At a low stage of culture each 
race likes its special characteristics in an exaggerated 
form, a trait which would lead the more vigorous 
men to persistently select the darkest girls as wives, 
and thus cause their gradual predominance over the 
others ; while the men, too, would, of course, inherit 
a darker tint from their mothers. But a still more 
important consideration is this, that, as Dr. Topinard 
points out, " Dark colour in the negro is a sign of 
health" naturally, since the darker the dermal pig- 
ment, the better are the nerves of temperature pro- 
tected against the enervating solar rays. Concerning 
the Polynesians, too, Ellis (cited by Waitz) " notes 
expressly that a dark colour was more admired and 
desired because it was looked upon as a sign of 

These facts yield us a most profound insight into 
the methods of amorous selection. The erotic 
instinct, whose duty is the preservation of the species, 
is above all things attracted by Health, because with- 
out Health the species must languish and die out. 
In a climate where under the circumstances in 
which negroes live a light complexion is incom- 
patible with Health, it is bound to be eliminated. 

Fortunately, the negro's taste is not sufficiently 
refined to make him feel the aesthetic inferiority of 

The Complexion 3 1 3 

the ebony complexion imposed on him by his climate. 
Wherein this aesthetic inferiority consists is graphically 
pointed out in these words of Figuier : " The colour of 
the skin takes away all charm from the negro's coun- 
tenance. What renders the European's face pleasing is 
that each of its features exhibits a particular shade. 
The cheeks, forehead, nose, and chin of the white 
have each a different tinge. On an African visage, 
on the contrary, all is black, even the eyebrows, as 
inky as the rest, are merged in the general colour; 
scarcely another shade is perceptible, except at the 
line where the lips join each other." 

Nor is this all. Not only do we look in vain, in 
the monotonous blackness of the negro's face, for 
those varied tints which adorn a white maiden's face, 
borrowing one another's charms by insensible grada- 
tions, but also for those subtle emotional changes 
which, even if they existed in the negro's mind, could 
not paint themselves so delicately on his opaque 
countenance, betraying every acceleration or retarda- 
tion in the heart's beats, indicating every mtance of 
hope and despair, of pleasure or anguish. 

In our own latitude, luckily, Natural Selection 
favours, in the manner indicated, the survival of the 
translucent white complexion. And what Natural 
Selection leaves undone, Sexual Selection completes. 
Romantic Love is the great awakener of the sense 
of Beauty, and in proportion as Love is developed and 
unimpeded in its action, does the complexion become 
more beautiful and more appreciated. Savages, 
blind to the delicate tints of a transparent skin, daub 
themselves all over with mixtures of grease and 
paint. The women of ancient Greece had taste 

3 14 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

enough to feel the ugliness of the pallor caused 
by being constantly chaperoned and locked up, 
but not enough to know that no artificial paint can 
ever replace the natural colour of health. Hence, 
as Becker tells us, "painting was almost universal 
among Grecian women." Perhaps they did not use 
any rouge at home, but it "was resumed when they 
were going out, or wished to be specially attractive." 
The men, apparently, had better taste, for we read 
that " Ischomachos counselled his young wife to take 
exercise, that she might do without rouge, which she 
was accustomed constantly to use." 

Coming to more recent times, we find men still 
protesting in vain against the feminine fashion of 
bedaubing the face with vulgar paint. More than 
two centuries ago La Bruyere informed his country- 
women pointedly that " If it is the men they desire 
to please, if it is for them that they paint and stain 
themselves, I have collected their opinions, and I 
assure them, in the name of all or most men, that 
the white and red paint renders them frightful and 
disgusting ; that the red alone makes them appear 
old and artificial ; that men hate as much to see 
them with cherry in their faces, as with false teeth 
in their mouth and lumps of wax in the jaws." 

It is needless to say that women who paint their 
faces put themselves on a level with savages ; for 
they show thereby that they prefer hideous opaque 
daubs to the charm of translucent facial tints. 
Masculine protestation, combined with masculine 
amorous preference for pure complexions, has at 
last succeeded in banishing paint from the boudoir 
of the most refined ladies ; and this, combined with 

The Complexion 3 i 5 

compulsory vaccination against smallpox, accounts 
for the increasing number of good complexions in 
the world. 

But, the important question now confronts us, 
Is there no limit to the evolution of whiteness of 
complexion ? Will Sexual Selection continue to 
favour the lighter shades until the hyperbolic " milk 
and blood " complexion will have been universally 
realised ? 

An emphatic " No " is the answer. An exagger- 
ated white is as objectionable as black, more so, 
in fact, because, whereas the deepest black indicates 
good health, extreme whiteness suggests the pallor of 
ill-health, and will therefore always displease Cupid, 
the supreme judge of Personal Beauty. Moreover, 
in a very white face the red cheek suggests the con- 
fusing blush or the hectic flush rather than the 
subtle tints of health and normal emotion. And 
again, the Scandinavian rose-and-lily complexion is 
inferior to the delicate and slightly-veiled tint of the 
Spanish brunette, because the latter suggests the 
mellowing action of the sun's rays, which promises 
more permanence of beauty. Hence it is that in the 
marriage market a decided preference is shown for 
the brunette type, as we shall see in the chapter on 
Blondes and Brunettes. 


We are now in a position to understand the 
extreme importance of the complexion from an 
amorous point of view, and to see why the care of 
the complexion has almost monopolised the attention 
of those desiring to improve their personal appear- 

316 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

ance, as shown by the fact that the word " cosmetic," 
in common parlance, refers to the care of the skin 

Books containing recipes for skin lotions, oint- 
ments, and powders are so numerous, that it is not 
worth while to devote much space to the matter 
here. As a rule, the best advice to those about to 
use cosmetics is Don't. Every man whose admira- 
tion is worth having will infinitely prefer a freckled, 
or even a pallid or smallpox-marked, face to one 
showing traces of powder or greasy ointments, or 
lifeless, cadaverous enamel, opaque as ebony black- 

If a woman's skin is so morbidly sensitive as to be 
injured by ordinary water and good soap, it is a sign 
of ill-health which calls for residence in the country and 
the mellowing rays of the sun. Where this is un- 
attainable, the water may be medicated by the addition 
of a slice of lemon, cucumber, or horse-radish, to all of 
which magic effects are often attributed. The black 
spots on the sides of the nose may be removed in a 
few weeks by the daily application (with friction) of 
lemon juice. For pimples and barber's itch a camphor 
and sulphur ointment, which may be obtained of any 
chemist, is the simplest remedy. For a shiny, 
polished complexion, and excessive redness of the 
nose, cheeks, and knuckles, the following mixture is 
recommended by a good authority : Powdered 
borax, one half ounce ; pure glycerine, one ounce ; 
camphor-water, one quart. Borax, indeed, is as 
indispensable a toilet article as soap or a nail-brush. 
After washing the face, exposure to the raw air 
should always be avoided for ten or fifteen minutes. 

The Complexion 3 1 7 

" A certain amount of friction applied to the face 
daily will do much," says Dr. Bulkley, " to keep the 
pores of the sebaceous glands open; and, by stimu- 
lating the face, to prevent the formation of the black 
specks and red spots so common in young people, 
I generally direct that the face be rubbed to a 
degree short of discomfort, and that the towel be 
not too rough." Slight friction also helps to ward 
off wrinkles. 

Two or three weekly baths hot in winter, cold 
in summer are absolutely necessary for those who 
wish to keep their skin in a healthy condition ; and 
no elixir of youth and beauty could produce such a 
sparkling eye and glow of rosy health as a daily 
morning sponge bath, followed by friction care 
being taken, in a cold room, to expose only one part 
of the body at a time. The importance of keeping 
open the pores of the skin by bathing is seen by the 
fact that if a man were painted with varnish he 
would suffocate in a few hours ; for the skin is a 
sort. of external lung, aiding its internal colleague in 
removing effete products, dissolved in the perspiration, 
from the system. 

The debris and oily matter brought to the surface 
of the skin and deposited there by the perspiration 
cannot be completely removed without soap. Un- 
fortunately, this article has done more to ruin com- 
plexions than almost any other cause, except small- 
pox and the superstitious dread of sunshine. Many 
people have a peculiar mania for economising in 
soap. If they can buy a piece of soap for a farthing, 
they consider themselves wonderfully clever, regard- 
less of the fact that it may not only ruin their com- 

3i 8 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

plexion, but produce a repulsive skin disease which 
it will cost much gold to cure. Do they ever realise 
that these soaps, which they thus smear over the 
most delicate parts of their body every day, are 
made of putrid carcasses of animals, rancid fat, and 
corrosive alkalies ? Has no one ever told them that 
if a soap is both cheap and highly perfumed it is 
certain to be of vile composition, and injurious to 
the skin ? After washing yourself wait a moment 
till the soap's artificial odour has disappeared, and 
then smell your hands. That vile rancid odour 
which remains if you knew its source, you would 
immediately run for a Turkish bath to wash off 
the very epidermis to which that odour has ad- 

What has ruined so many complexions is not 
soap itself, but bad soap. A famous specialist, Dr. 
Bulkley, says that " there is no intrinsic reason why 
soap should not be applied to the face, although 
there is a very common impression among the pro- 
fession, as well as the laity, that it should not be used 
there. . . . The fact is, that many cases of eruptions 
upon the face are largely due to the fact that soap 
has not been used on that part ; and it is also true 
that, if properly employed, and if the soap is good, it 
is not only harmless, but beneficial to the skin of the 
face, as to every other part of the body." 

" A word may be added in reference to the so- 
called ' medicated soaps,' whose number and variety 
are legion, each claiming virtues far excelling all 
others previously produced. . . . Now all or most 
of this attempt to ' medicate ' soap is a perfect farce 
a delusion, and a snare to entrap the unwary and 

The Complexion 319 

uneducated. . . . Carbolic soap is useless and may 
be dangerous, because the carbolic acid may possibly 
become the blind beneath which a cheap, poor soap 
is used ; for in all these advertised and patented 
nostrums the temptation is great to employ inferior 
articles that the pecuniary gain may be greater. The 
small amount of carbolic acid incorporated in the 
soap cannot act as an efficient disinfectant." 


Soap is not the only cosmetic that has been tabooed 
in the face because of illogical reasoning. There is 
a much more potent beautifying influence viz., the 
mellowing rays of the sun of which the face has long 
been deprived, chiefly on account of an unscientific 
prejudice that the sun is responsible for freckles. In 
his famous work on skin diseases Professor Hebra of 
Vienna, the greatest modern authority in his specialty, 
has completely disproved this almost universally 
accepted theory. The matter is of such extreme 
importance to Health and Beauty that his remarks 
must be quoted at length : 

" It is a fact that lentigo (freckles) neither appears 
in the newly-born nor in children under the age of 
68 years, whether they run about the whole day 
in the open air and exposed to the bronzing influence 
of the sun, or whether they remain confined to the 
darkest room ; it is therefore certain that neither 
light nor air nor warmth produces such spots in 
children. . . . 

" If we examine the skin of an individual who is 
said to be affected with the so-called freckles only in 
the summer, at other seasons of the year with suffi- 

320 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

cient closeness in a good light, and with the skin 
put on the stretch by the finger, we shall detect the 
same spots, of the same size but of somewhat lighter 
colour than in summer. In further illustration of 
what has just been said, I will mention that I have 
repeatedly had the opportunity of seeing lentigines 
on parts of the body that, as a rule, are never exposed 
to the influence of the light and sun. . . . 

" A priori, it is difficult to understand how 
ephelides can originate from the influence of sun 
and light in the singular form of disseminated spots, 
since these influences act not only on single points, 
but uniformly over the whole surface of the skin of 
the face, hands, etc. The pigmentary changes must 
appear, therefore, in the form of patches, not of 
points. Moreover, it is known to every one that, if 
the skin of the face be directly exposed, even for 
only a short time, to a rough wind or to intense heat, 
a tolerably dark bronzing appears, which invades the 
affected parts uniformly, and not in the form of 
disseminated, so-called summer-spots (freckles). It 
was, therefore, only faulty observation on the part of 
our forefathers which induced them to attribute the 
ephelides to the influence of light and sun." 

But the amount of mischief done by this " faulty 
observation of our forefathers " is incalculable. To 
it we owe the universal feminine horror of sunshine, 
without which it is as impossible for their complexion 
to have a healthy, love-inspiring aspect, as it is for a 
plant grown in a cellar to have a healthy green 
colour. How many women are there who preserve 
their youthful beauty after twenty-five the age when 
they ought to be in full bloom ? They owe this 

The Complexion 321 

early decay partly to their indolence, mental and 
physical, partly to their habit of shutting out every 
ray of sunlight from their faces as if it were a rank 
poison instead of the source of all Health and Beauty. 
If young ladies would daily exercise their muscles 
in fresh air and sunshine, they would not need veils 
to make themselves look younger. Veils may be 
useful against very rough wind, but otherwise they 
should be avoided, because they injure the eyesight. 
Parasols are a necessity on very hot summer after- 
noons, but " the rest of the year the complexion needs 
all the sun it can get." 

Were any further argument needed to convince us 
that the sun has been falsely accused of creating 
freckles, it would be found in the fact that southern 
brunette races, though constantly exposed to the sun, 
are much less liable to them than the yellow and 
especially the red-haired individuals of the North. 
Professor Hebra regards freckles as " a freak of 
Nature rather than as a veritable disease," and thinks 
they are " analogous to the piebald appearances met 
with in the lower animals." As has just been noted, 
they exist in winter as well as in summer. All that 
the summer heat does is to make them visible by 
making the skin more transparent. As the heat 
itself causes them to appear any way, it is useless to 
taboo the direct sunlight as their source. 

Inasmuch as freckles appear chiefly among 
northern races, whose skin has been excessively 
bleached and weakened in its action by constant 
indoor life, it seems probable, notwithstanding Dr. 
Hebra's opinion, that they are the result of an 
unhealthy, abnormal action of the pigment-secreting 


322 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

apparatus which exists even in the white skin. If 
this be so, then proper care of the skin continued 
for several generations would obliterate them. The 
reason why country folks are more liable to freckles 
than their city cousins would then be referable, not 
to the greater amount of sunlight in the country, but 
to the rarity of bath-tubs, good soap, and friction- 
towels. My own observation leads me to believe 
that freckles are rarer in England than on the conti- 
nent, and the English are proverbially enamoured of 
the bath-tub and open-air exercise. 

For those who, without any fault of their own, 
have inherited freckles from their parents, there is 
this consoling reflection that these blemishes reside in 
a very superficial layer of the skin, and can therefore 
be removed. Several methods are known ; but as no 
one should ever use them without medical assistance, 
they need not be described here (see Hebra's Treatise, 
vol. iii.) Any one who wishes to temporarily con- 
ceal skin-blemishes may find this citation from Hebra 
of use : " Perfumers and apothecaries have prepared 
from time immemorial cosmetics whose chief constit- 
uent is talcum venetum, or pulvis aluminis plumosi 
(Federweiss), which, when rubbed in, in the form of 
a paste, with water and alcohol, or a salve with lard, 
or quite dry, as a powder, gives to the skin an agree- 
able white colour, and does not injure it in the least, 
even if the use of the cosmetic be continued through- 
out life." 

It is probable that electricity will play a grand 
role in future as an agent for removing superfluous 
hairs, freckles, moles, port-wine marks, etc. Much 
has already been done in this direction, and the only 

The Eyes 323 

danger is in falling into the hands of an unscrupulous 
quack. In vol. iii. No. 4 of the Journal of Cutaneous 
and Venereal Diseases, Dr. Hardaway has an interest- 
ing article on this subject. 


In one of the Platonic dialogues Sokrates points 
out the relativity of standards of Beauty. " Is not," 
he asks in effect, " the most beautiful ape ugly com- 
pared to a maiden ? and is not the maiden, in turn, 
inferior in beauty to a goddess ? " 

Regarding most of the human features it may be 
conceded that Sokrates is right in his second ques- 
tion. To find a human forehead, nose, or mouth 
that could not be improved in some respect, is per- 
haps impossible. But one feature must be excepted. 
There are human eyes which no artist with a god- 
dess for a model could make more divine. And of 
these glorious orbs there are so many, in every 
country, that one cannot help concluding that Scho- 
penhauer made a great mistake in placing the face, 
with the eyes, so low down in his list of love- 
inspiring human qualities. On the contrary, I 
am convinced that no feminine charm so frequently 
and so fatally fascinates men as lovely eyes, and that 
it is for this reason that Sexual Selection has done 
more to perfect the eyes than any other part of the 

When Petruchio says of Katharina that " she looks 
as clear as morning roses newly washed with dew," 
he compliments her complexion ; but when the 
Persian poet compares " a violet sparkling with dew" 

324 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

to " the blue eyes of a beautiful girl in tears," the 
compliment is to the violet. A woman's eye is the 
most beautiful object in the universe ; and what 
made it so is man's Romantic Love. 

Putting poetry aside, we must now consider a few 
scientific facts and correct a few misconceptions re- 
garding the eye, its colour, lustre, form, and expres- 


To say of any one that he has gray, blue, brown, or 
black eyes, is vague and incorrect from a strictly scien- 
tific point of view, inasmuch as there are no really gray 
or black eyes, and, as a matter of fact, every eye, if 
closely examined, shows at least five or six different 

There is, first, the tough sclerotic coat or white 
of the eye, which covers the greater part of the eye- 
ball, and is not transparent, except in front where 
the coloured iris (or rainbow membrane) is seen 
through it. This central transparent portion of the 
sclerotic coat is called the cornea, and is slightly 
raised above the general surface of the eyeball, like 
the middle portion of some watch-glasses. 

The white of the eye is sometimes slightly tinged 
with blue or yellow, and sometimes netted with in- 
flamed blood-vessels. All these deviations are aes- 
thetically inferior to the pure white of the healthy 
European, because suggestive of disease, and conflict- 
ing with the general cosmic standards of beauty. 
The bluish tint is a sign of consumption or scrofulous 
disorders, being caused by a diminution of the pigment- 
ary matter in the choroid coat which lines the inside 
of the sclerotic. The yellowish tint, in the European, 

The Eyes 325 

is indicative of jaundice, dyspepsia, or premature 
degeneracy of the white of the eye. It is normal, 
on the other hand, in the healthy negro ; but if a 
negro should claim that, inasmuch as a yellowish 
sclerotic is to him not suggestive of disease, he has 
as much right to consider it beautiful as we our 
white sclerotic, the simple retort would be, that we 
are guided in our aesthetic judgment by positive as 
well as negative tests. Disease is the negative test ; 
the positive lies in the fact that in inanimate objects, 
where disease is altogether out of the question as 
in ivory ornaments (which no one associates with an 
elephant's tusk) we also invariably prefer a pure 
snowy white to a muddy uncertain yellow. It is these 
two tests in combination which have guided Sexual 
Selection in its efforts to eliminate all but the pure 
white sclerotic, a tint which, moreover, throws into 
brighter relief the enchanting hues of the " sun- 
beamed " iris. 

More objectionable still than a yellowish or bluish 
sclerotic is a bloodshot eye, not only because the in- 
flamed blood-vessels which swell and flood the white 
surface of the eye deface the marble purity of the 
sclerotic (in a manner not in the least analogous to 
marble " veins "), but because the red, watery blear- 
eye generally indicates the ravages of intemperance 
or unrestrained passions. However, a bloodshot eye 
may be the result of mere overwork, or reading in a 
flickering light, or lack of sleep ; hence it is not 
always safe to allow the disagreeable aesthetic im- 
pression given by inflamed eyes to prognosticate 
moral obliquity. But, after all,' the intimate connec- 
tion between aesthetic and moral judgments is in this 

326 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

case based on a correct, subtle instinct ; for is not a 
man who ruins the health and beauty of his eyes 
by intemperance in drink or night-work sinning 
against himself? If attempts at suicide are punished 
by law, why should not minor offences against one's 
Health at least be looked upon with moral disap- 
proval ? If this sentiment could be made universal, 
there would be fifty per cent more Beauty in the 
world after a single generation. 

In the centre of the white sclerotic is the mem- 
brane which gives the eyes their characteristic vari- 
ations of colour, the iris or rainbow curtain. If we 
look at an eye from a distance of a few paces, it 
seems to have some one definite colour, as brown or 
blue. But on closer examination we see that there 
are always several hues in each iris. The colour of 
the iris is due to the presence of small pigment 
granules in its interior layer. These granules are 
always brown, in blue and gray as well as in brown 
eyes ; and the greater their number and thickness, 
the darker is the colour of the iris. Blue eyes are 
caused by the presence, in front of the pigment-layer, 
of a thin, almost colourless membrane, which absorbs 
all the rays of light except the blue, which it reflects, 
and thus causes the translucent iris to appear of that 

The Instructions de la Societe d'Anthropologie, 
says Dr. Topinard, " recognise four shades of colour, 
brown, green, blue, and gray ; each having five tones 
the very dark, the dark, the intermediate, the light, 
and the very light. The expression " brown " does 
not mean pure brown ; it is rather a reddish, a 
yellowish, or a greenish brown, corresponding with 

The Eyes 327 

the chestnut or auburn colour, the hazel and the 
sandy, made use of by the English. The gray, too, 
is not pure ; it is, strictly speaking, a violet more or 
less mixed with black and white." 

"The negro, in spite of his name, is not black 
but deep brown," as Mr. Tylor remarks ; and what 
is true of his complexion is also true of his eyes ; 
" what are popularly called black eyes are far from 
having the iris really black like the pupil ; eyes de- 
scribed as black are commonly of the deepest shades 
of brown or violet." 

The pupil, however, is always jetblack, not only 
in negroes, but in all races. For the pupil is simply 
a round opening in the centre of the iris which allows 
us to see clear through the lens and watery sub- 
stance of the eyeball to the black pigment which 
lines its inside surface. The iris, in truth, is nothing 
but a muscular curtain for regulating the size of the 
pupil, and thus determining how much light shall be 
admitted into the interior of the eye. When the 
light is bright and glaring, a little of it suffices for 
vision, hence the iris relaxes its fibres and the pupil 
becomes smaller ; whereas, in twilight and moonlight, 
the eye needs all the light it can catch, so the 
muscles of the iris-curtain contract and enlarge the 
pupil-window. This mechanism of the iris in dim- 
inishing or enlarging the pupil can be neatly ob- 
served by looking into a mirror placed on one side 
of a window. If the hand is put up in such a way 
as to screen the eye from the light, the pupil will be 
seen to enlarge ; and if the hand is then suddenly 
taken away, it will immediately return to its smaller 
size. For the muscles of the iris have the power, 

328 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

denied to other unstriped or involuntary muscles, of 
acting quite rapidly. 

Thus we find in the eyeball three distinct zones 
of colour the white of the eye, sometimes slightly 
tinted blue, yellow, or red ; the iris, which has vari- 
ous shades of brown, green, blue, and gray, com- 
monly two or three in each eye ; and the central 
black pupil. Add to this the flesh-colour of the 
eyelid and surrounding parts, and the light or dark 
lashes and eyebrows, and we see that the eye in 
itself is a perfect colour-symphony. 

Can we account for the existence of all these 
colours ? The easiest thing in the world, with the 
aid of the principles of Natural and Sexual Selection. 
There are reasons for believing that the sense of 
sight is merely a higher development from the sense 
of temperature, adapted to vibrations so rapid that 
the nerves of temperature can no longer distinguish 
them. In its simplest form, among the lowest 
animals, the sense of sight is represented by a mere 
pigment spot. And in the highest form of sight, 
after the development of the various parts of our 
complicated eye, we still find this pigment as one of 
the most essential conditions of vision. Its function, 
however, is not the same as that of the pigment in 
the human skin. There it is interposed between the 
sun and the underskin, in order to protect the 
nerves of temperature. The optic nerve needs no 
such protection ; for the heat-rays of the sun cannot 
but be cooled on passing through the membranes, 
the lens, and the watery substance in the eye, before 
reaching the optic nerve, spread out on the retina. 
Consequently the eye-pigment, instead of being placed 

The Eyes 329 

in front of the nerves, is put behind them ; and their 
function is to absorb any excess of light that enters 
the eye. Were the membrane which contains this 
pigment whitish, all the light would be* reflected back, 
and create such a glare and confusion that no object 
could be seen distinctly. 

This view regarding the function of the pigment 
is strikingly supported by the anomalous case of 
Albinos. " The pink of their eyes (as of white 
rabbits) is caused by the absence of the black pig- 
ment," says Mr. Tylor, "so that light passing out 
through the iris and pupil is tinged red from the 
blood-vessels at the back ; thus their eyes may be 
seen to blush with the rest of the face." 

Bearing these facts in mind, it is obvious why it 
is an advantage in a sunny country to have as much 
pigmentary matter as possible in the eye, and why, 
therefore, Natural Selection makes the eyes blacker 
the nearer we approach the tropics. And, as with 
the complexion, so here, it is fortunate for the negro 
that he has not sufficient taste to feel the aesthetic 
inferiority of the monotonous black thus imposed on 
him by Natural Selection. " The iris is so dark," 
says Figuier, "as almost to be confounded with the 
black of the pupil. In the European, the colour of 
the iris is so strongly marked as to render at once 
perceptible whether the person has black, blue, or 
gray eyes. There is nothing similar in the case of the 
negro, where all parts of the eye are blended in the 
same hue. Add to this that the white of the eye is 
always suffused with yellow in the Negro, and you 
will understand how this organ, which contributes so 
powerfully to give life to the countenance of the 

330 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

White, is invariably dull and expressionless in the 
Black Race." 

To the Esquimaux, living in the constant glare 
of ice and snowfields, a protective pigment is quite 
as necessary as to an African savage ; hence their 
eyes are equally black. But among other northern 
races, who are less constantly exposed to the blinding 
rays of the sun, it suffices to have coal-black pigment 
in the back part of the eye, as seen through the 
pupil, while the iris need not be so absolutely opaque. 
This leaves room for the action of Sexual Selection in 
giving the preference to eyes less monotonously black. 
Our aesthetic sense craves variety and contrasts in 
colour ; and as the sense of Beauty originally stood 
in the service of Love almost exclusively, it is to 
Cupid's selective action that we doubtless owe the 
diverse hues of the modern iris. 

To what kind of an iris does modern Love or 
aesthetic selection give the preference ? Doubtless 
to that which has the deepest and most unmistakable 
colour to dark brown, or deep blue, or violet. One 
reason why we care less for the lighter, faded tints 
of the iris is because they present a less vivid con- 
trast to the white of the eye ; and another reason, 
as Dr. Hugo Magnus suggests, lies in the disagree- 
able impression produced in us by the difficulty of 
making out the exact character of the various indis- 
tinct shades of gray, yellow, green, or blue. 

The consideration of the question whether amor- 
ous selection shows any further preference for one of 
its two favourite colours dark brown and deep 
blue must be deferred to the chapter on Blondes 
and Brunettes. 

The Eyes 3 3 1 


But Cupid is not guided by colour alone in his 
choice. However beautiful the colour of an eye, it 
loses half its charm if it lacks lustre. A bright, 
sparkling eye is the most infallible index of youthful 
vigour and health, whereas the lack-lustre eyes of 
ill-health can never serve as windows from which 
Cupid shoots his arrows. No wonder that the poets 
have searched all nature for analogies to the lustre 
of a maiden's eye, comparing it to sun and stars, to 
diamonds, crystalline lakes, the light of glow-worms, 
glistening dewdrops, etc. 

What is the source of this light which shines 
from the eye and intoxicates the lover's senses ? 
Several answers to this question have been suggested. 
Twenty-five hundred years ago Empedokles taught 
that " there is in the eye a fine network which holds 
back the watery substance swimming about in it, 
but the fiery particles penetrate through it like the 
rays of light through a lantern " (Ueberweg). And 
a notion similar to this, that there is a kind of mag- 
netic or nervous emanation which beams from the 
eye and is a direct efflux of the soul, was entertained 
in recent times by Lavater and Carus. It was 
apparently supported by the peculiar light which 
may be seen occasionally in the eyes of cats, dogs, 
and horses in the twilight ; but this has been proved 
to be a purely physical phenomenon of reflection, 
due to an anatomical peculiarity in the eyes of these 

Some writers have attempted to account for the 
lustrous fire of the eye by attributing it to the in- 

332 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

creased tension of the eyeball brought about through 
certain joyous and exciting emotions. Dr. Hugo 
Magnus, however, denies that these emotions ever 
increase the tension of the eyeball : " We know from 
numerous exceedingly minute measurements that 
there is no such thing whatever as a rapid change of 
tension in the eye, as long as it is in a healthy con- 
dition." In some diseases, especially in cataract 
or glaucoma, such an increased tension does occur, 
indeed, but it does not in the least impart to the eye 
the sparkle of joyous excitement. Hence Professor 
Magnus concludes that " the mimic significance of 
the eye cannot be conditioned by changes in the 
form of the eyeball, through tension or pressure 
on it." 

His own theory (as developed in his two in- 
teresting pamphlets, Die Sprache der Augen and Das 
Auge in seinen aesthetischen und culturgeschichtlichen 
Beziehungen} is that the greater or less brilliancy of 
the eyes depends entirely on the movements of the 
eyelids. Instead of calling the eye the window of 
the soul, it is more correct to say that the cornea is 
a mirror which, like any other mirror, reflects the 
light that falls on it. The higher the eyelids are 
raised the larger becomes the mirror, and the more 
light is therefore reflected. Now it is well known 
that exciting emotions like joy, enthusiasm, anger, 
and pride have a tendency to raise the eyelids, while 
the sad and depressing emotions cause them to sink 
and partially cover the eyeball ; hence joy makes 
the eyes sparkling, while grief renders them dull and 

The old poetic and popular notion that the lustre 

The Eyes 333 

of the eye is a direct emanation of the human soul 
must therefore be abandoned. The sparkling eye is 
a mere physical consequence of the involuntary rais- 
ing of the eyelids brought about through exhilarating 
or exciting emotions. 

This theory of Dr. Magnus doubtless comes 
nearer the truth than the others referred to ; and 
the fact that snakes' eyes, though small, are pro- 
verbially glistening, apparently because they are lid- 
less, may be used as an additional argument in his 
favour, which he overlooked. Yet his view does not 
cover the whole ground ; for it does not explain 
why, after weeping, or when we are weary or ill, we 
may open our eyes as widely as we please without 
making them appear lustrous. 

This difficulty suggested to me the theory that, 
though partly dependent on the movements of the 
eyelids, the lustre of the eyes is due originally to 
the tension and moisture of the conjunctiva. 

The conjunctiva, though consisting of 68 layers 
of cells, is an extremely thin and highly sensitive, 
transparent membrane, which lines the surface of 
the eyeball as well as the inside of the eyelids. In 
this membrane is located the pain which we feel if 
dust, etc. flies into our eyes. In order to wash out 
any particles that may get into the eye, and to 
prevent the lid from sticking to the eyeball, the 
lachrymal glands constantly secrete the water which, 
during an emotional shower, consolidates into tear- 

Now, just as " the rose is sweetest washed with 
morning dew," so the eye is brightest and most 
fascinating which glistens in an ever fresh supply 

334 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

of lachrymal fluid. After weeping, this supply is 
temporarily exhausted, hence not only are the eyes 
" sticky " and the lids difficult to raise, but even if 
they are raised there is no lustre : you look in vain 
for " Cupid's bonfires burning in the eye." But 
when we wake up from refreshing sleep in the 
morning, or when we take a walk in the bracing 
country air, the eye sparkles its best and "emulates 
the diamond," because at such a time all the vital 
energies, including of course those of the lachrymal 
glands, are incited to fresh activity, which they lose 
again after prolonged use of the eye, thus making it 
appear duller in the evening. 

Thus we can readily account for those lights in 
the eye " that do mislead the morn." Yet it is 
probable that (although in a less degree than dewy 
moisture) the tension and translucency of the con- 
junctiva are also concerned in the production of 
a liquid, lustrous expression. Though the eyeball 
itself may not undergo any changes in tension, the 
conjunctiva doubtless does. The eyeball rests on a 
bed of fatty tissue which shrinks after death, owing 
to the emptying of the blood-vessels and the con- 
solidation of the fat, which makes a corpse appear 
"hollow-eyed." The same effect, to a slighter 
degree, is caused by disease and excessive fatigue, 
making the eyes sink into their sockets. This sink- 
ing must diminish the tension of the conjunctiva, 
both under the eyelids and on the surface of the 
eyeball ; and in shrinking it becomes less transparent 
and glistening. 

The following observations of Professor Kollmann 
indirectly support my theory that the conjunctiva is 

The Eyes 335 

the source of the eye's lustre : " After death this 
transparent membrane (the conjunctiva) becomes 
turbid, the eye loses its lustre and becomes veiled. 
The surface reflects but a faint degree of light, the 
eye is ' broken.' " The loss of lustre extends to the 
white of the eye, but is less noticeable, perhaps 
because there lustre does not blend with colour, as 
in the iris region. 

Fashionable young ladies who dance throughout 
the night several times a week may well be disgusted 
with the blue rings which appear around their sunken 
eyes. These rings are a warning that they need 
" beauty sleep " and fresh air to fill up the sockets 
again with healthy fat and red blood, so as to in- 
crease the tension of the conjunctiva and stimulate 
the flow of dewy moisture on which the lustre of the 
eye depends. There are tears of Beauty as well as of 

anguish and joy. 


Of the beauty of the eye as conditioned by 
its form, Dr. Magnus has made such an admirable 
and exhaustive analysis that I can do little more 
than summarise his observations. He points out, 
in the first place, that the form of the eyeball itself 
is of subordinate importance. The differences in the 
size and shape of eyeballs are insignificant, and are, 
moreover, liable to be concealed by the shape of the 
eyelids ; hence it is to the lids and brows that the 
eye chiefly owes its formal beauty. 

"The form of the eye is conditioned exclusively 
by the cut of the lids and the size of the aperture 
between them. . . . The countless individual differ- 
ences in this aperture give to the eyeballs the most 

336 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

diverse shapes, so that we speak of round eyes, 
wide eyes, almond-shaped, elongated, and owl eyes, 

The first condition of beauty in an eye is size. 
Large eyes have been extolled ever since the begin- 
nings of poetry. The Mahometan heaven is peopled 
with " virgins with chaste mien and large black eyes," 
and the Arabian poets never tire of comparing their 
idols' eyes to those of the gazelle and the deer. 
The Greeks appear to have considered large eyes 
an essential trait of beauty as well as of mental 
superiority ; hence Sokrates as well as Aspasia are 
described as having had such eyes ; and who has 
not read of Homer's ox-eyed Juno? Juvenal 
specially mentions small eyes as a blemish. 

Large eyes, however, are not beautiful if the 
aperture between the lids is too wide, or it the white 
can be seen above the iris. They must owe their 
largeness to the graceful curvature of the upper eye- 
lid. As Winckelmann remarks, "Jupiter, Apollo, 
and Juno have the opening of their eyelids large 
and vaulted, and less elongated than is usual, so as 
to make the arch more pronounced." 

At the same time we are sufficiently catholic in 
taste to admire eyes which are not quite round but 
somewhat elongated. One favourite variety is that 
in which " the upper lid shows, in the margin adjoin- 
ing the inner corner of the eye, a rather decided 
curvature, which, however, diminishes toward the 
outer corner in an extremely graceful and pleasing 
wavy line. As the lower lid has a similar, though 
less decided, marginal curve, the eyeball which 
appears within this aperture assumes a unique oval 

The Eyes 337 

form, which has been very aptly and characteristically 
named 'almond-shaped.' The Greeks compared 
the graceful curve of such lids to the delicate and 
pleasing loops formed by young vines, and therefore 
called an eye of this variety eXt*:o/3Xe<apo9. Winckel- 
mann has noted that it was the eyes of Venus, in 
particular, that the ancient artists were fond of adorn- 
ing with this graceful curve of the lids. . . . Italian, 
and especially Spanish eyes, are far-famed for their 
classical and graceful oval form." 

Almond eyes are peculiar to the Semitic and 
ancient Aryan races. Some of the bards of India 
sing the praises of an eye so elongated that it 
reaches to the ear; and in Assyrian statues such 
eyes are common. The ancient Egyptians had 
a similar taste ; and Carus relates that some 
Oriental nations actually enlarge the slit of the eye 
with the knife ; while others use cosmetics to simu- 
late the appearance of very long eyes. According 
to Dr. Sommering, the eye of male Europeans is 
somewhat less elongated than that of females. 

Round or oval marginal curvature, however, is 
not the only condition of beauty in an eyelid. The 
surface, too, must be kept in a tense, well-rounded 
condition. Sunken, hollow eyes displease us not 
only because they suggest disease and age, but 
because they destroy the smooth surface and curva- 
ture of the eyelids. Thus do we find the laws of 
Health and Beauty coinciding in the smallest 

The position of the eye also largely influences 
our aesthetic judgment. What strikes us first in 
looking at a Chinaman is his obliquely-set eyes, with 


338 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

the outer corner drawn upwards, which displeases us 
even more than their excessive elongation and small 
size. Oblique eyes are a dissonance in the harmony 
of our features, and almost as objectionable as a 
crooked mouth. True, our own eyes are rarely 
absolutely horizontal, but the deviation is too minute 
to be noticed by any but a trained observer. Some- 
times, as Mantegazza remarks, the opposite form 
may be noticed, the outer corner of the eye being 
lower than the inner. " If this trait is associated 
with other aesthetic elements, it may produce a rare 
and extraordinary charm, as in the case of the 
Empress Eugenie." 

The eyelashes and eyebrows, though strictly 
belonging in the chapter on the hair, must be 
referred to here because they bear such a large part 
in the impression which the form of the eye makes 
on us. The short, stiff hairs, which form " the 
fringed curtain of the eye," are attached to the 
cartilage which edges the eyelids. They are not 
straight but curved, downward in the lower, up- 
ward in the upper lid. And the Beauty -Curve is 
observed in still another way, the hairs in the 
central part of each lid being longer than they are 
towards the ends. In the upper lid the hairs are 
longer than in the lower. Their aesthetic and 
physiognomic value will be considered presently 
under the head of Expression. 

In the eyebrows the Curve of Beauty is again 
the condition of perfection. It must be a gentle 
curve, however, or else it imparts to the countenance 
a Mephistophelian expression of irony. Eyebrows 
were formerly held to be peculiar to man, but 

The Eyes 339 

Darwin states that " in the Chimpanzee, and in 
certain species of Macacus, there are scattered hairs 
of considerable length rising from the naked skin 
above the eyes, and corresponding to our eyebrows ; 
similar long hairs project from the hairy covering of 
the superciliary ridges in some baboons." 

The existence of the eyebrows may be accounted 
for on utilitarian grounds. Natural Selection favoured 
their development because they are, like the lashes, 
of use in preventing perspiration and dust from 
getting into the eyes. Their delicately-curved form, 
however, they probably owe to Sexual Selection. 
Cupid objects to eyebrows which are too much 
or not sufficiently arched, and he objects to those 
which are too bushy or which meet in the middle. 
The ancient Greeks already disliked eyebrows 
meeting in the middle, whereas in Rome Fashion 
not only approved of them, but even resorted to 
artificial means for producing them. The Arabians 
go a step farther in the use of paint. They en- 
deavour to produce the impression as if their eye- 
brows grew down to the middle of the nose and 
met there. The Egyptians, Assyrians, Persians, and 
Indians also used paint to make their eyebrows seem 
wider, but they did not unite them. On the outside 
border the eyebrows should extend slightly beyond 
the corner of the eye. 


In the chapter on the nose reference was made 
to our disposition to seize upon any sensation experi- 
enced inside the mouth and label it as a " taste," 
whereas psychologic analysis shows that in most 

34O Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

cases the sense of smell (excited during exhalation} 
has more to do with our enjoyment of food than 
taste ; and that the nerves of temperature and touch 
likewise come into play in the case of peppermint, 
pungent condiments, alcohol, etc. We are also in 
the habit of including in the term " feeling " or 
" touch " the entirely distinct sensations of tempera- 
ture, tickling, and some other sensations, to the 
separate study of which physiologists are only now 
beginning to devote special attention. 

Similarly with the eyes. Being the most fascin- 
ating part of the face, on which we habitually fix 
our attention while talking, they are credited with 
various expressions that are really referable to other 
features, which we rapidly scan and then transfer 
their language to the eyes. Nor is this all. Most 
persons habitually attribute to the varying lustre ot 
the eyeball diverse " soulful " expressions which, as 
physiologic analysis shows, are due to the movements 
of the eyeball, the eyebrows, and lashes. The poets, 
who have said so many beautiful things about the 
eyes, are rarely sufficiently definite to lay themselves 
open to the charge of inaccuracy. But there can be 
little doubt that the popular opinion concerning the 
all-importance of the eyeball is embodied in such 
expressions as these : " Love, anger, pride, and 
avarice all visibly move in those little orbs " 
(Addison). " Her eye in silence has a speech which 
eye best understands " (Southwell). " An eye like 
Mars to threaten or command." " The heavenly 
rhetoric of thine eye, 'gainst which the world cannot 
hold argument." " Behold the window of my heart, 
mine eye." " Sometimes from her eyes I did receive 

The Eyes 341 

fair speechless messages." " For shame, lie not, to 
say mine eyes are murderers." "If mine eyes can 
wound, now let them kill thee." " There's an eye 
wounds like a leaden sword." The last three of 
these Shaksperian lines were evidently echoing in 
Emerson's mind when he wrote that " Some eyes 
threaten like a loaded and levelled pistol, and others 
are as insulting as hissing or kicking ; some have 
no more expression than blueberries, while others 
are as deep as a well which you can fall into." 
" Glances are the first billets-doux of love," says 
Ninon de L'Enclos. 

In order to make perfectly clear the mechanism 
by which the eye becomes an organ of speech, it is 
advisable to consider separately these six factors, 
which are included in it (a) Lustre ; (b} Colour of 
the Iris ; (c) Movements of the Iris or Pupil ; (d] 
Movements of the Eyeball ; (e) Movements of the 
Eyelids ; (/) Movements of the Eyebrows. 

(a) Lustre. " The physiological problem whether 
the surface of the eyeball, independent of the muscles 
that cover and surround it, can express emotion, a 
near study of the American girl seems to answer 
quite in the affirmative," Dr. G. M. Beard remarks, 
without, however, endeavouring to specify what 
emotions the surface of the eyeball expresses, or in 
what manner it does express them. 

Dr. Magnus, on the other hand, who has made 
a more profound study of this question than any 
other writer, is emphatic in his conviction that 
" the eyeball takes no active part in the expres- 
sion of emotions, which is entirely accomplished by 
the muscles and soft parts surrounding it." His 

342 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

view is supported by the fact that although some of 
the ancient sculptors endeavoured by the use of 
jewels or by chiselling semi-lunar or other grooves 
into the eyeball to simulate its lustre by means of 
shadows, yet as a rule sculptors and painters 
strangely neglect the careful elaboration of the 
eyeball ; and in the Greek works of the best period, 
including those of Phidias, the eyeball was left 
smooth and unadorned, the artists relying especially 
on the careful chiselling of the lids and brows for 
the attainment of the particular characteristic ex- 
pression desired. 

Nevertheless Dr. Magnus goes too far in denying 
that ocular lustre can be directly expressive of 
mental states without the assistance of the move- 
ments of the eyebrows and lids. His own observa- 
tions show that he has overstated his thesis. We 
can indeed, he says, infer from the appearance of 
the eyeball "whether the soul is agitated or calm, 
but we have to rely on the facial muscles to specify 
the emotion. This is the reason why we can never 
judge the sentiments of one who is masked; for the 
fire in his eye can only indicate to us his greater or 
less agitation, but not its special character. That 
we could only read in the features which the mask 
conceals. It is for this reason that the orthodox 
Mahometan makes his women cover up their face 
with a veil which leaves nothing exposed but the 
eyes, because these cannot, without the constant 
play of the facial muscles, indicate the emotional 
state. The lustre of the corneal mirror therefore 
indicates to us only the quantity, but never the 
quality of emotional excitement." 

The Eyes 343 

Herein Dr. Magnus follows the assertion of 
Lebrun, a contemporary of Louis XIV., that " the 
eyeball indicates by its fire and its movements in 
general that the soul is passionately excited, but not 
in what manner." 

No doubt the Turk attains his object in leaving 
only the eyes of his women open to view, for thus 
the passing stranger cannot tell whether her eye 
flashes Love or anger. But he can tell whether she 
is agitated or indifferent : and is not that a language 
too ? Do we not call music the " language of emo- 
tions," although it can only indicate the quantity of 
emotion, and rarely its precise quality just like the 
eyes ? Therefore Dr. Magnus is wrong in denying 
to the eyeball the power of emotional expression. 
Vague emotion is still emotion. 

It has already been intimated in what manner 
emotional excitement increases the eye's lustre. It 
causes the blood-vessels in the sockets of the eye to 
swell, thus increasing the tension of the conjunctiva 
and the flow of the lachrymal fluid. 

Besides quantitative emotion there is another 
thing which ocular lustre expresses, and that is 
Health. It is true that consumption, fever, and 
possibly other diseases may produce a peculiar tem- 
porary transparency of complexion and ocular lustre; 
but, as a rule, a bright eye indicates Health and 
abundant vitality. 

As Health is the first condition of Love, and as 
the ocular lustre which indicates Health cannot be 
normally secured without it, women of all times and 
countries have been addicted to the habit of increas- 
ing the eye's sparkle artificially by applying a thin 

344 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

line of black paint to the edge of the lids. The 
ancient Egyptians, Persians, Hindoos, Greeks, and 
Romans followed this custom. But the natural 
sparkle which comes of Health and Beauty-sleep 
[i.e. before midnight, with open windows] is a thou- 
sand times preferable to such dangerous methods of 
tampering with the most delicate and most easily 
injured organ of the body. 

Still another way in which the eyeball itself can 
express emotion is by the varying amount on it of 
the lachrymal fluid, to which, in my opinion, its 
lustre is chiefly owing. There is a supreme and 
thrilling sparkle of the eye which can only come of 
the heavenly joys of Love; but there is also "a 
liquid melancholy " of sweet eyes, to use Bulwer's 
words. Scott remarks that " Love is loveliest when 
embalmed in tears " ; and Dr. Magnus attests that 
" especially in the eyes of lovers we often find a 
slight suspicion of tears." He traces to this fact a 
peculiar charm that is to be found in the eyes of 
Venus, which the Greeks called vypbv (liquid, swim- 
ming, languishing). The sculptors produced this 
expression by indicating the border between the 
lower lid and the eyeball but slightly, thus giving 
the impression as if this border were veiled by a 
liquid line of tear-fluid. 

What enables the lid to keep this fluid line in 
place is the fact that its edge is lined with minute 
glands secreting an oily substance. The presence of 
these glands in the upper lid, where they cannot 
serve to retain lachrymal fluid, suggests the impor- 
tant inference that the lustre of the eye may be partly 
due to a thin film of oil spread over the cornea by 

The Eyes 345 

the up-and-down movements of this lid. Indeed, 
this may possibly be the chief cause of ocular lustre. 

When the lachrymal fluid habitually present in 
the eye becomes too abundant it ceases to express 
amorous tenderness, and becomes instead indicative 
of old age, or, worse still, of intemperance. Alcohol- 
ism has a peculiarly demoralising effect on the lower 
eyelid, which becomes swollen and inflamed. This 
probably over-stimulates the action of the oil glands 
in the lids, thus accounting for the watery or blear 
eye, eloquent of vice. 

(b] Colour of the Iris. There is nothing in which 
popular physiognomy takes so much delight as in 
pointing out what particular characteristics are indi- 
cated by the different colours of eyes. All such 
distinctions are the purest drivel. We have seen 
that differences in the colour of eyes are entirely due 
to the varying amount of the same pigmentary 
matter present in the iris. Now, what earthly con- 
nection could a greater or less quantity of this 
colouring matter have with our intellectual or moral 
traits? It is necessary thus to trace facts to their 
last analysis in order to expose the absurdities of 
current physiognomy. 

Inasmuch as black-eyed southern nations are, on 
the whole, more impulsive than northern races, it 
may be said in a vague, general way that a black 
eye indicates a passionate disposition. But there are 
countless exceptions to this rule apathetic black- 
eyed persons, as well as, conversely, fiery blue-eyed 
individuals. Nor is this at all strange ; for the 
black colour is not stored up in some mysterious 
way as a result of a fiery temperament, but is simply 

346 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

accumulated in the iris through Natural Selection, 
as a protection against glaring sunlight. 

Although, therefore, the brilliancy of the eye may 
vary with its colour, the colour itself does not ex- 
press emotion, either qualitatively or quantitatively. 
In reading character no assistance is given us by the 
fact that eyes are " of unholy blue," " darkly divine," 
" gray as glass," or " green as leeks." Shakspere 
calls Jealousy a "green-eyed monster"; and the 
green iris has indeed such a bad reputation that 
blondes in search of a compliment commonly abuse 
their " green " eyes, to exercise your Gallantry, and 
give you a chance to defend their " celestial blue " 
or " divine violet." 

Dr. Magnus suggests that the reason why we 
dislike decidedly green or yellow eyes is simply be- 
cause they are of rare occurrence, and therefore 
appear anomalous ; for in animals we do not hesitate 
to pronounce such eyes beautiful. He also explains 
ingeniously why it is that we are apt to attribute 
moral shortcomings to persons whose eyes are of a 
vague, dubious colour. Such eyes displease our 
aesthetic sense, and this displeasure we transfer to 
the moral sense, and thus confound and prejudice 
our judgment. In the same way our dislike of 
unusual green eyes disposes us to accuse their owners 
of irregularities of conduct. Moral : Keep your 
aesthetic and ethical judgments apart. 

Conversely, in the case of snakes, our fear and 
horror make it difficult for us to appreciate the 
aesthetic charm of their colours. And all these cases 
show that the aesthetic sense, if properly understood 
and specialised, is independent of moral and utili- 

The Eyes 347 

tarian considerations : which knocks the bottom out 
of the theory of Alison, Jeffrey, and Co. 

One more abnormality of colour in the iris must 
be referred to. It happens not infrequently that 
the colour of the two eyes is not alike, one being 
brown, the other blue or gray. In such cases, though 
each eye may be perfect in itself, we dislike the 
combination. What is the ground of this aesthetic 
dislike ? Simply the fact that the dissimilarity of 
the eyes violates one of the fundamental laws of 
Beauty the law of Symmetry, which demands that 
corresponding parts on the two sides of the body 
should harmonise. 

(c) Movements of the Iris. The jetblack pupil of 
the eye, as already noted, is not always of the same 
size. It becomes smaller if an excess of light causes 
the iris to relax, larger if diminution of light makes 
the iris contract its fibres. Another way of altering 
the size of the pupil is by gazing at a distant object, 
which causes it to enlarge, while gazing at a near 
object makes it smaller. According to Gratiolet and 
some other writers, there is still another way in 
which the pupil is affected, namely, through emo- 
tional excitement. Great fear, for instance, enlarges 
the pupil, according to Gratiolet. Dr. Magnus, how- 
ever, remarks that, apart from the fact that some 
observers have denied that the pupil is affected by 
emotions, the alterations in its size are as a rule too 
insignificant to be noted by any but a trained 
observer ; so that they could not play any important 
physiognomic role. 

Yet a large pupil is everywhere esteemed a great 
beauty, and is often credited with a special power of 

348 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

amorous expression. " Widened pupils," says Koll- 
mann, " give the eye a tender aspect ; they seem to 
increase its depth, and fascinate the spectator by the 
strangeness this imparts to the gaze. Oriental women 
put atropine into their eyes, which enlarges the pupil. 
They do this in order to give their eyes the soulful 
expression which they believe is imparted by large 
pupils, distinctly foreshadowing the joys of love." 

Whether emotionally expressive or not, so much 
is certain that large pupils are more beautiful than 
small ones, for the same reason that large eyes are 
more beautiful than small ones, i.e. because we cannot 
have too much of a thing of Beauty. 

Finally, there is this to be said regarding the 
lustre, colour, and size of pupil and iris, that they 
emphasise the language of the eye. If we play a 
love-song on the piano, we may admire it ; but if it 
is sung or played on the violoncello, it makes a 
doubly deep impression ; and why ? Because the 
superior sensuous beauty of the voice, or the amorous 
tone-colour of the 'cello, paints and gilds the bare 
fabric of the song. A small dull-coloured eye, 
similarly, may speak quite as definite a language of 
command or entreaty, pride or humility, as any 
other ; but the flashing large pupil and the lustrous 
deep-dyed iris intensify the emotional impressiveness 
of this language a hundredfold, by adding the incal- 
culable power of sensuous Beauty. Thus lustre and 
colour are for the visible music of the spheres what 
orchestration is to audible music. 

(d} Movements of the Eyeball. The socket of the 
eye contains (besides the fat-cushion in which the 
eyeball is imbedded, the blood-vessels, and other 

The Eyes 349 

tissues) seven muscles ; one for raising the upper 
lid, and six for moving the eyeball itself upwards, 
downwards, inwards, outwards, or forwards and 
obliquely. To the action of these muscles the eye 
owes much of its expressiveness. 

It has been noted that elating emotions have a 
tendency to raise the features, depressing emotions to 
depress them. The eyeball is no exception. Persons 
who are elated by their real or apparent superiority 
to others turn their eyes habitually from the humble 
things beneath them ; hence the muscle which turns 
the eyeball upwards has long ago received the name 
of " pride-muscle " ; while its antipode, the musculus 
Jiumilis, is so. called because humility and modesty 
are characterised by a downward gaze. 

The muscle which turns the eyeball towards the 
inner corner, nosewards, is much used by persons 
who are occupied with near objects. If this con- 
vergence of the eyes is too pronounced, it gives one 
a stupid expression ; whereas, if moderate, the ex- 
pression is one of great intellectual penetration, as 
Dr. Magnus points out. He believes that the trick, 
made use of by some portrait-painters, of making 
the eyes appear to follow you wherever you go 
depends on this medium degree of convergence of 
the eyes. 

Slight divergence of the eyeballs, on the other 
hand, is characteristic of children and of great 
thinkers an item which Schopenhauer forgot to 
note when he pointed out that genius always retains 
certain traits of childhood. " Bonders," says Dr. 
Magnus, " has always observed this divergent posi- 
tion of the eyes in persons who meditate deeply. 

35o Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

And the artists make use of this position of the 
eyes to give their figures the expression of a soul 
averted from terrestrial affairs, and fixed on higher 
spiritual objects. Thus the Sistine Madonna has 
this divergent position of the eyes, as well as the 
beautiful boy she carries on her arm." It is also 
found in Durer's portrait of himself, and in a bust of 
Marcus Aurelius in the Vatican. 

If, however, this divergence becomes too great, 
it loses its charm, for the eyes then appear to fix no 
object at all, and the gaze becomes " vacant," as in 
the eyes of the blind or the sick. To appreciate the 
force of these remarks it must be borne in mind 
that there is only one part of the retina, called the 
" yellow spot," with which we can distinctly fix an 
object. What we see with other parts of the retina 
is indistinct, blurred. 

These details are here given because many will 
be glad to know that by daily exercising the muscles 
of the eyeballs before the mirror, they can greatly 
alter and improve their looks. Every day one hears 
the remark, " She has beautiful eyes, but she does 
not know how to use them." When we read of a 
great thinker, like Kant, fixing his gaze immovably 
on a tree for an hour, we think it quite natural ; 
nor does any one object to " the poet's eye, in a fine 
frenzy rolling," for we all know that a poet is merely 
an inspired madman. But a young lady who wishes 
to charm by her Beauty must learn to fix her 
wandering eyes calmly on others, while avoiding a 
stony stare. One of the greatest charms of American 
girls is their frank, steady gaze, free from any tinge 
of unfeminine boldness. Such a charming natural 

The Eyes 3 5 i 

gaze can only be acquired in a country where girls 
are taught to look upon men as gentlemen, and not 
as wolves, against whom they must be guarded by 

Eye-gymnastics are as important to Beauty as 
lung-gymnastics to Health, and dancing-lessons to 
Grace. But of course there is a certain number of 
fortunate girls who can dispense with such exer- 
cises, because they gradually learn the proper use of 
their eyes, as well as general graceful movements, 
from the example of a refined mother. 

Goldsmith's pretty line about " the bashful virgin's 
sidelong looks of love," is not a mere poetic conceit, 
but a scientific aperpi ; for, as Professor Kollman 
remarks, " the external straight muscle of the eye 
was also called the lover's muscle, musculus amatorius, 
because the furtive side-glance is aimed at a beloved 

Nor is this the only way in which the movements 
of the eyeball are concerned with Romantic Love. 
By constantly exercising certain muscles of the eye- 
ball in preference to others, the eyes gradually 
assume, when at rest, a fixed and peculiar gaze 
which distinguishes them from all other eyes. It is 
comparatively easy to find two pairs of eyes of the 
same colour or form, but two with the same gaze, 
/>. characteristic position of the eyeballs, never. 
Hence Dr. Magnus boldly generalises Herder's state- 
ment that " Every great man has a look which no 
one but he can give with his eyes," into the maxim 
that "Every individual has a look which no one else 
can make with his eyes." 

Bungling photographers commonly spoil their 

352 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

pictures by compelling their victims to fix their eyes 
in an unwonted position. The result is a picture 
which bears some general resemblance to the victim, 
but in which the characteristic individual expression 
is wanting. 

Our habit of masking our eyes alone when we 
wish to remain unrecognised, and leaving the lower 
part of the face exposed, affords another proof of the 
assertion that the eye is the chief seat of individuality. 
For though the eyeball itself remains visible, the sur- 
rounding parts are covered, so that its characteristic 
position cannot be determined. 

Now we know that Individual Preference is the 
first and most essential element of Romantic Love. 
Hence Dante was as correct in calling the eyes " the 
beginning of Love," as in terming the lips " the end 
of Love." And Shakspere agrees with Dante when 
he speaks of " Love first learned in a lady's eyes " ; 
and again : " But for her eye I would not love her ; 
yes, for her two eyes." 

(e] Movements of the Eyelids. Although the fore- 
going pages considerably qualify Dr. Magnus's thesis 
that the eyeball owes all its life and expressiveness 
to the movements of the eyelids and brows, yet the 
physiognomic and aesthetic importance of lids, lashes, 
and brows can hardly be too much emphasised. A 
very large proportion of the pleasure we derive from 
beautiful eyes is due to the constant changes in the 
apparent size of the eyeball, and the gradations in 
its lustre, produced by the rapid movements of the 
upper lid. This is strikingly proved by the fact, 
noted by Dr. Magnus, " that the eyes of wax figures, 
be they ever so artistically finished, always give the 

The Eyes 353 

impression of death and rigidity," whereas " artificial 
eyes, such as are often inserted by physicians after the 
loss of an eye, have, thanks to the constant play of 
the lids, an appearance so animated and lifelike that 
it requires the trained eye of a specialist to detect 
the dead, lifeless glass -eye in this apparently so 
animated orb." 

A complete emotional scale is symbolised in these 
movements of the upper eyelids. A medium posi- 
tion indicates rest or indifference. Joyous and other 
exciting emotions raise them, so that the whole of 
the lustrous iris becomes visible. Thus we get the 
eye " sparkling with joy " or the " angry flash of 
the eye," as well as Cupid's darts : " He is already 
dead ; stabbed with a white wench's black eye." 
" Alack, there lies more peril in thine eye than 
twenty of their swords." 

But if the lids are raised too high, so that the 
white above the iris becomes visible, the expression 
changes to one of affectation, or maniacal wildness, 
or extreme terror. There are persons, says Magnus, 
in whom the aperture between the lids is naturally 
so wide as to reveal the upper white of the eyes ; 
and in consequence we are apt to accuse them of 
hollow pathos. I have seen not a few beautiful 
pairs of eyes marred by the habitual tendency to 
raise the lids too much a fault that can be readily 
overcome by deliberate effort and practice before 
the mirror. 

On the other hand, if the aperture between the 
lids is too small, that is, if the lids are naturally 
(or only transiently) lowered too much, we get an 
apathetic, drowsy expression. The Chinese eye dis- 

VOL. II. 2 A 

354 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

pleases us not only by its oblique set, and the 
narrowness of the lid, but also because the natural 
smallness of the eyeball is exaggerated by the 
narrow palpebral aperture. The negro appears 
more wide awake to us, because in his eyes this 
aperture is wider so wide, in fact, that he is apt 
to displease us by showing too much of the white 

A very drooping eyelid being expressive of 
fatigue, physical or mental, blase persons affect it in 
order to indicate their nil admirari attitude. But 
there is another secret reason why they drop their 
eyelids. If we lower the head and open our eyes 
widely, they retire within their sockets and appear 
hollow, suggesting dissipation or disease ; whereas, 
if we raise the head, throwing it slightly back- 
wards, and lowering the eyelids, we obliterate this 
hollow, and give the impression of languid in- 
difference. This, rather than the " raising of the 
eyebrows," is what constitutes the " supercilious " 

It cannot be said that a supercilious appearance 
is specially attractive, yet the obliteration of the 
eyes' hollowness is an advantage ; and it may be 
added that, since perfect health is not a superabun- 
dant phenomenon, the same reasoning explains why 
many faces are so much more fascinating in a re- 
clining or semi-reclining position than when upright. 
Fashion, of course, being the handmaid of ugli- 
ness, does not object to hollow eyes encircled by 
blue rings, but even cultivates them. Yet in her 
heart of hearts every fashionable woman knows 
that nothing so surely kills masculine admiration 

The Eyes 355 

not to speak of Love as sunken eyes with blue 

A slight drooping of the eyelids, on the other 
hand, gives a pleasing expression of amorous languor. 
The lid, with its lashes, in this case, coyly veils the 
lustre of the eye, without extinguishing it. Hence, 
in the words of Dr. Magnus, the sculptors of antiquity 
made use of this slight lowering of the lid to express 
sensuous love ; and accordingly it was customary to 
chisel the eyes of Venus with drooping lids and a 
small aperture. 

In their task of moderating and varying the lustre 
of the eyeball, the lids are greatly assisted by the 
lashes. An eye with missing or too short lashes is 
apt to appear too fiery, glaring, or " stinging." Long 
dark eyelashes are of all the means of flirtation the 
most irresistible. Note yonder artful maiden. How 
modestly and coyly she droops her eyes, till sud- 
denly the fringed curtain is raised and a glorious 
symphony of colour and lustre is flashed on her 
poor companion's dazed vision ! No wonder he 
staggers and falls in love at first sight. 

"White lashes and eyebrows are so disagreeably 
suggestive," we read in the Ugly Girl Papers, " that 
one cannot blame their possessor for disguising them 
by a harmless device. A decoction of walnut juice 
should be made in season, and kept in a bottle for 
use the year round. It is to be applied with a small 
hair-pencil to the brows and lashes, turning them to 
a rich brown, which harmonises with fair hair." 
Another recipe given, by a good authority, is as 
follows : " Take frankincense, resin, pitch, of each 
one half ounce ; gum mastic, quarter of an ounce ; 

Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

mix and drop on red-hot charcoals. Receive the 
fumes in a large funnel, and a black powder will 
adhere to its sides. Mix this with fresh juice of 
alderberries (or Cologne water will do), and apply 
with a fine camel-hair brush." 

Those who wish to make their lashes longer and 
more regular may find the following suggestions, by 
Drs. Brinton and Napheys, of use : " The eyelashes 
should be examined one by one, and any which are 
split, or crooked, or feeble, should be trimmed with 
a pair of sharp scissors. The base of the lashes 
should be anointed nightly with a minute quantity 
of oil of cajuput on the top of a camel-hair brush, 
and the examination and trimming repeated every 
month. If this is sedulously carried out for a few 
months the result will be gratifying." 

All such operations should be performed by 
another person, for the eye is a most delicate organ. 
Yet, not even this organ has been spared by deform- 
ing Fashion. The fact that some Africans colour 
their eyelids black may have a utilitarian rather than 
a cosmetic reason. But what shall we say to the 
Africans who eradicate their eyebrows, and the 
Paraguayans, who remove their eyelashes because 
they "do not wish to be like horses ?" 

Twin sisters ever are Fashion and Idiocy. 

(/) Movements of the Eyebrows. Herder called 
the arched eyebrow the rainbow of peace, because if it 
is straightened by a frown it portends a storm. In 
plain prose, the eyebrow partakes of the general 
upward movement from joyous excitement, and the 
downward movement in grief. If the eyebrows are 
too bushy, they overshadow the eye and produce a 

The Eyes 357 

gloomy or even ferocious appearance. The Chinese, 
possibly from an instinctive perception that their 
eyes are not too large or bright, shave their eye- 
brows, leaving only a narrow fringe. Dr. Broca 
also notes that the eyebrow adds to the oblique 
appearance of the Chinese eye through a particular 
movement, the two internal thirds of the eyebrows 
being lower, and the external third higher than 
with us. 

Though not, perhaps, directly concerned in the 
expression of Love, the eyebrow is not to be under- 
rated. No detail of Beauty escapes Cupid's eyes ; 
for do we not read of " the lover, sighing like fur- 
nace, with a woeful ballad made to his mistress's 
eyebrows ? " 


As modern lovers disapprove of eyebrows meeting 
over the nose, superfluous hairs should be removed. 
Coarse irregular hairs in any part of the eyebrow 
should be pulled out or kept in position by a fixateur. 
" It is not well to trim the eyebrow generally, as it 
makes it coarse. . . . When it is desired to thicken or 
strengthen them, two or three drops of oil of cajuput 
may be gently rubbed into the skin every other 
night ; but here, and always when wiping them, 
the rubbing should be in the direction of the hair, 
from the nose outward, and never in the reverse 
direction." Among harmless dyes, pencils of dark 
pomatum or walnut-bark, steeped in Cologne for a 
week, are recommended ; or, for a transient effect, 
a needle smoked over the flame of a candle may be 

Regarding the general hygienic care of the eye, 

358 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

the following rules should be borne in mind. Never 
read or work in a too weak or too glaring light, or 
when lying down, or with the book too near the eye. 
Rest the muscles occasionally by looking at a distant 
object. Bathe the eyes every morning in cold water, 
keeping them closed. For disorders, consult a phy- 
sician immediately ; a day's delay may be fatal to 
ocular beauty. For ordinary inflammation, an exter- 
nal application of witch-hazel extract, mixed with a 
few drops of Cologne, is very soothing. Never sleep 
with your eyes facing the window. Ninety-nine 
persons in a hundred do so ; hence the large number 
of weak, lustreless eyes, early disturbances of slum- 
ber, and morning headaches. Large numbers of 
tourists in Switzerland constantly suffer from head- 
aches, and lose all the benefits of their vacation, 
simply because they fail to have their head at 
night in the centre of the room, where it ought 
to be, because the air circulates there more freely 
than near the wall. 



" From the presence of the woolly hair or lanugo 
on the human foetus, and of rudimentary hairs 
scattered over the body during maturity," Darwin 
inferred that " man is descended from some animal 
which was born hairy and remained so during life." 
He believed that " the loss of hair is an incon- 
venience and probably an injury to man, even in a 
hot climate, for he is thus exposed to the scorching 
in the sun, and to sudden chills, especially during 

The Hair 359 

wet weather. As Mr. Wallace remarks, the natives 
in all countries are glad to protect their naked backs 
and shoulders with some slight covering. No one 
supposes that the nakedness of the skin is any 
direct advantage to man ; his body, therefore, can- 
not have been divested of hair through Natural 
Selection." Accordingly, he concludes that man 
lost his hairy covering through Sexual Selection, for 
ornamental purposes. 

But if it can be shown that the nakedness of his 
skin is in some way of advantage to man, this argu- 
ment falls to the ground. There are sufficient 
reasons, I think, for believing that Natural Selection 
aided Sexual Selection in divesting man of his hairy 

With his usual candour Darwin noticed the 
evidence which seemed to tell against his view. Mr. 
Belt, he says, "believes that within the tropics it is 
an advantage to man to be destitute of hair, as he is 
thus enabled to free himself of the multitude of ticks 
(acari) and other parasites with which he is often 
infested, and which sometimes cause ulceration." 
Darwin doubts, however, whether this evil is of suffi- 
cient magnitude to have led to the denudation of the 
body through Natural Selection, " since none of the 
many quadrupeds inhabiting the tropics have, as far 
as I know, acquired any specialised means of relief." 
But as primitive man's habits of cleanliness are much 
inferior to those of animals, this objection loses its 
force ; and it is, moreover, weakened by the testi- 
mony of Sir W. Denison that " it is said to be a 
practice with the Australians, when the vermin get 
troublesome, to singe themselves." We also know 

360 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

that the ancient Egyptians shaved off their hair from 
motives of cleanliness. 

However, it is not likely that the superior advan- 
tages of cleanliness and freedom from parasites would 
alone have sufficed to produce so great a change in 
man as the loss of his hair. It is more probable 
that the sun was the chief agent in accomplishing 
this transformation. I fail to see the force of 
Darwin's contention that the fact that " the other 
members of the order of Primates, to which man 
belongs, although inhabiting various hot regions, are 
well clothed with hair, generally thickest on the 
upper surface, is opposed to the supposition that 
man became naked through the action of the sun." 
For these animals commonly live in forests and on 
trees, where they are protected from the rays of the 
sun, which is not the case with man. 

Furthermore, Darwin himself mentions some 
circumstances which point to the conclusion that 
the sun is the cause of man's nudity. He says, 
for instance, that " elephants and rhinoceroses are 
almost hairless ; and as certain extinct species which 
formerly lived under an arctic climate were covered 
with long wool or hair, it would almost appear as if 
the existing species of both genera had lost their 
hairy covering from exposure to heat. This appears 
the more probable as the elephants in India which 
live on elevated and cool districts are more hairy 
than those on the lowlands." 

Bearing in mind what was said in the chapter on 
the Complexion regarding the negro's skin, there is 
no difficulty in understanding why Natural Selection 
should eliminate the hairy covering of the skin while 

The Hair 361 

favouring a dark complexion. Hair not only 
absorbs the sun's heat, but retains that of the body ; 
hence a hairy man not living on trees would be very 
uncomfortable in Africa, and likely to succumb to 
the enervating effects of high temperature. The 
negro's naked skin, on the other hand, is, as we have 
seen, specially devised as a body-cooler. The black 
pigment protects the underlying nerves of tempera- 
ture, while the solar heat absorbed by this pigment 
is immediately radiated in the form of perspiration. 
Now we can see not only why the negro's skin is 
more velvety, smooth, and hairless than our own, 
but why its sweat -pores are larger and more 
numerous than in our skin. 

At a later stage of evolution Sexual Selection 
probably came in to aid in this process of denudation. 
We may infer this, in the first place, from the 
analogous case of apes who have denuded and 
variously -coloured patches on the head and else- 
where, which they use for purposes of display, to 
attract the notice of the opposite sex ; in the second 
place, from the fact that there are not a few tribes 
who pluck out their hairs. "The Fuegians threat- 
ened a young missionary, who was left for a time 
with them, to strip him naked, and pluck the hairs 
from his face and body, yet he was far from being a 
hairy man ; " and " throughout the world the races 
which are almost completely destitute of a beard, 
dislike hairs on the face and body, and take pains 
to eradicate them." Darwin also notes some facts 
which, by analogy, seem to make it probable that 
" the long-continued habit of eradicating the hair 
may have produced an inherited effect." 

362 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

In the case of the white race we cannot rely so 
much on the action of the sun as accounting for the 
absence of hair, but must place more especial em- 
phasis on Sexual Selection. We are warranted 
in doing this by the consideration that Taste for 
Beauty is more developed in the white race, and 
therefore has more influence in controlling the 
choice of a mate. " As the body in woman is less 
hairy than in man, and as this character is com- 
mon to all races, we may conclude " with Darwin 
"that it was our female semi -human ancestors who 
were first divested of hair," this character being 
then transmitted by the mothers to their children 
of both sexes. 

The two universal traits of Beauty which chiefly 
guided man in the preference of a hairless skin were 
evidently Smoothness and Colour. One need only 
compare for a moment the face of a female chimpan- 
zee, its leathery folded skin and straggling hairs, 
with the smooth and rosy complexion of a European 
damsel, to understand that, leaving touch out of con- 
sideration, sight alone would have sufficed to give the 
preference to the hairless skin. But since we derive 
less direct advantage than the tropical races from 
such a skin, cases of reversion to the hairy type are 
more common among us than with them, and our 
bodies in general are more hairy. 


The elimination of hair from those parts of the 
body where it is less beautiful than a nude skin, is 
only one of the functions of Sexual Selection. 
Another equally important function is the preserva- 

The Hair 363 

tion and elongation of the hair in a few places for 
ornamental purposes. 

" We know from Eschricht," says Darwin, " that 
with mankind the female as well as the male foetus 
is furnished with much hair on the face, especially 
round the mouth ; and this indicates that we are 
descended from progenitors of whom both sexes were 
bearded. It appears, therefore, at first sight, probable 
that man has retained his beard from a very early 
period, whilst woman lost her beard at the same time 
that her body became almost completely divested of 

A long beard serves, to some extent, to protect 
the throat, but a moustache serves no such use, and 
it seems therefore more probable that beards as well 
as moustaches were developed in man for ornamental 
purposes, as in many monkeys (see, for some very 
curious pictures of bearded monkeys, Descent of 
Man, chap, xviii.) But why should women have 
lost their beards while men retained theirs? Because 
of the importance of emphasising the secondary 
sexual differences between man and woman, on 
which the degree of amorous infatuation depends. 
The tendency of evolution, as we have seen, has been 
to make the sexes more and more different in 
appearance ; and as man chooses his mate chiefly 
on cesthetic grounds, he habitually gave the preference 
to smooth-faced women, whereas woman's choice, 
being largely based on dynamic grounds, fell on the 
bearded and moustached men, since a luxurious 
growth of hair is commonly a sign of physical vigour. 
Hence the humiliation of the young man who cannot 
raise a moustache, and the reciprocal horror of the 

364 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

young lady who finds the germs of one on her lip. 
Both are instinctively afraid of being " boycotted " 
by Cupid, and for ever debarred from the pleasures of 
mutual Romantic Love. 

Women are quite right in dreading hair in the 
face as a blemish, for it is not only objectionable as 
a masculine trait, but also as a characteristic of old 
age, a hairy face being quite a common attribute of 
aged females. But with men the case is different. 
Though women may still be often influenced in their 
amorous choice by a beard, it is not, as just 
pointed out, on aesthetic grounds ; and it is indeed 
very dubious if the beard can be accepted as a real 
personal ornament. True, the ancient Greeks 
respected a beard as an attribute of maturity and 
manhood, but their ideal of supreme beauty was 
nevertheless an unbearded youth : Apollo has neither 
beard nor moustache. The ancient Egyptians had a 
horror of the bearded and long-haired Greeks. " No 
Egyptian of either sex would on any account kiss 
the lips of a Greek," and whenever the Egyptians 
" intended to convey the idea of a man of low con- 
dition, or a slovenly person, the artists represented 
him with a beard " (Wilkinson). Similarly, in the 
second edition of his Anatomy of Expression (1824), 
Sir Charles Bell wrote that " When those essays 
were first written there was not a beard to be seen 
in England unless joined with squalor and neglect, 
and I had the conviction that this appendage con- 
cealed the finest features. Being in Rome, however, 
during the procession of the Corpus Domini, I saw 
that the expression was not injured by the beard, but 
that it added to the dignity and character of years." 

The Hair 365 

These two sentences contain the whole philosophy 
of beards. The expression of character is not 
injured, but rather increased by a beard ; but if it 
conceals the fine features of youth it is objectionable. 
There are men whose faces are too wide, and whose 
appearance is therefore improved by a chin-beard ; 
and there are others whose faces are too narrow, and 
who consequently look better with side-whiskers. 
But in a well-shaped youthful masculine face a beard 
is as great a superfluity, if not a blemish, as in a 
woman's face. 

Now, since the faces of civilised races are un- 
doubtedly becoming more beautiful as time advances, 
it is comforting to know that, notwithstanding female 
selection, the beard is gradually disappearing. Very 
few men are able to raise a fine beard to-day, even 
with the artificial stimulus of several years' daily 
shaving ; and the time, no doubt, is not very distant 
when men will go to the cosmetic electrician to have 
their straggling hair-bulbs in the chin killed. This 
may produce an inherited effect on their children ; 
and the always smooth-faced mother, too, cannot but 
exert some hereditary influence on her sons as well 
as her daughters. The women, in turn, will inherit 
some of the superior aesthetic Taste of the men, and 
begin to see that there is more charm in a smooth 
than in a bearded face; while there will still be room 
enough for those sexual differences in facial Beauty 
which feed the flame of Love. 

The following newspaper paragraph, though it 
may be a mere jeu (Fesprit, is amusing and sug- 
gestive : " A Frenchman sent a circular to all his 
friends asking why they cultivated a beard. Among 

366 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

the answers 9 stated, ' Because I wish to avoid 
shaving ' ; 12 ' Because I do not wish to catch 
cold ' ; 5 ' Because I wish to conceal bad teeth ' ; 
' Because I wish to conceal the length of my nose ' ; 
6 'Because I am a soldier'; 21 'Because I was a 
soldier'; 65 'Because my wife likes it'; 28 'Be- 
cause my love likes it ' ; 15 answered that they 
wore no beards." 

Moustaches are much more common to-day than 
beards, and it is barely possible that they may escape 
aesthetic condemnation, and survive to the millen- 
nium. Persons with very short upper lips or flat 
noses, it is true, only emphasise their shortcomings 
by wearing a moustache ; but in broad faces with 
prominent noses a well-shaped, not too drooping, 
moustache is no doubt an ornament, relieving the 
gravity of the masculine features and adding to their 
expression. As Bell remarks : " Although the hair 
of the upper lip does conceal the finer modulations 
of the mouth, as in woman, it adds to the character 
of the stronger and harsher emotions." " I was led 
to attend more particularly to the moustache as 
a feature of expression," he says, " in meeting a 
handsome young French soldier coming up a long 
ascent in the Cote d'Or, and breathing hard, al- 
though with a good-humoured, innocent expression. 
His sharp -pointed black moustache rose and fell 
with a catamount look that set me to think on the 

Young men may find in Bell's remarks a sugges- 
tion as to how they may make the moustache a 
permanent ornament of the human race. The 
movements of the moustache are dependent on the 

The Hair 367 

muscle called depressor alee nasi. By specially cul- 
tivating this muscle men might in course of time 
make the movements of the moustaches subject to 
voluntary control. Just think what a capacity for 
emotional expression lies in such a simple organ as 
the dog's caudal appendage, aptly called the " psy- 
chographic tail " by Vischer : and moustaches are 
double, and therefore equal to two psychographic 
appendages ! 

Sexual Selection would not fail to seize on this 
" new departure " in moustaches immediately in 
order to emphasise the sexual differences of expres- 
sion in the face, and thus increase the ardour of 
romantic passion. A few days ago I came across 
an attempt in a German paper to explain the mean- 
ing of the word Flirtation. The writer derives the 
word from an old expression meaning to toss or cast 
about. This he refers to the eyes, and thinks that 
the proper translation of Flirtation is tiugeln, i.e. to 
" make eyes." We, of course, know that flirting is 
a fine art which includes a vast deal besides dugeln ; 
but " making eyes " is certainly one of its tricks. 
Now, is it not probable that by and by, when young 
men will have properly trained their depressor alee 
nast, they will look upon the making of eyes as a 
feminine attribute, and, instead of winking at their 
sweethearts, express their admiration by some subtle 
and graceful movement of the moustaches ? This 
would obliterate Darwin's assertion that Love has 
no special means of expression. 

Superficial students of Darwinism are constantly 

368 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

making owlish predictions that ere many generations 
will have passed bald heads will be the normal 
aspect of man. But, as we have just seen in the 
case of beards, it is not utility or Natural Selection 
so much as Sexual, ^Esthetico-Amorous Selection 
on which the evolution of Personal Beauty depends. 
If Natural Selection were at work alone we should, 
indeed, ultimately become bald ; for as soon as man 
begins to cover his head with a cap or hat, he takes 
away the chief function of the hair on the top of the 
head, where it serves as a protection against wind 
and weather. But Sexual Selection now steps in 
and says that the hair must remain, because without 
it the head looks decidedly ugly, whatever its 

" Eschricht states that in the human fcetus the 
hair on the face during the fifth month is longer 
than that on the head ; and this indicates that our 
semi-human progenitors were not furnished with long 
tresses, which must therefore have been a late acqui- 
sition. This is likewise indicated by the extra- 
ordinary difference in the length of the hair in the 
different races : in the negro the hair forms a mere 
curly mat ; with us it is of great length, and with 
the American natives it not rarely reaches to the 
ground. Some species of Semnopithecus have their 
head covered with moderately long hair, and this 
probably serves as an ornament, and was acquired 
through sexual selection. The same view may per- 
haps be extended to mankind, for we know that long 
tresses are now and were formerly much admired, 
as may be observed in the works of almost every 
poet ; St. Paul says, ' If a woman have long hair it 

The Hair 369 

is a glory to her ' ; and we have seen that in North 
America a chief was elected solely from the length 
of his hair " (Darwin). 

Inasmuch as Sexual Selection or Love is im- 
peded in its action not only by pecuniary and social 
considerations, but by the fact that it cannot be 
guided by any particular feature alone, its action is 
slow and sometimes uncertain. Hence the increase 
of bald heads. It is therefore necessary to supple- 
ment the beautifying results of Sexual Selection by 
means of hygienic precautions, such as avoiding air- 
tight, warm, high hats, badly ventilated rooms, in- 
temperate habits, and other causes of baldness. 
Hereditary baldness is difficult to arrest in its 
course ; but even in such cases much may be accom- 
plished by beginning in childhood to take proper 
care of the hair. Most persons especially men 
seem to imagine that combs and brushes are made 
solely for the purpose of arranging the hair in some 
approved fashion ; whereas, if properly used, a brush 
adds as much to the sensuous beauty of the hair as 
to its for-mal appearance. To remove all the dust 
from the hair, and give it gloss and healthy colour, 
about fifty daily strokes, or more even, are recom- 
mended. Avoid irritating the scalp with fine combs 
or hard bristles, and wash it once or twice a week 
with a weak solution of ammonia or borax. Hair 
that is properly brushed is always glossy with its 
natural oil, and needs no vulgar ointment, offensive 
to the smell and suggestive of uncleanliness. If 
with these hygienic precautions the hair refuses to 
become beautiful, it is time to get medical advice ; 
for the dull colour and dryness of the hair which 

VOL. II. 2 B 

3?o Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

lead to baldness are often due to constitutional 

Powdering the hair is fortunately no longer in 
vogue as it was formerly. It is a most unaesthetic 
habit, not only because white or gray hair is natu- 
rally suggestive of old age, grief, and decrepitude, 
but because the flour forms with the perspiration 
and with the oil of the hair a nasty compound. 
William Pitt "estimated, in 1795, that the amount 
of flour annually consumed for this purpose in the 
United Kingdom represented the enormous and 
incredible value of six million dollars." 

It is estimated that the average number of 
hairs on the head is 120,000. This allows one 
to look with considerable indifference on the loss 
of a few hundred, all the more as in ordinary cases, 
even after illness, every hair lost is replaced by 
another. But when the papilla at the base of the 
hair cavity is destroyed, then baldness is inevitable. 
It follows from this that the only certain way of re- 
moving hair permanently from places where it is not 
desired is to destroy this papilla. " Plucking hair 
out by the root " does not destroy it. "If they are 
pulled out with the tweezers there is a still greater 
stimulus given," says Dr. Bulkley (The Skin in 
Health and Disease], " and the hairs return yet more 
coarse and obtrusive." The various Oriental and 
Occidental pastes for removing the hair have no 
more permanent effect than shaving. " Superfluous 
hairs can be removed either by the introduction of 
an irregularly-shaped needle into the follicle (after 
the extraction of the hair), which is then twisted so 
as to break up the papilla and produce a little in- 

The Hair 371 

flammation, which closes the follicle ; or a needle 
can be inserted, and a current from a battery be 
turned on, when the follicle is destroyed by what is 
known as electrolysis. These procedures could be 
done only by a physician." 

Concerning electrolysis Dr. S. E. Woody says in 
the American Practitioner and News that the num- 
ber of hairs to return and demand a second removal 
will decrease with the skill of the operator and the 
thoroughness of the operation. He usually expects 
the return of about 5 per cent, but when these are 
in turn removed the cure is complete. "You should 
have the patient come only on bright days, for good 
light is necessary." 


If not the most beautiful part of the head, hair 
certainly is the most beautifying. To improve the 
shape of mouth, nose, chin, or eyes requires time and 
patience, but the arrangement of the hair can be 
altered in a minute, not only to its own advantage, 
but so as to enhance the beauty of the whole face. 
By clever manipulation of her long tresses, a woman 
can alter her appearance almost as completely as a 
man can by shaving off his long beard or moustache. 

But, alas ! If the prevalence of the bustle and 
wasp-waist allowed any doubt to remain as to the 
woful rarity of aesthetic taste among women, it would 
be found in the arrangement of the hair and the 
kind of headdresses they commonly adopt at the 
behest of Fashion. " Because women as a rule do 
not know what beauty means," says Mrs. Haweis 
(The Art of Beauty], "therefore they catch at what- 

372 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

ever presents itself as a novelty. . . . They do not 
pause to consider whether the old fashion became 
them better whether the new one reveals more 
clearly the slight shrinking of the jaw, or spoils the 
pretty colour still blooming in the cheek." 

The latest head-dress foisted on the feminine 
world by Parisian Fashion shows most strikingly how 
Fashion is the Handmaid of Vulgarity as well as of 
Ugliness. Heaven knows, the high silk hats worn by 
men are bad enough, on hygienic as well as aesthetic 
grounds. They promote baldness and destroy all 
the artistic proportions of stature, making the head 
look by one half too high. But silk hats are a harm- 
less trifle compared with the shapeless straw-towers, 
ornamented with bird-corpses, that have been worn 
of late by almost all women in countries which slavishly 
follow Parisian example. And there is this great 
difference between man's silk hat and woman's bird- 
sarcophagus the former only results in ugliness, 
the second is also evidence of heartlessness, and 
leads to vulgarity. For what is it but vulgarity if 
women continue to go to the theatre for two winters 
with hats which make it quite impossible for those 
sitting behind them to see the scenery and enjoy the 
play and all this in spite of innumerable sarcastic 
and angry protests in the journals ? Is not the first 
rule of etiquette and good manners regard for the 
feelings and pleasures of others ? 

What would women say to a man who kept on 
his tall hat in a theatre until the ushers threw him 
out ? Would they not all pronounce him either 
intoxicated or ineffably vulgar? Would not Schop- 
enhauer, if he could go to an American theatre 

The Hair 373 

to-day, be justified in saying that women are not 
only the " unaesthetic sex," but also the " ill-bred 
sex " ? And can the women who are so devoid of 
courtesy towards the men wonder that masculine 
gallantry towards women on street-cars and else- 
where seems to be on the wane ? 

Although there are no two heads in which the 
most pleasing effect is secured by precisely the same 
arrangement of the hair and the same style of hat, 
it may be laid down as a universal rule that a very 
high hat or arrangement of the hair is becoming to 
no one, for the reason above indicated. Let it be 
observed, says Mr. Ruskin, " that in spite of all 
custom, an Englishman instantly acknowledges, and 
at first sight, the superiority of the turban to the 
hat." " Guido," says Mrs. Haweis, " probably felt 
the peculiar charm of the turban when he placed one 
upon the quiet melancholy head of Beatrice Cenci." 
For full and bright young faces the Tarn o' Shanter 
is the loveliest of all headdresses. But this subject 
is too large to be discussed in a paragraph. In 
Mrs. Haweis's Art of Beauty may be found some 
elegant illustrations of head-dresses placed near 
fashionable monstrosities ; and young ladies would 
do well to devote an hour a day for a year or two 
to the study of some history of costume. Nothing 
awakens the sense of Beauty so rapidly as good 
models and comparisons. 

Concerning the arrangement of the hair two more 
points may be noted. Is it not about time to do 
away with the venerable absurdity of parting the 
hair ? If entire baldness is voted ugly, why should 
partial baldness be courted ? The hair should be 

374 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

allowed to remain in its natural direction of growth. 
It does not part itself naturally, nor again and this 
is a much more important point does it grow back- 
ward from the forehead. The Chinese coiffure dis- 
figures every woman who adopts it ; and the habit 
of combing back the hair tightly from the forehead, 
moreover, often causes neuralgic headache, the 
cause of which is unsuspected ; not to speak of the 
fact that such a coiffure raises the eyebrows, and thus 
gives a fixed expression of amazed stupefaction. The 
hair naturally falls over the forehead, and fringes it 
as beautifully as a grove does a lake. 

The ancient Greek notions on this subject are 
worthy of attentive consideration. " Women who 
had a high forehead placed a band over it, with the 
design of making it thereby seem lower," says 
Winckelmann. Not only in women but in mature 
men the hair was so arranged as to cover up " the 
receding bare corners over the temples, which usually 
enlarge as life advances beyond that age when the 
forehead is naturally high." The modern fringe or 
" bang " is, however, an improvement even on the 
Greek curve of the hair over the temples. It im- 
proves the appearance of all women except those 
whose forehead is very low naturally ; but in all 
cases exaggeration must be avoided. 

A writer in the London Evening Standard thinks 
it is strange that the English, " who have the poorest 
hair in Europe, make the least attempt to show what 
they have," and that it has now " come to such a 
pass that a maiden of twenty thinks it almost in- 
decent to wear her hair loose." He traces this to 
the tyranny of Fashion the ugly majority having 

Brunette and Blonde 375 

compelled the beautiful minority to conceal their 
charms. But we may be sure that ere long Beauty 
will revolt against Fashion. It will be another 
French revolution, practically, an emphatic protest 
against Parisian dictation and vulgarity. 


" In the old time black was not counted fair, 
Or if it were it bore not beauty's name ; 
But now is black beauty's successive heir." SHAKSPERE. 


Becker tells us that among the ancient Greeks 
" black was probably the prevailing colour of the 
hair, though blond is frequently mentioned " ; and he 
adds that both men and women used dyes, and " the 
blond or yellow hair was much admired." Mr. 
Gladstone, in his work on Homer, remarks that 
" dark hair is a note of the foreigner and of Southern 
extraction. ... I have been assured that, in the 
Greece of to-day, light hair is still held as indicating 
the purest Hellenic blood." According to Winckel- 
mann, " Homer does not even once mention hair of 
a black colour " ; and again : " Flaxen, gavOrj hair 
has always been considered the most beautiful ; and 
hair of this colour has been attributed to the most 
beautiful of the gods, as Apollo and Bacchus, not 
less than to the heroes ; even Alexander had flaxen 

That the Romans agreed with the Greeks in 
giving the preference to light hair seems probable 
from the extensive importations of yellow German 

376 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

hair for the Roman ladies, as also from the fact that 
" Lucretius, when speaking of the false flatteries ad- 
dressed to women, quotes one in illustration, namely, 
that a maiden with black hair is /zeXt^/ooo? (honey- 
coloured) thus ascribing to her a beauty which she 
does not possess." 

When the fair-haired Teuton overran the South 
a new motive for preferring blond hair arose, as a 
writer in the London Standard remarks : " Whatever 
the feeling of the men, we may be sure that the dark 
beauties of those climes felt a natural inclination to 
resemble the wives and daughters of the conqueror, 
and when we perceive their likenesses again, at the 
revival of art in Italy, not a black tress is to be 
seen. Is there a single Madonna not blond ? or 
ten portraits of women by the great masters ? In 
all the gallery of Titian, we think only of a figure, 
naked to the waist, in the Uffizi, described as one 
of his mistresses. . . . But we know that the blond 
tint was artificial in a majority of cases the deep 
black of eye and brow would show it if no evidence 
were forthcoming. But evidence turns up at every 
side ... a hundred recipes are found in memoirs, 
correspondence, and treatises of the time." 

Hear another witness : " Southern Europe," says 
Mr. R. G. White, " is peopled with dark-skinned, 
dark-haired races, and the superior beauty of the 
blond type was recognised by the painters, who 
always, from the earliest days, represented angels as 
of that type. The Devil was painted black so much 
as a matter of course that his pictured appearance 
gave rise to a well-known proverb ; ordinary mortals 
were represented as more or less dark ; celestial 

Brunette and Blonde 377 

people were white and golden-haired : whence the 
epithet ' divinely fair.' " 

And the poets were quite as partial as the artists 
to the light type. Petrarch's sonnets are addressed 
to a blue-eyed Laura. Krimhild of the Nibelungen- 
lied is blue -eyed, like Fricka, the Northern Juno, 
and Ingeborg of the FritJijof's Saga, and the 
Danish princess lolanthe, as Dr. Magnus points out ; 
and in the French folk-songs " the girls are almost as 
invariably blond as in the songs of Heine," as a 
writer in the Saturday Review (1878) remarks, 
adding that "there is even such an expression as 
aller en blonde, < to go a-wooing,' which proves the 
universality of the belief in fair beauties." 

Concerning England, a writer in the Quarterly 
Review declares that Shakspere mentions black hair 
only twice throughout his plays ; and that in the 
National Gallery of that date (1853) there was not 
a single female head with black hair. 


Thus we have evidence showing that during the 
epoch preceding the general prevalence of Romantic 
Love, the blonde type was considered the ideal of 
beauty throughout Europe in Greece and Italy as 
well as in Germany, Scandinavia, France, and Eng- 
land. And where the hair was not naturally blond, 
artificial means were used to make it so. 

But as soon as Love appears on the scene and 
sharpens the aesthetic sense, we find a reaction in 
favour of brunettes. There can be no doubt of this, 
for it is attested not only by personal opinions and 
observations, but by accurate statistics. The Quar- 

378 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

terly Review just referred to believed that blondes 
were gradually decreasing in England, and the Satur- 
day Review asserts that " some years ago Mr. 
Gladstone, whom nothing escapes, declared that 
light-haired people were far less numerous than in 
his youth. Many middle-aged persons will probably 
agree with him." " The time was," the writer adds, 
" when the black-haired, black-eyed girl of fiction 
was as dark of soul as of tresses, while the blue-eyed 
maiden's character was of ' heaven's own colour.' 
Thackeray damaged this tradition by invariably 
making his dark heroines nice, his fair heroines 
treacherous sirens." Byron, we may add, also 
showed a passionate preference for brunettes ; and 
does not another great love-poet, Moore, speak of 
" eyes of unholy blue " ? 

Speaking of the Germans, the anthropologist 
Waitz remarks that " the blond and red hair, the 
blue eyes and light complexion, which most of them 
had at the period of the Roman wars, have not dis- 
appeared, it is true, but certainly diminished greatly 
in frequency. In Jarrold we find the analogous 
statement that as late as the time of Henry VIII. 
red hair predominated in England, and that at the 
beginning of the fifteenth century gray eyes were 
more common, dark eyes and dark hair less common, 
than now." As this change is correlated in both 
these countries with a gradual refinement of the 
features, does it not indicate that modern aesthetico- 
amorous selection favours the brunette type ? 

Waltz's assertion regarding the gradual decrease 
in the number of blondes in Germany is strikingly 
confirmed by the results of a series of statistical in- 

Brunette and Blonde 379 

vestigations undertaken under the supervision of 
Professor Virchow. Almost eleven million school 
children were examined in Germany, Austria, Switz- 
erland and Belgium, and the results showed that 
Switzerland has only 11*10, Austria 1979, and 
Germany 31*80 per cent of pure blondes. Thus 
the very country which, since the days of ancient 
Rome has been proverbially known as the home of 
yellow hair and blue eyes, has to-day only 32 pure 
blondes in a hundred ; while the average of pure 
brunettes is already I4'O5 per cent (and in some 
regions as high as 25 per cent). The 53*15 per cent 
of the mixed type are evidently being slowly trans- 
formed into pure brunettes, thanks to intermarriages 
with the neighbours who are of the dark variety 
east and west, as well as south of Germany. 

In England Dr. Beddoe has collected a number 
of statistics which also bear out the theory that brun- 
ettes are gaining on blondes. Among 726 women 
examined he found 369 brunettes and 357 blondes. 
Of the brunettes he found that 78*5 per cent were 
married, while of the blondes only 68 per cent were 
married. Thus it would seem that a brunette has 
ten chances of getting married in England to a 
blonde's nine. Hence Dr. Beddoe reasons that the 
English are becoming darker because the men persist 
in selecting the darker-haired women as wives. 

In France a similar view has been put forth by 
M. Adolphe de Candolle in the Archives des Sciences. 
He found that when both parents have eyes of the 
same colour 88*4 per cent inherit this colour. " But 
the curious fact comes out that more females than 
males have black or brown eyes, in the proportion, 

380 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

say, of 49 to 45 or of 41 to 39. Next, it appears 
that with different coloured eyes in the two parents, 
5 3 '09 per cent of the progeny followed the fathers 
in being dark-eyed, and 5 5 '09 per cent followed their 
mothers in being dark-eyed. An increase of 5 per 
cent of dark-eyed in each generation of discolorous 
unions must tell heavily in the course of time. It 
would seem," adds Science, to which I owe this sum- 
mary of De Candolle's views, " that, unless specially 
bred by concolorous marriages, blue-eyed belles will 
be scarce in the millennium." 


How are we to account for this undeniable change 
in favour of brunettes? Is it merely a matter of 
Taste and Fashion ? Are we simply going through 
a period of brunette-worship which in turn will be 
followed by a century or two of blonde-worship, and 
so on ad infinitum ? or are there reasons for believing 
that Cupid will abide by his present decision, and 
continue to eliminate blondes ? There are several 
such reasons, which may best be discussed sepa- 
rately, under the heads of Complexion, Hair, and 

(i) Complexion. The dark skin is more soft and 
velvety than the light skin, and therefore more agree- 
able to the touch ; hence, as Winckelmann remarks, 
" he who prefers dark to fair beauty is not on that 
account to be censured ; indeed, one might approve 
his choice, if he is attracted less by sight than by the 
touch." But the eye, too, is likely to be more pleased 
by a brunette than a pure blond complexion. In 
the dark skin the pigmentary matter tones down the 

Brunette and Blonde 381 

too vivid red of the translucent blood, wherefore the 
brunette complexion appears more mellow and deli- 
cate in its tints than the Scandinavian blonde, in 
which a blush suggests a hectic flush, and its normal 
whiteness the pallor of ill-health or a lack of invigor- 
ating and beautifying sunshine. 

The brunette complexion, in a word, suggests to 
the mind the idea of stored-up sunshine, i.e. Health; 
and as Health is what primarily attracts Cupid, this, 
combined with his taste for delicate tints and veiled 
blushes, partly accounts for his preference of the dark 
type. Youthful freshness is another bait which 
tempts Cupid ; and it is well known that the dark 
complexion does not, as a rule, fade so soon as the 

That the brownish skin is commonly healthier 
than the white is also shown by its being less sub- 
ject to the irregularity in the secretion of pigmentary 
matter which causes freckles. These blemishes, like 
smallpox marks, are much rarer among the dark 
than among blond races and individuals. 

The skin of blondes who are exposed to a hot 
sun and raw weather becomes red, inflamed, and de- 
cidedly unbeautiful, while a brunette's complexion 
only becomes a shade darker, and possibly all the 
more attractive. This suggests another reason why 
the brunettes have an advantage over blondes in the 
country, where love-making is chiefly carried on in 
summer. Yet it will not do for the blondes to avoid 
the sunshine on this account, for that will make them 
anaemic and prematurely old. 

There is a class of extreme blondes to whom sun- 
light is not only irritating, but positively painful. 

382 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

They are called albinos, because there is no brown 
pigment whatever in any part of their body skin, 
hair, or iris. The Dutch call them Kakerlaken or 
cockroaches, because, like these animals, they avoid 
the light. Such anomalous individuals occur also 
among animals ; and Darwin has noted regarding 
birds that albinos do not pair, apparently because 
they are rejected by their normally-coloured com- 
rades. This fact has a remote bearing on our argu- 
ment, for blondes are intermediate between albinos 
and brunettes. 

It would appear, indeed, as if not only the com- 
plexion but the general constitution of the dark type 
were superior to that of the blond type. In the 
chapter on the Complexion it was stated that a dark 
hue is regarded in Australia and elsewhere as evi- 
dence of superior strength. The ancient Greeks, 
Winckelmann tells us, although they called the young 
with fair complexions " children of the gods," looked 
upon a brown complexion in boys as an indication 
of courage. Professor Topinard states that " the fair 
races are especially adapted to temperate and cool 
regions, and the South is looked upon as almost for- 
bidden ground. The brown races, on the contrary, 
have a remarkable power of becoming acclimatised." 
Several writers have even endeavoured to account for 
the gradual increase in the proportion of brunettes 
by connecting it with the modern tendency towards 
centralisation of the population in large cities, where 
the blondes, being unable to resist their unsanitary 
surroundings, are eliminated, while the more vigorous 
and fertile brunettes survive and multiply. 

One reason why tourists are more impressed by 

Brunette and Blonde 383 

the prevalence of beauty in southern than in northern 
regions, is because the working classes are more beauti- 
ful in the South than in the North ; and the working 
classes, of course, constitute the vast majority of the 
population everywhere. " In northern countries," 
says Mr. Lecky, "the prevailing cast of beauty 
depends rather on colour than on form. It consists 
chiefly of a freshness and delicacy of complexion 
which severe labour and constant exposure neces- 
sarily destroy, and which is therefore rarely found 
in the highest perfection among the very poor. 
But the southern type is essentially democratic. 
The fierce rays of the sun only mellow and mature 
its charms. Its most perfect examples may be 
found in the hovel as in the palace, and the effects 
of this diffusion of beauty may be traced both in 
the manners and the morals of the people." 

Another advantage to the study and develop- 
ment of Personal Beauty lies in the fact, noted by 
Ruskin, "that in climates where the body can be 
more openly and frequently visited by sun and 
weather, the nude both comes to be regarded in a 
way more grand and pure, as not of necessity 
awakening ideas of base kind (as pre-eminently 
with the Greeks), and also from that exposure 
receives a firmness and sunny elasticity very differ- 
ent from the silky softness of the clothed nations of 
the North." 

(2) Hair. " That noble beauty," says Winckel- 
mann, " which consists not merely in a soft skin, a 
brilliant complexion, wanton or languishing eyes, 
but in the shape or form, is found more frequently 
in countries which enjoy a uniform mildness of 

384 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

climate." " This difference shows itself even in the 
hair of the head and of the beard, and both in warm 
climates have a more beautiful growth even from 
childhood, so that the greater number of children 
in Italy are born with fine curling hair, which loses 
none of its beauty with increasing years. All the 
beards, also, are curly, ample, and finely shaped ; 
whereas those of the pilgrims who come to Rome 
from the other side of the Alps are generally, like 
the hair of their heads, stiff, bristly, straight, and 

Nevertheless, the hair is the blonde's one feature 
in which, so far as the head itself is concerned, she 
may dispute the supremacy with the brunette. Light 
hair is finer than dark hair, and there is more of it 
to the square inch ; and as for the colour, who will 
say that a girl with " golden locks which make such 
wanton gambols " is inferior in beauty to one who 
is " robed in the long night of her deep hair " ? 

But if the positive tests of Beauty Colour, 
Lustre, Smoothness, Delicacy, etc. do not permit 
us to give the preference to dark hair, it is otherwise 
when we come to the negative tests. A fine head 
of blond hair may be as beautiful as a head of 
brown hair, but it is not so apt to be beautiful ; it 
has a tendency to become " stiff, bristly, straight, and 
pointed." There are various reasons for believing 
that light hair as a rule is not so healthy, not so 
well-nourished, as dark hair. Every reader must 
have noticed among his friends that the blondes are 
much more likely than the brunettes to complain 
of dry and refractory hairs, and difficulty in keeping 
them in shape. 

Brunette and Blonde 385 

" The end of long hair is usually lighter in 
colour than its beginning," as Professor Kollmann 
remarks : " at a distance from the skin the hairs 
lose their natural oil as well as the nourishing sap 
which comes from their roots." This implies that 
the colour of the hair becomes darker with increasing 
vigour and vitality. We have seen that the same 
is true of the colour of animals in general, the 
healthiest being the most vividly coloured, and the 
males commonly darker than the less vigorous 
females ; and as for plants, who has not noticed 
how easy it is to trace the course of an invisible 
brooklet in a meadow, not only by the greater 
luxuriance, but the much darker colour of the grass 
which lines its banks ? 

Once more, we know that old age, great sorrow, 
terror, headaches, or insanity, diminish the pigment- 
ary matter in the hair and make it lighter gray 
or white ; and that by frequently brushing blond 
hair we not only make it more glossy and shapely, 
but at the same time darker. 

Red hair is probably an abnormal variety of 
blond hair, since it does not occur among the 
darker races. It is disliked not only because it is 
so often associated with freckles, but because it is 
commonly dry, coarse, and bristly. The Brahmins 
were forbidden to marry a red-haired woman ; and 
the populace of most countries, confounding moral 
with aesthetic impressions, accuses red-haired people 
of various shortcomings. " Sandy hair, when well 
brushed and kept glossy with the natural oil of the 
scalp, changes to a warm golden tinge. I have 
seen," says the author of the Ugly Girl Papers, " a 

VOL. II. 2 C 

386 Romantic. Love and Personal Beauty 

most obnoxious head of colour so changed by a few 
years' care that it became the admiration of the 
owner's friends, and could hardly be recognised as 
the withered, fiery locks once worn." 

An American newspaper paragraph, for the truth- 
fulness of which I cannot vouch, recently stated 
that twenty-one men in Cincinnati, who had married 
red-haired women, were found to be colour-blind. 
A person who is colour-blind mistakes red for black. 

(3) Eyes. But it is when we leave the scalp that 
the superiority of dark over light hair becomes most 
manifest. That black eyelashes and eyebrows are 
infinitely more beautiful than light-coloured ones, is 
admitted without a dissentient voice ; and it is need- 
less to add that brunettes, whether gray or black- 
eyed, are almost certain to have dark eyelashes, 
while blondes are almost certain not to have them. 
Hence the painting of light eyelashes has been a 
common artifice among all nations and at all times ; 
and Mrs. Haweis goes so far as to sanction the use 
of nasty gray hair powder because it "makes the 
eyebrows and eyelashes appear much darker than 
they really are." I have, however, seen black eye- 
lashes on several young ladies who could hardly be 
classed as brunettes, and who assured me on their 
conscience that they had not dyed them. Can it be 
possible that Sexual Selection (i.e. the aesthetic over- 
tone in Romantic Love) is endeavouring to evolve 
a type of Beauty in which golden locks will be 
allowed to remain, while the eyelashes will be 
changed to black ? The only objection to this 
surmise is that the hair in other parts of the face 
(chin and upper lip), though rarely of the same 

Brunette and Blonde 387 

colour as that on the scalp, is almost always lighter 
in hue. But, whether or not Love can accomplish 
the miracle of making black lashes universal, the 
fact remains that they are in all cases a thousand 
times more charming than yellow or red lashes, 
and also more apt to be long and delicately curved, 
coyly veiling the mysterious lustre and fire of the 

Concerning the iris, in turn, it cannot be denied 
that it is most beautiful when black (dark brown), or 
so deeply blue or violet as to be easily taken for 
black. This superiority of the dark hue is due 
partly to the fact that a brown eye is commonly 
more lustrous than a light eye, and partly to the 
law of contrast ; for a light-coloured iris obviously 
does not present such a vivid contrast to the white 
of the eye as a brown iris, and is therefore apt to 
seem vague, watery, and superficial in expression. 
The light blue or gray eye appears shallow. All its 
beauty seems to be on the surface, whereas the " soul- 
deep eyes of darkest night " appear unfathomable 
through their bewitching glamour. 

What is the etymology of the word bella donna? 
Was it given to the plant on account of the beauty 
of its cherry-like berries ? or was it not rather chosen 
by some poet who noted the wondrous effect of these 
poisonous berries in changing all eyes into black 
eyes by enlarging the pupils, thus making every 
donna a bella donna, or "beautiful lady"? Great, 
indeed, must be the fascination of a large pupil, since 
so many women have braved the danger to health, 
and the certainty of impairment of vision, which 
follow the use of this poison as a cosmetic. 

388 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

It was noted in an earlier part of this volume 
that young men are led to propose chiefly in the 
evening, because the twilight enlarges the pupil, thus 
not only beautifying her eyes, but enabling him to 
see 'his own divine image reflected in them, proving 
his Monopoly of her soul. A brunette's dark eyes 
on such an occasion appear to be all pupil : how, 
then, can you wonder that brunettes are gaining on 
blondes ? 

However, let not the blondes despair. As they 
become scarcer they will for that very reason be 
valued the more as curiosities, and the last of them, 
should she fail to find a husband, will be able to 
command a handsome salary in a museum or as a 
comic opera singer. 

Moreover, there is no reason why physiologists 
should not ere long discover the secret of changing 
the tint of the skin, hair, and iris to suit one's taste. 
All children are born with light eyes, but a great 
many exchange them for dark eyes as soon as they 
realise their mistake. We also know that ill-health 
temporarily changes the colour of the hair. Accord- 
ing to the Popular Science MontJily> " Prentiss records 
a case of a patient to whom muriate of pilocarpine 
was administered hypodermically, and whose hair 
was changed from light blond to nearly jet black, 
and his eyes from light blue to dark blue." The 
eating of sorghum is also said to favour the evolution 
of a brunette colour. But it is to the electricians 
that we must look for a harmless and efficient method 
of stimulating the secretion of pigmentary matter 
in the iris, skin, and hair. The man who first dis- 
covers how to change blondes to brunettes will 

Nationality and Beauty 389 

acquire a fame as great as Newton's or Shakspere's, 
and when he dies Cupid will appoint him his private 

"John," we can hear a woman say to her husband 
twenty years hence " John, Laura is now five years 
old. Don't you think it is time to send her over to 
Dr. Electrode ? I don't object to her yellow hair, 
but I do think her complexion, iris, and eyelashes 
should be made several shades darker. She will then 
stand a better chance in the marriage-market when 
she gets older." 


Beauty, like Love, has its national peculiarities, 
based on climate, customs, traditions, mental and 
physical. As the description of all these differences 
between the various peoples in the world would 
require several volumes the size of this, it cannot, of 
course, be attempted here even roughly. Nor is this 
necessary, for most of these national peculiarities are 
variations which have more ethnologic than aesthetic 
interest. Many of them have been considered in 
the preceding pages to illustrate the Evolution of 
Personal Beauty ; and something has been said 
episodically regarding Greek, Hebrew, Georgian, and 
Mediaeval Beauty. Polish women are famous for 
their beauty, but as I have never been in Poland nor 
in Russia, I do not feel competent to pronounce 
judgment on the common verdict, and will therefore 
limit my observations to the six nations whose Love- 
customs I have endeavoured to describe. And even 
in these cases I cannot claim that the following 

39O Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

remarks have any greater value than such as attaches 
to mere casual jottings. In most European countries 
the nations are as wildly mixed as in the United 
States, though less recently ; and it is therefore 
extremely difficult to draw any general conclusions, 
as is shown by the conflicting opinions of tourists. 
Moreover, each nation is variously subdivided, so that 
some things are, e.g. true of North Germany which 
are not true of South Germany, and so in other 
countries. Yet there are a few points on which 
travellers commonly agree, and these will be briefly 
considered here. The highest beauty is pretty much 
the same the world over in Japan as in France ; 
and even among the savages of Africa young girls 
are to be found who, but for their colour, would be 
pronounced beauties in Europe. Most nations are 
on their way towards this highest type of Beauty, and 
they occupy different stages of evolution according to 
their attitude and advantages regarding the four 
principal sources of Personal Beauty Hygienic 
Habits, Mixture of Nationalities, Romantic Love, 
and Mental Refinement 


Widely as tourists commonly differ in their 
opinions as to the prevalence of Beauty in various 
countries, on' one point there seems to be a universal 
agreement viz. that nowhere in Europe is it so rare 
as in France. Thackeray notes that nature has 
" rather stinted the bodies and limbs of the French 
nation." Walker, in his work on Beauty, remarks 
that " the women of France are among the ugliest in 

French Beauty 391 

the world " ; and Sir Lepel Griffin puts the truth 
pointedly in these words : " National vanity, where 
inordinately developed, may take the form of asserting 
that black is white, as in France, where the average 
of good looks, among both men and women, is per- 
haps lower than elsewhere in Europe. If a pretty 
woman be seen in the streets of Paris, she is almost 
certainly English or American ; yet if a foreigner 
were to form an estimate of French beauty from the 
rapturous descriptions of contemporary French novels, 
or from the sketches of La Vie Parisienne, he must 
conclude that the Frenchwoman was the purest and 
loveliest type in the world in face and figure. The 
fiction in this case disguises itself in no semblance of 
the truth." 

Yet there have been French writers who felt the 
shortcomings of their nation in regard to Personal 
Beauty. One of them says that you find in the 
Frenchman " the love of the graceful rather than the 
beautiful " ; and in the following characterisation of 
his countrywomen, by M. Figuier, it is easy to see 
that he lays much more emphasis on their grace and 
the expressiveness of their features than on their 
Beauty proper : " There is in her face much that is 
most pleasing, although we can assign her physi- 
ognomy to no determinate type. Her features, fre- 
quently irregular, seem to be borrowed from different 
races ; they do not possess that unity which springs 
from calm and majesty, but are in the highest degree 
expressive, and marvellously contrived for conveying 
every shade of feeling. In them we see a smile 
though it be shaded by tears ; a caress though they 
threaten us ; and an appeal when yet they command. 

39 2 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

Amid tJie irregularity of this physiognomy the soul 
displays its workings. As a rule the Frenchwoman 
is short of stature, but in every proportion of her 
form combines grace and delicacy. Her extremities 
and joints are fine and elegant, of perfect model 
and distinct form, without a suspicion of coarseness. 
With her, moreover, art is brought wonderfully to 
assist nature" (The Races of Man}. 

It appears, indeed, as if Frenchwomen, who are 
naturally bright and quickwitted, endeavoured to 
make up in grace what they lack in beauty. Hence 
nothing is more common than Frenchwomen who 
are so fascinating with their graceful little ways and 
movements that one almost or quite forgets their 
homeliness. No French girl ever needs to be taught 
how to use her eyes to best advantage ; and, as a 
clever newspaper writer has remarked, French girls 
" can say more with their shoulders than most girls 
can with their eyes ; and when they talk with eyes, 
hands, shoulders, and tongue at once, it takes a man 
of talent to keep up." 

Of course it would be absurd to say that no 
specimens of supreme Beauty are to be found in 
France ; but they are scarce as strawberries in 
December. The general tendency of women to 
become either too stout or too lean after they have 
got out of their teens, is apparently more pronounced 
in France than elsewhere in Europe. And as for 
the men, they can be recognised anywhere, either by 
their almost simian hairiness or their puny appear- 
ance. What a difference in stature and general 
manly aspect between a regiment of French and 
one of English or German soldiers ! And the supe- 

French Beauty 393 

riority of the English soldiers to the French in 
vigour and beauty is more than "skin-deep"; it 
appears to extend to the very chemical composition 
of their tissues : for Professor Topinard remarks in 
his Anthropologie that he enunciated more than 
twenty years ago " a fact which was more or less 
confirmed by others, namely, that the mortality after 
capital operations in English hospitals was less by 
one-half than in the French. We attributed it to a 
better diet, to their better sanitary arrangements, 
and to their superior management. There was but 
one serious objection offered to our statement. M. 
Velapeau, with his wonderful acumen, made reply, at 
the Academy of Medicine, that the flesh of the 
English and of the French differed ; in other words, 
that the reaction after operations was not the same 
in both races. It is, in effect, an anthropological 

Thus the " wonderful acumen " of two French 
scientists has established the fact that French de- 
terioration is shown not only in a surprisingly low 
birth-rate, but in the general inferiority of the French 
constitution : for the ability to resist the effects of 
wounds or illness is evidence of a sound constitution. 

That the chief cause of French ugliness, degen- 
eration, and infertility lies in their contemptuous 
treatment of Romantic Love, must be apparent to 
any one after reading the preceding chapter on 
French Love. French parents may point triumph- 
antly to cases of genuine Conjugal attachment in 
their sons and daughters, whose marriages were 
based on social or pecuniary considerations. But 
they forget the grandchildren. It is they who suffer 

394 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

from these ill-assorted, fortuitous unions. Only the 
children of Love are beautiful and destined to 

French indifference to the claims of Love also 
explains why another leading source of Beauty the 
mixture of races is inoperative in their country. 
The French are a very mixed nation. In the North, 
says Dr. Topinard, "we find the descendants of the 
Belgae, the Walloons, and other Kymri ; in the 
East, those of Germans and Burgundians ; in the 
West, Normans ; in the centre, Celts, who at the 
same epoch at which their name took its origin 
consisted of foreigners of various origins and of the 
aborigines ; in the South, ancient Aquitanians and 
Basques ; without mentioning a host of settlers like 
the Saracens, who are found here and there, Tec- 
tosages, who have left at Toulouse the custom of 
cranial deformities, and the traders who passed 
through the Phocaean town of Marseilles." But the 
advantages which might result to Personal Beauty 
from such a mixture of peoples are neutralised 
through the universality of money -marriages, not- 
withstanding that these must in some cases bring 
together the descendants of different races. For a 
mixture of races is not necessarily and always an 
advantage, but only when it enables a lover to profit 
by the greater physiognomic variety in finding a 
mate whose qualities will blend harmoniously with 
his own. 

In the case of a third primal source of Beauty 
Mental Culture we find again that its action is 
impeded through the anomalous position of Love in 
France. Inasmuch as adulterous love-making is the 

French Beauty 395 

only kind of Love-making sanctioned by French 
custom and described in French literature, it is 
necessary to withhold most books and periodicals 
from the young of both sexes, who are thus com- 
pelled to grow up in ignorance. " The burden of 
ignorance presses sorely upon her," says M. Figuier 
of the Frenchwoman : "It is a rare thing for a 
woman of the people to read, as only those of the 
higher classes have leisure, during their girlhood, to 
cultivate their minds. And yet even they must not 
give themselves up too much to study, nor aspire 
to honour or distinction. The epithet has bleu 
(' blue-stocking ') would soon bring them back to 
the common crowd an ignorant and frivolous 
feminine mass." 

Note that this is the confession of a patriotic 
Frenchman. The fact that there have been a few 
brilliant Frenchwomen, famous for their salons, has 
created the impression that most Frenchwomen are 
brilliant, whereas the majority appear to be utterly 
without intellectual interests or ambition. Nor could 
this possibly be otherwise, considering the extremely 
superficial education which even the most favoured 
receive in the nuns' schools. And not a few of 
them bring home from these schools something 
worse than ignorance, viz. the constitution and 
habits of an invalid. Not only the girls, even the 
boys in French schools are never allowed to play 
without supervision. Healthy romping is considered 
undignified in young girls, and when they get a little 
older the high-heeled, pointed shoes prescribed by 
Fashion take away any desire they may feel to 
indulge in beautifying exercise. Uncomfortable 

396" Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

shoes and clothing, combined with the necessity of 
having a chaperon, even to simply cross the street, 
prevent French girls from indulging in those long 
walks to which English girls owe their fine physique. 
Nor do the French show such a devotion to the 
bath-tub and other details of Personal Hygiene as 
their neighbours across the channel. 

Thus we see that the French, thanks to their 
conservative, Oriental customs, are placed at a dis- 
advantage as regards every one of the four main 
sources of Beauty Romantic Love, Mixture of 
Races, Mental Culture, and Hygiene. And it is 
not only Personal Beauty that suffers. A writer in 
La Reforme Sociale complains that " family feeling is 
dying out, the moral sense is growing weaker . . . 
the country is falling into a state of anaemia." And 
another writer in the same periodical, after noting 
the alarming fact that although France has gained 
eight million inhabitants since 1805, the number of 
births is no larger than it was then, calls upon those 
interested in these symptoms of national decay to 
investigate the local causes of it. 

But it is needless to look for " local causes." 
The disease is a national one, and calls for con- 
stitutional treatment. Let the French, in the first 
place, instead of locking up their girls till they are 
ready to be sold to a rich rout, initiate them into 
the arts of Anglo-American Courtship, and then 
allow Romantic Love to take the place of money 
as a matchmaker. That the effect of such a change 
would be miraculous may be inferred from the fact 
that the products of a few generations of American 
love-making French girls in Canada and the United 

French Beauty 397 

States are vastly superior in Beauty and Health to 
their transatlantic cousins. 

In the second place, the French must give up 
the notion that disease is aristocratic. " In almost 
all countries," says M. About, " there exists a class 
distinguished from the masses as the aristocracy. In 
this social miscellany the women have small white 
hands, because they wear gloves and do not work ; 
a pale complexion, because they are never exposed 
to the sun ; a sickly appearance and thin features, 
because they spend the four months of the winter at 
balls. Hence it follows that ' distinction ' consists 
in a faded complexion, sickly appearance, a pair of 
white hands, and thin features. The Madonnas of 
Raphael are not ' distingue', and the Venus of Milo 
also is very deficient in that quality." 

After they have ceased to ridicule Love and to 
worship Disease, it will be in order for the French 
to cultivate their aesthetic Taste. That of all 
European men Frenchmen show the worst taste in 
dressing is commonly admitted; but the preposterous 
superstition that Frenchwomen have a special instinct 
for dressing tastefully is so firmly rooted in the mind 
of women elsewhere, that nothing short of a miracle 
would be able to eradicate it. The reason why the 
roots of this superstition are so deep is this : French- 
women rarely have any great beauty of figure or 
features. Hence they devote all their time to devis- 
ing means for hiding their formal defects and dis- 
tracting the attention of men by some novelty or 
eccentricity of apparel. In America and Germany, 
where the majority of the women are also ugly, these 
tricks are eagerly copied ; and the pretty girls are 

398 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

compelled to yield to the tyranny of the majority, 
as has been fully explained in the chapter on the 
Fashion Fetish. 

Englishwomen have, to a large extent, emanci- 
pated themselves from Parisian Fashion Tyranny, 
aided by the protests of the men against self- 
inflicted ugliness. And it is one of the healthiest 
signs of the times that in America, too, the men are 
beginning to break the ice of gallant timidity, and 
telling the women plainly what they think of their 
hideous Parisian fashions. Not long ago an intelli- 
gent woman wrote to the Boston Transcript, asking : 
" Why will not the press, instead of growling and 
snarling at the poor women ^vho cannot help them- 
selves" ask the theatre managers to compel the 
women to take off their high hats, which, she admits, 
ninety-nine in a hundred women consider a nuisance? 
Yet they " cannot help themselves ! " The poor 
women ! What a terrible slavery ! the pretty women 
of America compelled to adopt the fashions originated 
by the ugliest women of Europe in order to hide 
their defects ! 

If American women must have models, let them 
go to Spain or Italy for them, especially in the 
matter of headdresses. Of the Spanish mantilla, 
which can be adapted to the style of every face, 
Prosper Merimee says that " it makes ugly women 
pretty, and pretty ones enchanting." And a German 
lady on her way to Spain bought on her way, as a 
matter of course, the latest Parisian hat. " But when 
I arrived in Madrid," she writes, " my genuine Pari- 
sian hat seemed of such apelike ugliness that I felt 
actually ashamed to wear it. For my taste had been 

Italian Beauty 399 

corrected and improved at sight of the first mantilla 
I saw ; and I am convinced that a large majority of 
German women and girls possess quite as much 
sense of beauty as I, and will therefore prefer the 
Spanish mantilla to any hat made by the most 
noted modiste in Europe." 


Although differences in form, complexion, and 
physiognomy are to be noted in different parts of 
France, they are less pronounced than in Italy, con- 
cerning which it is therefore more difficult to make 
general statements. " The barbarian invasions in 
the north, and the contact with Greeks and Africans 
in the south," says M. Figuier, " have wrought much 
alteration in the primitive type of the inhabitants of 
Italy. Except in Rome and the Roman Campagna, 
the true type of the primitive Latin population is 
hardly to be found. The Grecian type exists in the 
South, and upon the eastern slope of the Apennines, 
while in the North the great majority of faces are 
Gallic. In Tuscany and the neighbouring regions 
are found the descendants of the ancient Etruscans. 
. . . The mixture of African blood has changed 
the organic type of the Southern Italian to such an 
extent as to render him entirely distinct from his 
Northern compatriots, the exciting influence which 
the climate has over the senses imparting to his 
whole conduct a peculiar exuberance." 

In their estimate of Italian Beauty tourists differ 
widely. The raptures and ecstasies of some writers 
are explained by others as due to the aesthetic intoxi- 

400 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

cation produced by sudden contact with a new type ; 
and they claim that a few years' residence suffices to 
dispel these illusions. On the judgment of the 
Italians themselves it is not safe to rely, for that is 
tinged too much by local patriotism, the Milanese 
claiming the pre-eminence in Beauty for themselves, 
while the Venetians, Florentines, Romans, and Nea- 
politans blow their own horns respectively. Pro- 
fessor Mantegazza thinks that the men are handsomer 
in Italy than the women, of whom he allows only 
about ten per cent to have any claims to real Beauty. 
Sir Charles Bell notes that " Raphael, in painting 
the head of Galatea, found no beauty deserving to 
be his model ; he is reported to have said that there 
is nothing so rare as perfect beauty in woman ; and 
that he substituted for nature a certain idea inspired 
by his fancy." Montaigne, who travelled in Italy in 
the latter part of the sixteenth century, expressed 
his surprise at the rarity of beauty in women and 
girls, who at that time were kept in more than 
French seclusion. A German author, D. J. Volk- 
mann, wrote in 1770 that "there are few beautiful 
women in Rome, especially among the higher classes ; 
in Venice and Naples more are to be seen. The 
Italian himself has a proverb which says that Roman 
women are not beautiful" (quoted by Ploss). 

Byron, in one of his letters, gives a glowing de- 
scription of an Italian beauty of the Oriental type 
whom he met, and then adds : " Whether being in 
love with her has steeled me or not, I do not know ; 
but I have not seen many other women who seem 
pretty. The nobility, in particular, are a sad-looking 
race the gentry rather better." In another place he 

Italian Beauty 401 

writes that " the general race of women appear to be 
handsome ; but in Italy, as on almost all the Con- 
tinent, the highest orders are by no means a well- 
looking generation." 

Yet was it not Byron who wrote of Italy that it is 
"the garden of the world," and that its "very weeds are 
beautiful ?" And does not this apply to the race as 
well as the soil ? It is because they constantly live 
in a garden, in the balmy air and mellowing sunshine, 
that Italians can to a certain extent defy the laws 
of personal Hygiene, and flourish under conditions 
which would torture us to death. Miss Margaret 
Collier remarks, in Our Home by the Adriatic, that 
in the rural communities, even among the well-to-do, 
to ask for a bath is to create alarm as to the state 
of your health. And Berlioz speaks somewhere of 
Italian peasant-girls " carrying heavy copper vessels 
and faggots on their heads ; but all so wretched, so 
miserable, so tattered, so filthily dirty, that, in spite 
of the beatify of the race and the picturesqueness of 
their costume, all other feelings are swallowed up in 
one of utter compassion." 

Could the cosmetic value of fresh air and sun- 
shine be more strikingly attested than by the fact 
that Berlioz could speak of " the beauty of the race," 
notwithstanding the national indifference to the laws 
of cleanliness ? 

In regard to Romantic Love as a source of 
Beauty, the Italians also occupy a somewhat anoma- 
lous position. In the rural districts French matri- 
monial methods seem to be largely followed. Miss 
Collier mentions a young lady who visited her to 
receive her congratulations on her approaching mar- 

VOL. II. 2 P 

4O2 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

riage, and who, on being asked the name of her 
future husband, replied nai'vely, " Oh, I don't know ; 
papa has not yet told me that." The peasantry, 
however, are free to choose their own mates, and it 
is among them that Italian Beauty is accordingly 
most prevalent. In the cities the method of love- 
making is "operatic," as we saw in the chapter on 
Italian Love ; but the main point is that Individual 
Choice is not made impossible as in France, and that 
the Italians worship Love as a law instead of looking 
on it with contemptuous cynicism and ridicule. 

The way in which the Mixture of Races affects 
Italian Beauty affords a fresh illustration of the 
superiority of the Brunette type. In Germany, by 
general consent, Beauty is much more frequent in 
the South, where brunettes abound, than in the 
North, where they are scarce. Hence we may con- 
clude that the Blonde type is improved by the inter- 
mixture of the Brunette type. But is the Brunette 
type of Northern Italy improved to the same degree 
by the admixture of Northern Blondes ? Not in 
my judgment. Venice and Milan and Bologna, it is 
true, boast many beautiful women ; but has any 
tourist in writing about these cities ever expressed 
much admiration for Italian Blondes ? And are 
not Naples and Capri, the paradise of Brunettes, 
commonly regarded as the region where Italian 
Beauty is seen at its best ? Here it is chiefly dark 
races that have intermingled, hence the eyes are sure 
to be of a deep brown colour ; whereas in Northern 
Italy the introduction of blonde blood produces the 
lighter, less decided tints of the iris which we do not 
admire. This disadvantage, it is true, is also en- 

Italian Beauty 403 

countered in South Germany, but it is neutralised 
by the gain of dark eyebrows, and long black lashes, 
and the more supple and rounded limbs of the South. 
That mental culture adds much to Italian beauty 
cannot be said, for Italian women of all classes are 
noted for their intellectual indolence. But atone- 
ment is largely made for this by their extreme 
emotional susceptibility. Blue skies, rank vegeta- 
tion, pretty scenery, and a natural love of music 
have softened and trained their feelings ; and though 
the Italian climate does not favour profound artistic 
culture, it warms the blood and incites the features 
to give expression to every passing mood. It is this 
habit of emotional expression that has given a 
unique charm and the power of graceful modulation 
to Italian features. As a German artist, Herr Otto 
Knille, remarks of the Italians, " They pose unin- 
tentionally. Their features, especially among the 
lower classes, have been moulded through mimic 
expression practised for thousands of years. 
Gesture-language has shaped the hands of many 
into models of anatomic clearness. They have a 
complete language of signs and gestures, which 
each one understands, as, for instance, in the ballet. 
Add to this the innate grace of this race . . . 
and we see that the Italian artist has an abundance 
of material for copying, as compared with which the 
German artist must admit his extreme poverty. 
Whoever has lived in Italy is in a position to appre- 
ciate these advantages. . . . Think of the neck, the 
nape, and the bust of Italian woman, the fine joints 
and the elastic gait of both men and women. Nor 
are we much better endowed as regards the physiog- 

404 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

nomy. The German potato-face is not a mere fancy 
the mirror which A. de Neuville has held up to us, 
though clouded with prejudice, shows us an image 
not entirely untrue to life. We artists know how 
rarely a head, especially one which lacks the 
enchanting charm of youth, can be used as a model 
for anything but flat realism. Most German faces, 
instead of becoming more clearly chiselled and 
elaborated with age, appear more spongy, vague, and 

Winckelmann's remarks on Italian Beauty are in 
the same vein : " We seldom find in the fairest 
portions of Italy the features of the face unfinished, 
vague, and inexpressive, as is frequently the case 
on the other side of the Alps ; but they have partly 
an air of nobleness, partly of acuteness and intelli- 
gence ; and the form of the face is generally large 
and full, and the parts of it in harmony with each 
other. The superiority of conformation is so mani- 
fest that the head of the humblest man among the 
people might be introduced in the most dignified 
historical painting, especially one in which aged men 
are to be represented. And among the women of 
this class, even in places of the least importance, it 
would not be difficult to find a Juno. The lower 
portion of Italy, which enjoys a softer climate than 
any other part of it, brings forth men of superb and 
vigorously-designed forms, which appear to have been 
made, as it were, for the purposes of sculpture." 

In confirmation of my statement that in Northern 
as in Southern Italy it is the Brunette type 
that chiefly excites the admiration of the tourist, I 
may finally cite Heine's remarks on the women 

Spanish Beauty 405 

of Trent. For, although Trent is a town of the 
Austrian Tyrol, it yet is practically an Italian 
community. Had not business called him south- 
wards, Heine relates in his Journey from Munich to 
Genoa, he would have felt tempted to remain in this 
town where " beautiful girls were moving about in 
bevies. I do not know," he adds, " whether other 
tourists will approve of the adjective ' beautiful ' in 
this case ; but I liked the women of Trent excep- 
tionally well. They were just of the kind I admire 
and I do love these pale, elegiac faces with the 
large black eyes that gaze at you so love-sick ; I 
love also the dusky tint of those proud necks which 
Phoebus already has loved and browned with his 
kisses ; . . . but above all things do I love that 
graceful gait, that dumb music of the body, those 
limbs with their exquisitely rhythmic movements, 
luxurious, supple, divinely careless, mortally languid, 
anon aethereal, majestic, and always highly poetic. 
I love such things as I love poetry itself ; and these 
figures with their melodious movements, this won- 
drous concert of femininity which delighted my 
senses, found an echo in my heart, and awoke in it 
sympathetic strains." 


In Spain, as in Italy, Germany, France, and the 
United States, we find more Personal Beauty in the 
Southern than in the Northern regions. This coin- 
cidence cannot be accidental, but attests the great 
cosmetic value of sunshine and plenty of fresh air. 
Perhaps no other portion of the globe has such a 

406 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

paradisiacal climate as Andalusia, where the in- 
habitants practically pass all their time in the open 
air, on verandahs and in their cosy little galleries, 
and fragrant orange groves, in whose shade they 
can spend the hot part of the day, while the nights 
are cooled by balmy mountain or sea breezes. To 
these natural hygienic advantages add the unusually 
happy mixture of nationalities, and the fact that 
Romantic Love is much less impeded in its sway 
than in France or Italy, and we see at a glance to 
what the young Andalusian owes the undulating 
lines and luscious plumpness of her figure, her 
ravishing facial beauty, and her graceful gait, or 
" melodious movements," as Heine would say. 

Surely the goddess of Beauty herself mixed the 
national colours that make up the Spanish type. 
When Spain was added to the Roman dominion she 
was, as Mr. E. A. Freeman remarks, " the only one 
of the great countries of Europe where the mass of 
the people were not of the Aryan stock. The 
greater part of the land was still held by the Iberians, 
as a small part is even now by their descendants the 
Basques. But in the central part of the peninsula 
Celtic tribes had pressed in, and . . . there were 
some Phoenician colonies in the south, and some 
Greek colonies on the east coast. In the time 
between the first and second Punic Wars, Hamilcar, 
Hasdrubal, and Hannibal had won all Spain as far 
as the Ebro for Cartilage" Among the other 
nations which successively overran the country were 
the Goths, Vandals, Suevi, and Moors ; to whom 
must be added large numbers of Jews and Gypsies, of 
which latter race Spain still possesses about 50,000. 

Spanish Beauty 407 

Most of these nations had some favourable physi- 
cal traits which Sexual Selection had the opportunity 
to fix upon and perpetuate ; while sundry incon- 
gruities must have been neutralised and obliterated 
by the intermingling of races. And another im- 
portant consideration is, that this intermingling of 
nations was effected so many centuries ago that it 
is now no longer a heterogeneous physical mixture, 
but a true " chemical," or physiological, fusion, in 
which dissonances and incongruities are less likely 
to occur than in countries where the mixture is 
more recent. 

That the addition of Greek and Roman blood, 
redolent of ancient civilisation, to the original 
Spanish stock was an advantage is obvious. The 
Goth brought his manly vigour ; the Gypsy his con- 
centrated essence of Brunetteism ; the Arab his 
oval face, dusky complexion, the straight line con- 
necting nose and forehead, the small mouth and 
white teeth, the dark and glossy hair, the delicate 
extremities and gracefully-arched foot, and above all, 
the black eyes and long black eyelashes. If Shak- 
spere is right in saying that there is no author in 
the world " teaches such beauty as a woman's eye," 
then Andalusia easily leads the world in Personal 
Beauty. The prosiest tourist becomes poetic in 
describing the Andalusian's " black eye that mocks 
her coal-black veil." Large and round are these 
eyes, like those of Oriental Houris ; long and dense 
their black lashes, which yet cannot smother the 
mysterious fire and sparkle which their iris appears 
to have borrowed of the Gypsies. In many cases 
there is a vague, piquant indication of the almond- 

408 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

shaped palpebral aperture one of the Semitic traits 
derived from the Phoenicians, Jews, and Saracens. 
And then, what woman can make such irresistibly 
fascinating use of her eyes as the Spanish brunette ? 

M. Figuier thus sums up the physical charac- 
teristics of the Spanish woman : " She is generally 
brunette, although the blonde type occurs much 
more frequently than is usually supposed. The 
Spanish woman is almost always small of stature. 
Who has not observed the large eyes, veiled by 
thick lashes, her delicate nose, and well-formed 
nostrils ? Her form is always undulating and grace- 
ful ; her limbs are round and beautifully moulded, 
and her extremities of incomparable delicacy. She 
is a charming mixture of vigour, languor, and 

"The appearance of a Spanish woman," says 
Bogumil Goltz, " is the expression of her character. 
Her fine figure, her majestic gait, her sonorous 
voice, her black, flashing eye, the liveliness of her 
gesticulations, in a word, her whole external person- 
ality indicates her character." 

It is to be noted that whereas French Beauty 
appears to be visible to French eyes only, and 
regarding Italian Beauty opinions differ, all nations 
unite in singing the praises of " Spain's dark-glancing 
daughters." To the French and German testimony 
just cited may now be added a few Italian, English, 
and American witnesses. 

Signor E. de Amicis, in his interesting work on 
Spain, says of the women of Madrid that " they are 
still the same little women so besung for their great 
eyes, small hands, and tiny feet, with their very 

Spanish Beauty 409 

black hair, but skin rather white than dark, so well- 
formed, erect, lithe, and vivacious." But, like all 
other tourists, he reserves most of his remarks on 
Spanish women for his chapters on Andalusia, al- 
though this is the part of Spain which also offers 
the richest material for description in its architecture 
and scenery. Concerning the women and girls of 
Seville, as seen in the large tobacco factory which 
employs 5000 females, he says: "There are some 
very beautiful faces, and even those that are not 
absolutely beautiful, have something about them 
which attracts the eye and remains impressed upon 
the memory the colouring, eyes, brows, and smile, for 
instance. Many, especially the so-called gitane, are 
dark brown, like mulattoes, and have protruding lips ; 
others have such large eyes that a faithful likeness 
of them would seem an exaggeration. The majority 
are small, well-made, and all wear a rose, pink, or 
a bunch of field-flowers among their braids. . . . On 
coming out of the factory, you seem to see on every 
side for a time, black pupils which look at you with 
a thousand different expressions of curiosity, ennui, 
sympathy, sadness, and drowsiness." 

The same writer found that " The feminine type 
of Cadiz was not less attractive than that celebrated 
one at Seville. The women are a little taller, a 
trifle stouter, and rather darker. Some fine observer 
has asserted that they are of the Greek type ; but I 
cannot see where. I saw nothing, with the exception 
of their stature, but the Andalusian type ; and this 
sufficed to make me heave sighs deep enough to have 
blown along a boat and obliged me to return as soon 
as possible to my ship, as a place of peace and refuge." 

4i o Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

Mr. G. P. Lathrop's description (in Spanish 
Vistas} of the girls in the Seville factory is pitched 
in a somewhat lower key than Signer de Amicis's : 
" Some of them," he writes, " had a spendthrift, 
common sort of beauty, which, owing to their 
southern vivacity and fine physique, had the air of 
being more than it really was. . . . There were 
some appalling old crones. . . . Others, on the con- 
trary, looked blooming and coquettish. Many were 
in startling deshabille, resorted to on account of the 
intense (July) heat, and hastened to draw pretty 
panuelos of variegated dye over their bare shoulders 
when they saw us coming. . . . The beauty of these 
Carmens has certainly been exaggerated. It may 
be remarked here that, as an offset to occasional 
disappointment arising from such exaggerations, all 
Spanish women walk with astonishing gracefulness, 
and natural and elastic step ; and that is their chief 
advantage over women of other nations." 

A writer in Macmillan's Magazine (i 874), after 
referring to " the stately upright walk of the Spanish 
ladies, and the graceful carriage of the head," notes 
that a mother will not allow her daughter to carry a 
basket, so as not to destroy her " queenly walk" ; 
and "her dull eye too will grow moist with a tear, 
and her worn face will kindle with absolute softness 
and sweetness, if an English sefior expresses his ad- 
miration of her child's magnificent hair or flashing 
black eyes." 

The description given by the same writer of a 
scene he witnessed along the Guadalquiver, suggests 
one reason of the healthy physique and vitality of 
Spanish women : " An old mill-house, with its clumsy 

Spanish Beauty 4 1 1 

wheel and a couple of pomegranates, shaded one 
corner of this part of the river ; and under their 
shade, sitting up to their shoulders in the water, on 
the huge round boulders of which the bottom of the 
river is composed, were groups of Spanish ladies. 
Truly it was a pretty sight ! They sat as though on 
chairs, clothed to the neck in bathing-gowns of the 
gaudiest colours red, gray, yellow, and blue ; and, 
holding in one hand their umbrellas, and with the 
other fanning themselves, they formed a most pic- 
turesque group." 

Washington Irving, in a private letter, paints this 
picture of a Spanish beauty whom he saw on a coast 
steamer : " A young married lady, of about four or 
five and twenty, middle-sized, finely -modelled, a 
Grecian outline of face, a complexion sallow yet 
healthful, raven black hair, eyes dark, large, and 
beaming, softened by long eyelashes, lips full and 
rosy red, yet finely chiselled, and teeth of dazzling 
whiteness. Her hand ... is small, exquisitely 
formed, with taper fingers, and blue veins. I never 
saw a female hand more exquisite." The .husband 
of this young lady, noticing that Mr. Irving was 
apparently sketching her, questioned him on the 
matter. Mr. Irving read his sketch to the man, who 
was greatly pleased with it ; and this led to a de- 
lightful though brief acquaintance. 

In another letter, Washington Irving writes to a 
friend : " There are beautiful women in Seville as 
. . . there are in all other great cities ; but do not, 
my worthy and inquiring friend, expect a perfect 
beauty to be staring you in the face at every turn, 
or you will be awfully disappointed. Andalusia, 

412 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

generally speaking, derives its renown for the beauty 
of its women and the beauty of its landscape, from 
the rare and captivating charms of individuals. The 
generality of its female faces are as sunburnt and 
void of bloom and freshness as its plains. I am 
convinced, the great fascination of Spanish women 
arises from their natural talent, their fire and soul, 
which beam through their dark and flashing eyes, 
and kindle up their whole countenance in the course 
of an interesting conversation. As I have had but 
few opportunities of judging them in this way, I can 
only criticise them with the eye of a sauntering ob- 
server. It is like judging of a fountain when it is 
not in play, or a fire when it lies dormant and neither 
flames nor sparkles." 

Byron, in Childe Harold, waxes enthusiastic over 
the Spanish woman's "fairy form, with more than 
female grace" 

" Her glance how wildly beautiful ! how much 
Hath Phoebus wooed in vain to spoil her cheek, 
Which glows yet smoother from his amorous clutch ! 
Who round the North for paler dames would seek ? 
How poor their forms appear ! how languid, wan, and weak ! " 

But in a letter from Cadiz Byron notes the 
weak as well as the strong points of Spanish women. 
" With all national prejudice, I must confess, the 
women of Cadiz are as far superior to the English 
women in beauty, as the Spaniards are inferior to 
the English in every quality that dignifies the name 
of man. . . . The Spanish women are all alike, their 
education the same. . . . Certainly they are fascin- 
ating ; but their minds have only one idea, and the 
business of their lives is intrigue. . . . Long black 

Spanish Beauty 4 1 3 

hair, dark languishing eyes, clear olive complexions, 
and forms more graceful in motion than can be con- 
ceived by an Englishman used to the drowsy, listless 
air of his countrywomen, added to the most becom- 
ing dress, and, at the same time, the most decent in 
the world, render a Spanish beauty irresistible." 

" Their minds have only one idea," is an exag- 
geration, for the Andalusian women are famed for a 
considerable amount of innate wit, rivalling the 
brightness of their eyes. Yet of deeper intellectual 
interests there are none. Of the total population of 
Spain only a quarter can read and write ; for although 
schools exist in abundance, they are very generally 
neglected ; and the estimation in which teachers are 
held is seen from the fact that out of 15,000 one 
half receive an annual salary of less than twenty 
pounds sterling. 

Mental Culture avenges itself bitterly on the 
women of Spain, as of other Southern countries, 
for this neglect of its claims. While the freshness 
of youthful Beauty remains, all is well, for then the 
sensuous charms are so great that intellectual claims 
can be ignored. But when this freshness fades, then 
it is that the features begin to show a lack of mental 
training. Intellectual apathy masks the face, and 
gives it an expression of vacuity ; exercise is neglected, 
and indolence, combined with excessive indulgence 
in fattening food, soon destroy the lovely contours 
of the figure and the fairy-like gait. " A Spanish 
woman of forty appears twice as old," says Goltz. 

Thus we see that for perfect and permanent 
Beauty all its sources must be kept open and 

414 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

Attention must finally be called to one feature of 
Andalusian Beauty which all tourists emphasise, 
namely, the small stature of the women, to which 
they largely owe their exceptional grace of gait. 
And there are reasons for believing that the per- 
fected woman of the millennium will resemble the 
Andalusian Brunette, not only in complexion, hair, 
eyes, gait, and tapering plumpness of figure, but also 
in stature. In other words, it seems that Sexual 
Selection is evolving the petite Brunette as the ideal 
of womanhood. 

Among the ancient Greeks who were not swayed 
by Romantic Love, Amazons were greatly admired, 
as previously noted ; and Mr. Gladstone remarks 
that " stature was a great element of beauty in the 
view of the ancients, for women as well as for men ; 
and their admiration of tallness, even in women, is 
hardly restrained by a limit." 

From this Greek predilection modern aesthetico- 
amorous Taste differs, for several weighty reasons. 
The first is that a very tall and bulky woman, 
though she may be stately and majestic, cannot be 
very graceful ; and Grace, as we know, is as potent 
a source of Love as formal Beauty. Again, there 
is something incongruous and almost comic in the 
thought of a very large woman submitting to Love's 
caresses ; and le ridicule tue. Thirdly, great stature is 
rarely associated with delicate joints and extremities. 
But the principal reason why the modern lover dis- 
approves of Amazonian women, mental and physical, 
is because they are quasi - masculine. Romantic 
Love tends to differentiate the sexes in stature as 
in everything else. True, Mr. Galton, after making 

Spanish Beauty 415 

observations on 205 married couples, came to the 
conclusion that " marriage selection takes little or 
no account of shortness and tallness. There are 
undoubtedly sexual preferences for moderate con- 
trasts in height ; but the marriage choice appears 
to be guided by so many and more important con- 
siderations that questions of stature exert no per- 
ceptible influence upon it. ... Men and women of 
contrasted heights, short and tall or tall and short, 
married just about as frequently as men and women 
of similar heights, both tall or both short ; there 
were 32 cases of one to 27 of the other." 

But Mr. Galton's argument is rather weak. He 
admits that " there are undoubtedly sexual prefer- 
ences for moderate contrast in height " ; and his 
own figures show 32 to 27 in favour of mixed- 
stature marriages, in most of which the women must 
have been shorter, owing to the prevalent feminine 
inferiority in size. And in course of time the 
elimination of non-amorous motives of marriage will 
assist the law of sexual differentiation in suppressing 

The modern masculine preference for petite female 
stature is, furthermore, attested by an irrefutable 
philological argument which will be found in the 
following citation from Crabb's English Synonymes : 
" Prettiness is always coupled with simplicity ; it is 
incompatible with that which is large ; a tall woman 
with masculine features cannot be pretty. Beauty 
is peculiarly a female perfection ; in the male sex 
it is rather a defect ; a man can scarcely be beautiful 
without losing his manly characteristics, boldness and 
energy of mind, strength and robustness of limb ; 

4i 6 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

but though a man may not be beautiful or pretty, he 
may be fine or handsome" " A woman is fine who 
with a striking figure unites shape and symmetry ; 
a woman is handsome who has good features, and 
pretty if with symmetry of feature be united delicacy." 
Burke believed that it is possible to fall in love with 
a very small person, but not with a giant. There 
is, indeed, a natural prejudice in the modern mind 
against very tall stature even in men. Thus, we 
read in Fuller's A ndronicus : " Often the cockloft 
is empty in those whom Nature hath built many 
stories high " ; and Bacon is reported to have said 
" that Nature did never put her precious jewels 
into a garret four stories high, and therefore that 
exceeding tall men had ever very empty heads." 
An apparent scientific confirmation of this belief 
is found in Professor Hermann's Nervensystem (ii. 
195), where we read that "when the body becomes 
abnormally large, the brain begins to decrease 
again, relatively, as Langer found in measuring 
giant skeletons." And another sign of regression 
is found in the fact that tall men are apt to have 
relatively too heavy jaws. 


Although the Germans of to-day are by no means 
a pure and distinct race, they are less thoroughly 
and variously mixed than most other European 
nations ; and this is one of the main reasons why 
Personal Beauty is comparatively rare in the Father- 
land. It is rarest in the northern and central 
regions, where the original Blonde type is best 

German and Austrian Beauty 417 

preserved, and becomes more frequent the nearer 
we approach the Brunette neighbours of Germany 
Italy, Austria-Hungary, and Poland whose women 
have been aptly called " the Spaniards of the north." 
France forms an exception. There, thanks to the 
imprisonment of Cupid, ugliness is so rampant that 
intermarriage only intensifies the natural homeliness, 
a fact of which any one may convince himself by 
spending a few days in the borderland between 
France and Germany. 

Partly owing to this lack of variety in the national 
composition of the Germans, partly to the custom of 
chaperonage, Romantic Love has not as wide a scope 
of selective action as elsewhere ; and as if these im- 
pediments to the increase of Beauty were not suffi- 
cient, they are augmented in a wholesale fashion 
by the parental illusion that the Love-instinct is a 
less trustworthy guide to a happy marriage than 
" Reason," i.e. the consideration that the bride has a 
few thousand marks and belongs to the same social 
clique as the bridegroom. Like their French neigh- 
bours, the Germans in these cases forget the claims 
of the grandchildren to Health and Beauty i.e. the 
harmonious fusion of the complementary parental 
qualities by which Love is inspired. 

But in regard to the third source of Beauty 
Mental Culture the Germans surely are pre-eminent 
among nations, it will be claimed. In one sense, no 
doubt, they are. Almost all Germans can read and 
write, and no race equals them in special erudition. 
But erudition is not culture. The German system of 
education is exceedingly defective, because it culti- 
vates too largely the lowest of the mental faculties 

VOL. II. 2 E 

4i 8 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

the Memory. The number of scientific, historic, 
and philological facts a German schoolboy knows 
by heart is simply astounding ; but he has not 
digested them, and cannot apply them practically. 
No attempt is made to cultivate his higher faculties 
- his imagination, originality, or the gift of express- 
ing a thought in elegant language. Were a can- 
didate to show the wit and brilliancy of a Heine or 
a Shakspere, it would not add one grain to the 
weight his pedantic professors attach to his work. 
They will not favour the growth of qualities in 
which they themselves are so conspicuously deficient. 
Note, for example, the vast contempt with which the 
pedants of the University of Berlin look down on 
" the German Darwin," Professor Haeckel, because 
he dares not only to be original, but to write his 
books in a language clear as crystal, and adorned 
with wit, satire, and literary polish. 

Other nations are proud of their great men even 
before they are dead ; not so the Germans. Nor are 
the Germans really a literary nation, as a whole. Many 
books are written there, but they rarely come under 
the head of literature ; and their circulation, on the 
average, is not one-tenth that of English, French, and 
American books. Beer is more popular than books. 

No, the pedantic erudition, which alone is officially 
honoured in Germany, is not synonymous with Mental 
Culture. It does not vivify the features sufficiently 
to mould them into plastic shape. Hence the pre- 
valence of the " spongy features " and Teutonic 
" potato-faces " referred to by a German artist quoted 
in the chapter on Italian Beauty. " The true national 
character of the Germans is clumsiness," says 

German and Austrian Beauty 419 

Schopenhauer ; and again : " The Germans are dis- 
tinguished from all other nations by the slovenliness 
of their style, as of their dress." And the Swiss 
Professor, H. F. Amiel, remarks in his Journal Intime 
that " the notion of ' bad taste ' seems to have no 
place in German aesthetics. Their elegance has no 
grace in it ; they cannot understand the enormous 
difference there is between distinction (which is 
gentlemanly, ladylike) and their stiff Vornehmheit. 
Their imagination lacks style, training, education, 
and knowledge of the world ; it has an ill-bred air 
even in its Sunday dress. The race is poetical and 
intelligent, but common and ill-mannered." 

It must be admitted, however, that the Germans 
have made great progress in external refinement and 
manners since their late war with France, one of the 
greatest advantages of which to them was that it 
destroyed the mystic halo which had for many genera- 
tions surrounded the imported Parisian Fashion 
Fetish. What the Germans need now is a period of 
Anglomania. They have already ceased to laugh at 
the Englishman for travelling with his bath-tub, and 
have found it worth while to provide him with that 
commodity in the hotels. In course of time bath- 
tubs in private German houses may be expected to 
become more common than they are now ; and after a 
generation or two shall have given proper attention to 
skin-hygiene, freckles and other cutaneous blemishes 
will be less prevalent than at present. In their 
houses the Germans are really as tidy as any nation ; 
but their indifference to the appearance of their collars 
and cuffs often leads one to suspect the contrary. 

The next thing the Germans ought to learn of the 

42o Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

English is greater gallantry toward the women, who 
are too apt to be looked upon as household drudges, 
whom it is not necessary to educate or amuse. 
Especially ruinous to female Beauty is the hard field 
labour required of the women who have the misfor- 
tune to belong to a nation which has not yet outgrown 
its condition of mediaeval militarism. A German 
physician, quoted by Dr. Ploss, notes the fact that 
the beauty and bloom of youth last but a short time 
with the working classes of North Germany : " The 
hard labour performed before the body is fully devel- 
oped too easily destroys the plumpness, which is an 
essential element of beauty, draws furrows in the 
face, and makes the figure stiff and angular. Often 
have I taken a mother who showed me her child for 
its grandmother." 

The author of German Home Life remarks in a 
similar vein : " German girls are often charmingly 
pretty, with dazzling complexions, abundant beautiful 
hair, and clear lovely eyes ; but the splendid matron, 
the sound, healthy, well-developed woman, who has 
lost no grain of beauty, and yet gained a certain 
magnificent maturity such as we in England see 
daily with daughters who might well be her youngest 
sisters of such women the Fatherland has few 
specimens to show. The ' pale unripened beauties 
of the North' do not ripen, they fade." And no 
wonder, for either the girls belong to the poorer classes 
and lose their beauty prematurely from overwork ; 
or, if they are of the well-to-do classes, they get no 
Beauty-preserving exercise at all. " German girls," 
the Countess Von Bothmer continues, " have no out- 
door amusements, if we except skating when the winter 

German and Austrian Beauty 421 

proves favourable. Boating, riding, archery, swim- 
ming, croquet all the active, healthy outdoor life 
which English maidens are allowed to share and to 
enjoy with their brothers is unknown to them. . . . 
Such diversions are looked upon by the girls them- 
selves as bold, coarse, and unfeminine. ... It is in 
vain that you tell them such exercises, far from 
unsexing them, fit them all the better for the duties 
of their sex ; it is difficult for them to hear you out 
and not show the scorn they entertain for you." 

German men, as a rule, are much handsomer than 
their sisters, and they owe this superiority partly to 
the fact that their minds are not so vacant, and partly 
to the prolonged physical training which is the one 
redeeming feature of their military system. Never- 
theless, especially in South Germany, the men too 
often lose their fine manly proportions in an enormous 
embonpoint, the penalty of drinking too much beer. 
Nor is the acquisition of a turnip shape the only bad 
result of the German habit of spending every evening 
in a tavern. The air in these beer-houses is so filthy, 
so soaked with vile tobacco smoke and nicotine, 
that after sitting in it for an hour the odour haunts 
one's clothes for a week, and poisons the lungs for a 
month. It is this foul atmosphere, combined with 
the stupefying effect of the beer, that accounts for 
German heaviness and clumsiness in appearance, 
attitude, gait, and literary style. 

These disadvantages might be to some extent 
neutralised if, on returning to his bedroom, the 
German would spend the rest of the night, at least, 
in fresh air. But no ! He dreads the balmy night 
air as he would a dragon's breath, although Professor 

422 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

Reclam and other great authorities on Hygiene have 
told him a million and sixty times that night air is 
more salubrious than day air, except in swampy 

Tourists in Switzerland often wonder why it is 
that the natives, notwithstanding their glorious Alpine 
air, are, with rare exceptions, so utterly devoid of 
Beauty. Partly this is due to the hard labour and 
scanty food to which most of them are condemned ; 
but the main reason is that they enjoy their health- 
laden air only in the daytime and in summer. At 
night and in winter they close their windows hermeti- 
cally, and in the morning the atmosphere in such a 
room is something which no one who has ever 
breathed it will ever forget. 

When the Germans visit Switzerland they care- 
fully imitate the example of these ignorant peasants, 
thus depriving themselves of all the benefits of an 
Alpine tour. An eye-witness last summer told me 
of the following encounter in a Swiss hotel between 
an English lady and a German. The dining-room 
being hot to suffocation, the English lady opened a 
window, whereupon the German immediately got up 
and closed it. The English lady opened it again, 
and again it was closed ; whereupon she pushed her 
elbow through the glass, and thenceforth enjoyed 
the fresh, fragrant air, to the horror and indignation 
of the assembled Teutons. 

All these remarks of course apply to the Germans 
only in a very general way. Among all classes in 
Germany specimens of Beauty may be found that 
could hardly be surpassed anywhere else. Pretty 
faces are more frequent than elegant figures, which 

German and Austrian Beauty 423 

commonly are too robust and masculine. German 
girls are the most domestic and amiable in the 
world, and it is their amiability and depth of feeling 
that gives their mouth such a sweet expression and 
refined outlines. When German girls are educated, 
as often they are in America, their faces beam in 
irresistible beauty. The most beautiful non-Spanish 
eyes I have ever seen belonged to a girl in Baden ; 
and the most roguish blue eyes I have ever seen, to 
a Wiirtemberg girl. Regular Italian features are 
not uncommon in Bavaria, although snub-noses are 
most frequent there. The Bavarian complexion, 
though somewhat too pale, is beautifully clear ; and 
I have almost come to the conclusion that this is in 
some way connected with the national habit of drink- 
ing beer three times a day. It might be worth while 
to inquire whether there is a beautifying ingredient 
in beer which might be obtained without its stupefy- 
ing effects. 

The Germans commonly consider the maidens 
along the Rhine their most favourable and abundant 
specimens of Beauty ; but Robert Schumann, who 
had a fine eye for feminine Beauty, emphasised the 
amiability rather than the beauty of these maidens 
in the following passage from one of his private 
letters : " What characteristic faces among the lowest 
classes ! On the west shore of the Rhine the girls 
have very delicate features, indicating amiability 
rather than intelligence ; the noses are mostly Greek, 
the face very oval and artistically symmetrical, the 
hair brown. I did not see a single blonde. The 
complexion is soft, delicate, with more white than 
red ; melancholy rather than sanguine. The Frank- 

424 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

fort girls, on the other hand, have in common a 
sisterly trait the character of German, manly, sad 
earnestness which we often find in our quondam free 
cities, and which toward the east gradually merges 
into a gentle softness. Characteristic are the faces 
of all the Frankfort girls : intellectual or beautiful 
few of them ; the noses mostly Greek, often snub- 
noses ; the dialect I did not like." 

Concerning the peasant women of Saxony, Mr. 
Julian Hawthorne remarks in his Saxon Studies : 
" Massive are their legs as the banyan root ; their 
hips are as the bows of a three-decker. Backs have 
they like derricks ; rough hands like pile-drivers." 
And again : " Handsome and pretty women are cer- 
tainly no rarity in Saxony, although few of them 
can lay claim to an unadulterated Saxon pedigree." 
" We see lovely Austrians, and fascinating Poles and 
Russians, who delicately smoke cigars in the concert 
gardens. But it is hard for the peasant type to rise 
higher than comeliness ; and it is distressingly apt 
to be coarse of feature as well as of hand, clumsy of 
ankle, and more or less wedded to grease and dirt. 
Good blood shows in the profile ; and these young 
girls, whose faces are often pleasant and even at- 
tractive, have seldom an eloquent contour of nose 
and mouth. There is sometimes great softness and 
sweetness of eye, a clear complexion, a pretty 
roundness of chin and throat. Indeed, I have found 
scattered through half a dozen different villages all 
the features of the true Gretchen ; and once, in an 
obscure hamlet whose name I have forgotten, I came 
unexpectedly upon what seemed a near approach to 
the mythic being." 

German and Austrian Beauty 425 

One thing must be admitted. The Germans are 
the most systematic and persevering nation in the 
world. They took music, for instance, from her 
Italian cradle, and reared her till she developed 
into the most fascinating of the modern muses. 
They lead the world in scientific research ; and 
within a few years they have terrified the English 
monopolists by a sudden outburst of thorough-going 
Teutonic industrial activity and world -competition. 
Let but the Germans once make up their mind that 
they want Personal Beauty, and lo ! they will have it 
in superabundance. The Professorships of Hygiene, 
which are now being established at the Universities* 
will doubtless bear rich fruit. If Bismarck discovered 
the full significance of Anglo-American Courtship, 
he would forthwith order an hour of it to be 
added to the daily academic curriculum ; and if he 
realised the importance of racial mixture, he would 
order shiploads of South American and Andalusian 
brunettes to be distributed among his officers as 
wives. Nor would female education be any longer 
neglected, were it fully understood how essential it 
is to Personal Beauty and true Romantic Love, the 
basis of happy conjugal life. 

What can be done with German stock if it is duly 
mixed with Brunette ingredients, is shown at Vienna, 
which, by the apparently unanimous consent of tour- 
ists, boasts more beautiful women than any other 
city in the world. Austria has about ten per cent 
more of the pure Brunette and fourteen per cent more 
of the mixed types than Germany. The dark blood 
of Italians, Hungarians, Czechs, flows in Viennese 
veins, and there is also a piquant suspicion of Oriental 

426 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

beauty. The Viennese woman combines Andalusian 
plumpness of figure and grace of movement, with 
American delicacy of features and purity of com- 
plexion. The bust is almost always finely developed 
and rarely too luxuriant ; and the joints are the ad- 
miration of all tourists and natives. Speaking of 
England, Mr. Richard Grant White says that " Plump 
arms are not uncommon, but really fine arms are 
rare ; and fine wrists are still rarer. Such wrists as 
the Viennese women have . . . are almost unknown 
among women of English race in either country." 
And the Countess von Bothmer thus describes the 
'neighbours of Germany : 

" Polish, Hungarian, and Austrian women, whom 
we, in a general, inconclusive way, are apt to class as 
Germans, are ' beautiful exceedingly ' ; but here we 
come upon another race, or rather such a fusion of 
other races as may help to contribute to the charm- 
ing result. Polish ladies have a special, vivid, delicate, 
spirited, haunting loveliness, with grace, distinction, 
and elegance in their limbs and features that is all 
their own ; you cannot call them fragile, but they 
are of so fine a fibre and so delicate a colouring that 
they only just escape that apprehension. Of Polish 
and Hungarian pur sang there is little to be found ; 
women of the latter race are of a more robust and 
substantial build, with dark hair and complexion, 
fine flashing eyes, and pronounced type ; and who 
that remembers the women of Linz and Vienna will 
refuse them a first prize ? They possess a special 
beauty of their own, a beauty which is rare in even 
the loveliest Englishwomen ; rare, indeed, and ex- 
ceptional everywhere else ; a beauty that the artist 

English Beauty 427 

eye appreciates with a feeling of delight. They have 
the most delicately articulated joints of any women 
in the world. The juncture of the hand and wrist, 
of foot and ankle, of the nuque with the back and 
shoulders, is what our neighbours would call ' ador- 

" But alas that it should be so ! The full gra- 
cious figures types at once of strength and elegance 
the supple, slender waists, the dainty little wrists 
and hands, become all too soon hopelessly fat, from 
the persistent idleness and luxury of the nerveless, 
unoccupied lives of these graceful ladies." 


Like the Viennese, the English afford an illustra- 
tion of what can be done with Teutonic stock by 
a judicious admixture of dark blood. Although the 
mysteries of English ethnology have not been com- 
pletely unravelled, the original inhabitants of the 
British Islands appear to have been " composed of 
the long-headed dark races of the Mediterranean 
stock, possibly mingled with fragments of still more 
ancient races, Mongoliform or Allophylian " (Dr. 
Beddoe). In the later history of the race Romans, 
Germans, Danes, and Normans added their blood to 
this mixture. The Celtic-speaking people who in 
the time of the Roman Conquest inhabited South 
Britain, partook, according to Dr. Beddoe, " more of 
the tall blond stock of Northern Europe than of the 
thickset, broad-headed, dark stock which Broca has 
called Celts." But the true Blonde invasion of 
Britain did not occur till towards the beginning of 

428 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

the fifth century, when the Low-Dutch tribes, the 
Angles and Saxons, came over from the river Elbe and 
the coast region, and drove the Britons to the west 
of the island, where they were called the Welsh, 
which is an old German appellation for foreigners. 

The inference naturally suggests itself that the 
predilection for Blondes shown in English literature 
up to a recent date (as noted in the chapter on 
Blondes and Brunettes) may be traced to this fact 
that the conquering race was fair, and that conse- 
quently dark hair and eyes stigmatised their possessor 
as belonging to the conquered race. This condemna- 
tion of the Brunette type (on non-cesthetic grounds, 
be it noted) is forcibly illustrated by the following 
lines of the shepherdess Phebe in As You Like It 

" I have more cause to hate him than to love him ; 

For what had he to do to chide at me ? 
He said mine eyes were black and my hair black, 
And, now I am remember'd, scorned at me. " 

But when this temporary aristocratic ground of 
preferring the Blonde type was neutralised through 
the lapse of time, and Romantic Love, that potent 
awakener of the aesthetic sense, appeared on the 
scene and opened men's eyes to the inferior beauty 
of that type, then began the reaction in favour of 
Brunettes, which has been going on ever since. This 
view is strikingly confirmed by the following re- 
marks of Mr. Charles Roberts in Nature, January 7, 
1885 : 

" American statistics show that the blond type 
is more subject to all the diseases, except one 
(chronic rheumatism), which disqualify men for mili- 
tary service, and this must obviously place blondes at 

English Beauty 429 

a great disadvantage in the battle of life, while the 
popular saying, ' A pair of black eyes is the delight 
of a pair of blue ones/ shows that sexual selection 
does not allow them to escape from it. It is more 
than probable, therefore, from all these considerations, 
that the darker portion of our population is gaining 
on the blond, and this surmise is borne out by Dr. 
Beddoe's remark that the proportion of English and 
Scotch blood in Ireland is probably not less than a 
third, and that the Gaelic and Iberian races of the 
West, mostly dark-haired, are tending to swamp the 
blond Teutonic of England by a reflex migration? 

Obviously, the ideal Englishwoman of the future 
will be a Brunette. Thackeray had a prophetic 
vision of her when he described Beatrix Esmond : 
" She was a brown beauty : that is, her eyes, hair, 
and eyebrows and eyelashes were dark ; her hair 
curling with rich undulations, and waving over her 
shoulders " [note that] ; " but her complexion was as 
dazzling white as snow in sunshine ; except her 
cheeks, which were a bright red, and her lips, 
which were of a still deeper crimson ... a woman 
whose eyes were fire, whose look was love, whose 
voice was the sweetest love-song, whose shape was 
perfect symmetry, health, decision, activity, whose 
foot as it planted itself on the ground was firm but 
flexible, and whose motion, whether rapid or slow, 
was always perfect grace, agile as a nymph, lofty 
as a queen now melting, now imperious, now 
sarcastic there was no single movement of hers but 
was beautiful. As he thinks of her, he who writes 
feels young again and remembers a paragon." 

Sexual Selection, however, has not limited its 

430 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

efforts to the improvement of the colour of the hair, 
eyes, and complexion ; the form of the features and 
figure has also been gradually altered and refined. 
An examination of the portraits in the National 
Gallery showed to Mr. Gal ton " what appear to be 
indisputable signs of one predominant type of face 
supplanting another. For instance, the features of 
the men painted by and about the time of Holbein 
have unusually high cheek-bones, long upper lips, 
thin eyebrows, and lank dark [?] hair. It would be 
impossible, I think, for the majority of modern 
Englishmen so to dress themselves, and clip and 
arrange their hair, as to look like the majority of 
these portraits." And again : " If we may believe 
caricaturists, the fleshiness and obesity of many 
English men and women in the earlier years of this 
century must have been prodigious. It testifies to 
the grosser conditions of life in those days, and 
makes it improbable that the types best adapted to 
prevail then would be the best adapted to prevail 

Yet this improvement in the British figure and 
physiognomy is far from universal. The English are 
beyond all dispute the finest race in the world, 
physically and mentally ; but the favourable action 
of the four Sources of Beauty, to which they owe this 
supremacy, does not extend to all classes. The 
lowest-class Englishman or Irishman is the most 
hideous and brutal ruffian in the world. Of Mental 
or Moral Culture not a trace ; and whereas " the 
Spaniard, however ignorant, has naturally the manners 
and the refined feelings of a gentleman " (Macmillan's 
Magazine, 1874), as well as a love of the beautiful 

English Beauty 43 i 

forms and colours of nature : the Englishman of the 
corresponding class has nerves and senses so coarse 
that he is absolutely impervious to any impressions 
which do not come under the head of mere brutal 
excitement. In this class there is no Mixture of 
Races, but a worse than barbarian promiscuity ; 
Romantic Love is of course miles beyond the con- 
ception of imaginations so filthy and sluggish ; and 
Hygienic neglect here finds its most hideous examples 
in the Western World. 

In his English Note-Books Hawthorne speaks as 
follows of " a countless multitude of little girls " 
taken from the workhouses and educated at a charity 
school at Liverpool : " I should not have conceived 
it possible that so many children could have been 
collected together, without a single trace of beauty or 
scarcely of intelligence in so much as one individual ; 
such mean, coarse, vulgar features and figures be- 
traying unmistakably a low origin, and ignorant 
and brutal parents. They did not appear wicked, 
but only stupid, animal, and soulless. It must 
require many generations of better life to wake the 
soul in them. All America could not show the 

" Climate," he says in another place, " no doubt 
has most to do with diffusing a slender elegance 
over American young womanhood ; but something, 
perhaps, is also due to the circumstance of classes 
not being kept apart there as they are here : they 
interfuse amid the continual ups and downs of our 
social life ; and so, in the lowest stations of life, you 
may see the refining influence of gentle blood." 

Taine, in his Notes on England, thus sketches 

43 2 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

the lowest of the Englishmen : " Apoplectical and 
swollen faces, whereof the scarlet hue turns almost 
to black, worn-out, bloodshot eyes like raw lobsters ; 
the brute brutalised. Lessen the quantity of blood 
and fat, while retaining the same bone and structure, 
and increasing the countrified look ; large and wild 
beard and moustache, tangled hair, rolling eyes, 
truculent muzzle, big, knotted hands ; this is the 
primitive Teuton issuing from his woods ; after the 
portly animal, after the overfed animal, comes the 
fierce animal, the English bull." " The lower-class 
women of London," says another French writer, Mr. 
Max O'Rell, " are thin-faced or bloated-looking. 
They are horribly pale ; there is no colour to be 
seen except on the tips of their noses." 

Personal Beauty in England diminishes in quality 
and frequency, not only as we go from the upper to 
the lower classes, but also if we leave London and 
go to other cities. How far sanitary and educational 
differences account for this state of affairs, and how 
much is due to a habitual and natural immigration 
of Beauty to a place where it is most sure of appre- 
ciation, it is not easy to say. Hawthorne thus re- 
cords the impression made on his artistic eyes by an 
excursion party of Liverpool manufacturing people : 
" They were paler, smaller, less wholesome-looking, 
and less intelligent, and, I think, less noisy than so 
many Yankees would have been. . . . As to their per- 
sons," the women " generally looked better developed 
and healthier than the men ; but there was a woeful 
lack of beauty and grace, not a pretty girl among 
them, all coarse and vulgar. Their bodies, it seems 
to me, are apt to be very long in proportion to their 

English Beauty 433 

limbs in truth, this kind of make is rather charac- 
teristic of both sexes in England." 

A French writer, quoted by Figuier, Dr. Clavel, 
makes a similar statement : " The level plains, which 
are as a rule met with in England, are not favourable 
to the development of the lower extremities, and it 
is a fact that the power of. the English lies, not so 
much in their legs, as in the arms, shoulders, and 
loins. . . . The barely -marked nape of his neck 
and the oval form of his cranium indicate that 
Finn blood flows in his veins ; his maxillary power 
and the size of his teeth evidence a preference for 
an animal diet. He has the high forehead of the 
thinker, but not the long eyes of the artist. . . . 
In dealing craftily with his antagonist, he is well 
able to guard himself against the weaknesses of 
feeling. His face rarely betrays his convictions, and 
his features are devoid of the mobility which would 
prove disadvantageous." 

The Englishwoman, according to the same writer, 
" is tall, fair, and strongly built. Her skin is of 
dazzling freshness ; her features are small and 
elegantly formed ; the oval of her face is marked, 
but it is someivhat heavy toward the lower portion ; 
her hair is fine, silky, and charming ; and her long 
and graceful neck imparts to the movements of her 
head a character of grace and pride. So far all 
about her is essentially feminine ; but upon analysing 
her bust and limbs, we find that the large bones, 
peculiar to her race, interfere with the delicacy of 
her form, enlarge her extremities, and lessen the 
elegance of her postures and the harmony of her 
movements. . . . She lacks a thousand feminine 

VOL. II. 2 F 

434 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

instincts, and this lack is revealed in her toilette, 
the posture she assumes, and in her actions and 

M. Taine also was convinced of the frequent 
lack of taste in dress and bearing in Englishwomen. 
Yet it is noticeable, and cannot be too much em- 
phasised, that he goes to Spain and not to France for 
a comparison : " Compared with the supple, easy, 
silent, serpentine undulation of the Spanish dress 
and bearing, the movement here (in England), is 
energetic, discordant, jerking, like a piece of mechan- 
ism." Nor does Taine in other respects venture to 
hold up his own countrywomen as models. He 
repeatedly refers to the superior beauty of the 
English complexion : " Many ladies have their hair 
decked with diamonds, and their shoulders, much 
exposed, have the incomparable whiteness of which 
I have just spoken, the petals of a lily, the gloss of 
satin do not come near to it." And though he 
thinks that ugliness is more ugly in England than in 
France, he confesses that " generally an English- 
woman is more thoroughly beautiful and healthy 
than a Frenchwoman." " Out of every ten young 
girls one is admirable, and upon five or six a 
naturalist painter would look with pleasure." "Lady 
Mary Wortley Montague, who came to see the Court 
of the Regent in France, severely rallied our slim, 
painted, affected beauties, and proudly held up as a 
contrast ' the natural charms and the lively colours 
of the unsullied complexions ' of Englishwomen." 
" The physiognomy remains youthful here much 
later than amongst us, especially than at Paris, 
where it withers so quickly ; sometimes it remains 

English Beauty 435 

open even in old age ; I recall at this moment two 
old ladies with white hair whose cheeks were smooth 
and softly rosy ; after an hour's conversation I dis- 
covered that their minds were as fresh as their 
complexions. Even when the physiognomy and the 
form are commonplace, the whole satisfies the mind ; 
a solid bony structure, and upon it healthy flesh, 
constitute what is essential in a living creature." 

That is it precisely. The Englishman is the 
finest animal in the world ; and it is because other 
nations so often forget that one must be a fine 
animal before one can be a fine man, that the 
English have outstripped them in colonising the 
world, and imposing on it their special form of 
culture and manners. As Emerson remarks, in his 
Essay on Beauty, " It is the soundness of the bones 
that ultimates itself in the peach-bloom complexion ; 
health of constitution that makes the sparkle and the 
power of the eye." "We are all entitled to beauty, 
should have been beautiful, if our ancestors had kept 
the laws, as every lily and every rose is well." 

The London Times characteristically speaks of 
"that worst of sins in English eyes uncleanliness"; 
and it is in England alone of all European countries 
that cleanliness is esteemed next to godliness. The 
Frenchman's paradoxical exclamation, " What a 
dirty nation the English must be that they have to 
bathe so often !" is not so funny as it seems. The 
English, as can be seen in the uneducated classes, 
would be the dirtiest people in the world, thanks to 
their fogs and smoke, if they were not the most 
cleanly. It is the magic of tub and towel that has 
compelled M. Figuier to admit that although the 

436 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

Englishwomen " do not offer the noble appearance 
and luxurious figure of the Greek and Roman 
women," yet "their skins surpass in transparency 
and brilliancy those of the female inhabitants of all 
other European countries." 

It is needless to dilate on the other hygienic 
habits to which the English owe their Health, not- 
withstanding their often depressing climate, the 
passion for walking and riding, for tennis, boating, 
and other sports, which, moreover, have the advan- 
tage of bringing the sexes together, and enabling 
every Romeo to find his Juliet. One cannot help 
admiring the independence and common sense of 
the respectable London girls who go home on the 
top of the 'bus, enjoying the fresh air and varied 
sights, instead of being locked up in the foul-aired 
interior. They know very well, these clever girls, 
that their cheeks will be all the rosier, their 
smiles more bewitching, their eyes more sparkling 
after such a ride. In countries where there are 
fewer gentlemen such a thing would be considered 
as improper for a girl as it is for a man to give a 
girl a chance to choose her own husband. Do the 
French agree with the Turks that women have no 
souls, since, in Taine's words, a Frenchman " would 
consider it indelicate to utter a single clear or vague 
phrase to the young girl before having spoken to 
her parents ? " Taine imparts to his countrymen 
the curious information that in England men and 
women marry for Love, but he does not appear to 
realise how much of their superior Beauty which 
he acknowledges they owe to the habitual privilege 
of choosing their own wives for their personal charms, 

English Beauty 437 

instead of having them selected by their parents 
for their money value. He does, however, realise 
the effect this system of courtship has on conjugal 
life ; for in his History of English Literature he 
refers to the Englishwoman's extreme " sweetness, 
devotion, patience, inextinguishable affection, a 
thing unknown in distant lands, and in France 
especially ; a woman here gives herself without 
drawing back, and places her glory and duty in 
obedience, forgiveness, adoration, wishing and pre- 
tending only to be melted and absorbed daily 
deeper and deeper in him whom she has freely and 
for ever chosen" 

And there is another English custom the value 
of which Taine realises and acknowledges : " In 
France we believe too readily," he says, " that if a 
woman ceases to be a doll she ceases to be a woman." 
True, it is only a decade or two since the supersti- 
tion that a higher education would " destroy all the 
feminine graces " has been successfully combated 
even in England ; but there has always been a vast 
amount of home education, and the girls have pro- 
fited immensely by the unimpeded opportunity 
of meeting the young men and talking with them, 
and by the fact that the purity of tone which per- 
vades English literature has made all of it accessible 
to them. Hence the charming intellectual lines 
which may be traced in an English woman's face. 

What the English still need is gastronomic and 
aesthetic training. After a few generations of sense- 
refinement the lower part of the English face 
will become as perfect as the upper part is now. 
Cultivation of the fine arts and freer facial expres- 

438 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

sion of the emotions are the two great cosmetics 
which will put the finishing touch on English Beauty. 


England and America which of these two 
countries has the most beautiful women, and which 
the largest number of them ? Few questions of 
international diplomacy have been more frequently 
discussed than these problems in comparative aesthe- 
tics. But as in most cases patriotism has taken the 
place of aesthetic judgment in forming a verdict, few 
tangible results have been reached. There is too 
much exaggeration. Many English tourists have 
denied that there is any remarkable Beauty at all 
in the United States, and Americans have said the 
same of England. 

If these sceptical Englishmen had only spent an 
hour on either side of the New York and Brooklyn 
Bridge at 6 P.M., they would have seen Beauty 
enough to bewilder all their senses ; and if the 
American sceptics, next time they go to London, 
will spend a shilling in buying penny stamps at a 
dozen of those small post - offices so profusely 
scattered all over the city, they will see enough 
feminine Beauty in an hour to make them wish to 
stay in London the rest of their life, especially if 
they remember that an advertisement for eleven girls 
to fill these postal clerkships has been answered by 
as many as 2000, the majority of whom, presum- 
ably, were as good-looking as those who got the 
places, since postal clerks are not selected for their 
Beauty, but for their intelligence and efficiency. 

American Beauty 439 

A few specimens of the sweeping generalisations 
of tourists may here be cited. According to Richard 
Grant White, "The belief, formerly prevalent, that 
' American ' women had in their youth pretty doll 
faces, but at no period of life womanly beauty of 
figure, is passing away before a knowledge of the 
truth, and I have heard it scouted here by English- 
men, who, pointing to the charming evidence to the 
contrary before their eyes, have expressed surprise 
that the travelling bookwriters . . . could have so 
misrepresented the truth." Yet the same author 
indulges in the following absurdly extravagant state- 
ment : " Beauty is very much commoner among 
women of the English race than among those of 
any other with which I am acquainted ; and among 
that race it is commoner in America than in Eng- 
land. I saw more beauty of face and figure at the 
first two receptions which I attended after my return 
than I had found among the hundreds of thousands 
of women whom I had seen in England." 

The late Dr. G. M. Beard, though an acute 
observer, allowed his patriotism a still more ludicrous 
sway over his imagination : " It is not possible," he 
says, "to go to an opera in any of our large cities with- 
out seeing more of the representatives of the highest 
type of female beauty than can be found in months 
of travel in any part of Europe ! " 

Possibly Sir Lepel Griffin had read these lines 
when he was moved to pen the following counter- 
extravagances : " More pretty faces are to be seen 
in a day in London than in a month in the States. 
The average of beauty is far higher in Canada, and 
the American town in which most pretty women are 

440 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

noticeable is Detroit, on the Canadian border, and 
containing many Canadian residents. In the Wes- 
tern States beauty is conspicuous by its absence, and 
in the Eastern towns, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New 
York, and Boston, it is to be chiefly found. In 
New York, in August, I hardly saw a face which 
could be called pretty. ... In November New 
York presented a different appearance, and many 
pretty women were to be seen, although the number 
was comparatively small ; and at the Metropolitan 
Opera House even American friends were unable 
to point out any lady whom they could call beauti- 
ful. A distinguished artist told me that when he 
first visited America he scarcely saw in the streets 
of New York a single face which he could select as 
a model, though he could find twenty such in the 
London street in which his studio was situated." 

Volumes might be filled with similar unscientific 
generalisations, but it would be a waste of space. 
My own general impression is that there are more 
pretty girls in America, and more beautiful women 
in England ; that the average Englishwoman has a 
finer, healthier figure and colour, the American 
greater mobility and finer chiselling of the features. 
If English hands and feet are often somewhat large, 
American hands are just as often too small, the 
greater blemish of the two, because it usually goes 
with too thin limbs. Irish girls of the best classes 
appear to be intermediate. Some of the finest figures 
and faces in the world belong to them ; an Andalu- 
sian could hardly be more plump and graceful than 
many Irish and Irish-American girls. The Scotch, 
in the opinion of Hawthorne, " are a better-looking 

American Beauty 441 

people than the English (and this is true of all 
classes), more intelligent of aspect, with more regular 
features. I looked for the high cheek-bones, which 
have been attributed, as a characteristic feature, to 
the Scotch, but could not find them. What most 
distinguishes them from the English is the regularity 
of the nose, which is straight, and sometimes a little 
curved inward ; whereas the English nose has no 
law whatever, but disports itself in all manner of 
irregularity. I very soon learned to recognise the 
Scotch face, and when not too Scotch, it is a hand- 
some one." 

Comparative ^Esthetics is still in its infancy, and 
many years will doubtless elapse before it will become 
an exact science, in place of a collection of indi- 
vidual opinions based on vague impressions. The 
statistics which have lately been collected regarding 
the proportion of Blondes and Brunettes in various 
countries, may be regarded as the beginning of such 
a science. The next step should be the collection 
of a series of national composite portraits after the 
manner in which Mr. Galton has formed typical faces 
of criminals, etc. If in each country a number of 
individuals of pronounced national aspect were photo- 
graphed on the same plate, the result would be a 
picture which would emphasise the typical national 
traits, and enable one to judge how far they deviate 
in each case from regular Beauty. 

In most European countries it would be com- 
paratively easy to obtain characteristic composite 
portraits of this kind. But in America the diffi- 
culties would perhaps be insurmountable. For there 
the mixture of nationalities is too great and too 

44 2 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

recent to have produced any national type. The 
women of Baltimore, New York, Boston, and San 
Francisco what have they in common with one 
another any more than with their cousins in London ? 
Almost one-third of the inhabitants of New York 
are foreign-born, including about half a million Irish 
and Germans. A fusion of these has been going on 
for generations, while others have retained their 
national traits ; and to look, therefore, for a special 
type of New York Beauty would be absurd. Thanks 
to this large number of foreigners not always of 
the most desirable classes there is less Beauty in 
New York in proportion to the number of inhabi- 
tants than in most other cities of the United States. 
When people imagine they can tell from what Ameri- 
can city a given woman comes, they are hardly ever 
influenced in their judgment by physiognomy or 
figure, but by peculiarities of dress, speech, or 

Dr. Weir Mitchell says that in America you may 
see " many very charming faces, the like of which 
the world cannot match figures somewhat too spare 
of flesh, and, especially south of Rhode Island, a 
marvellous littleness of hand and foot. But look 
farther, and especially among New England young 
girls ; you will be struck with a certain hardness of 
line in form and feature, which should not be seen 
between thirteen and eighteen at least. And if you 
have an eye which rejoices in the tints of health, 
you will miss them on a multitude of the cheeks 
which we are now so daringly criticising." The 
notion that there is too much angularity of outline 
in New England faces and forms is a widespread 

American Beauty 443 

one, and to some extent founded on truth ; yet many 
of the plumpest, rosiest, and most charming Ameri- 
can women come from Boston as if to make amends 
for their antipodes, whom Mr. R. G. White describes 
as "certain women, too common in America, who 
seem to be composed in equal parts of mind and 
leather, the elements of body and soul being left 
out, so far- as is compatible with existence in human 

Concerning the multitudinous mixture of nation- 
alities in the United States one thing may be asserted 
confidently : that the finest ingredient in it is the 
English. Yet it has long been held that the English 
blood deteriorates in the United States ; that the 
descendants of the English, like those of the Germans 
and other nations and their mixtures, gradually lose 
the sound constitution of their ancestors. Haw- 
thorne, in his Scarlet Letter, was probably one of the 
first to give expression to this belief. Speaking of 
the New England women who two centuries ago 
waited for the appearance of Hester, he says : 
" Morally, as well as materially, there was a coarser 
fibre in those wives and maidens of old English birth 
and breeding than in their fair descendants, sepa- 
rated from them by a series of six or seven genera- 
tions ; for throughout that chain of ancestry every 
successive mother has transmitted to her child a 
fainter bloom, a more delicate and briefer beauty, 
and a slighter physical frame, if not a character of 
less force and solidity, than her own. . . . The 
bright morning sun, therefore, shone on broad 
shoulders and well-developed busts, and on round 
and ruddy cheeks, that had ripened in the far-off 

444 Romantic Love and Persona* Beauty 

island, and had hardly yet grown paler or thinner in 
the atmosphere of New England. 

Yet in his English Note-Books, written after the 
Scarlet Letter, he relates that he had a conversation 
with Jenny Lind : " She talked about America, and 
of our unwholesome modes of life, as to eating and 
exercise, and of the ill-health especially of our 
women ; but I opposed this view as far as I could 
with any truth, insinuating my opinion that we were 
about as healthy as other people, and affirming for a 
certainty that we live longer. . . . This charge of ill- 
health is almost universally brought forward against 
us nowadays, and, taking the whole country together, 
I do not believe the statistics will bear it out." 
But why does he in another place speak of English 
rural people as " wholesome and well-to-do, not 
specimens of hard, dry, sunburnt muscle, like our 
yeoman?" and on still another page : "In America, 
what squeamishness, what delicacy, what stomachic 
apprehension, would there not be among three 
stomachs of sixty or severity years' experience ! I 
think this failure of American stomachs is partly 
owing to our ill-usage of our digestive powers, partly 
to our want of faith in them." 

Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe exclaims that "the 
race of strong, hardy, cheerful girls ... is daily 
lessening ; and, in their stead, come the fragile, easy- 
fatigued, languid girls of a modern age, drilled in 
book-learning, ignorant of common things." Dr. 
E. H. Clarke writes in his Sex and Education, which 
should be read by all parents : " ' I never saw before 
so many pretty girls together,' said Lady Amberley 
to the writer, after a visit to the public schools of 

American Beauty 445 

Boston ; and then added, ' They all looked sick.' 
Circumstances have repeatedly carried me to Europe, 
where I am always surprised by the red blood that 
fills and colours the faces of ladies and peasant girls, 
reminding one of the canvas of Rubens and Murillo ; 
and I am always equally surprised on my return by 
crowds of pale, bloodless female faces, that suggest 
consumption, scrofula, anaemia, and neuralgia." 

Dr. S. Weir Mitchell remarks that " To-day the 
American woman is, to speak plainly, physically un- 
fit for her duties as woman." Dr. Allen, quoted by 
Sir Lepel Griffin, remarks that a majority of Ameri- 
can women " have a predominance of nerve tissue, 
with weak muscles and digestive organs " ; and Mr. 
William Blaikie says that " scarcely one girl in three 
ventures to wear a jersey, mainly because she knows 
too well that this tell-tale jacket only becomes a 
good figure." 

Dr. Clarke relates that when travelling in the 
East he was summoned as a physician into a harem 
where he had the privilege of seeing nearly a dozen 
Syrian girls : " As I looked upon their well-developed 
forms, their brown skins, rich with the blood and 
sun of the East, and their unintelligent, sensuous 
faces, I thought that if it were possible to marry the 
Oriental care of woman's organisation to the Western 
liberty and culture of her brain, there would be a new 
birth and loftier type of womanly grace and form." 

There is, doubtless, much truth in these asser- 
tions. It is distressing to see the thin limbs of so 
many American children, and the anaemic com- 
plexions and frail, willowy forms of so many maidens. 
What the American girl chiefly needs is more muscle, 

446 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

more exercise, more fresh air. A large propor- 
tion of girls, it is true, become invalids because their 
employers in the shops never allow them to sit down 
and rest ; and standing, as physiologists tell us, and 
as has been proved in the case of armies, is twice as 
fatiguing as walking. As if to restore the balance, 
therefore, the average well-to-do American girl never 
walks a hundred yards if a street car or 'bus is con- 
venient ; and the men, too, are not much better as a 
rule. One of the most disgusting sights to be seen 
in New York on a fine day is a procession of street 
cars going up Broadway, crowded to suffocation by 
young men who have plenty of time to walk 
home. In the case of the women, the cramping 
French fashions, which impede exercise, are largely 
to blame. 

Fresh -air starvation, again, is almost as epi- 
demic in America as in Germany. Although 
night air is less dreaded, draughts are quite as 
much ; and people imagine that they owe their 
constant " colds " to the cold air with which they 
come into contact, whereas it is the excessively 
hot air in their rooms that makes them morbidly 
sensitive to a salubrious atmosphere. If young 
ladies knew that the hothouse air of their par- 
lours has the same effect on them as on a bunch 
of flowers, making them wither prematurely, they 
would shun it as they would the sulphurous fumes 
of a volcano. Why should they deliberately hasten 
the conversion of the plump, smooth grape into a 
dull, wrinkled raisin ? 

It is through their morbid fondness for hot- 
house air and their indolence that American women 

American Beauty 447 

so often neutralise their natural advantages : thanks 
to the fusion of nationalities and the unimpeded 
sway of Romantic Love, they are born more beau- 
tiful than the women of any other nation ; but 
the beauty does not last. 

It must be admitted, however, that a vast im- 
provement has been effected within the last two 
generations. Beyond all doubt the young girls of 
fifteen are to-day healthier and better-looking than 
were their mothers at the same age. It is no 
longer fashionable to be pale and frail. Anglo- 
mania has done some good in introducing a love 
of walking, tennis, etc., as well as the habit of spend- 
ing a large part of the year in the country. 

Mr. Higginson, Mr. R. G. White, and many 
others, have insisted on this gradual improvement 
in the health and physique of Americans ; and Dr. 
Beard remarks in his work on American Nervous- 
ness : " During the last two decades the well-to-do 
classes of America have been visibly growing 
stronger, fuller, healthier. We weigh more than our 
fathers ; the women in all our great centres of popu- 
lation are yearly becoming more plump and more 
beautiful. . . . On all sides there is a visible rever- 
sion to the better physical appearance of our English 
and German ancestors. . . . The one need for the 
perfection of the beauty of the American women 
increase of fat is now supplied." Yet the one cos- 
metic which 20 per cent of American women still need 
above all others is the ability to eat food which they 
scorn as " greasy," but which is only greasy when 
badly prepared. It is to such food that Italian and 
Spanish women owe their luscious fulness of figure. 

448 Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

Dr. Clarke's work on Sex and Education made a 
great sensation because he pointed out that the 
ill-health of American women is largely due to 
the brain-work imposed on them at school. Now 
the superior beauty of American women is admit- 
tedly largely due to the intelligent animation of 
their features, to the early training of their mental 
faculties. Is this advantage to be sacrificed ? Dr. 
Clarke's argument does not point to any such 
conclusion. He simply contended that the methods 
of female education were injurious. " The law has, 
or had, a maxim that a man and his wife are one, 
and that the one is the man. Modern American 
education has a maxim, that boys' schools and girls' 
schools are one, and that the one is the boys' school." 
Girls need different studies from boys to fit them for 
their sphere in life ; and above all they need careful 
hygienic supervision and periods of rest. Dr. Clarke's 
book affords many irrefutable arguments in favour of 
one of the main theses of the present treatise : that 
the tendency of civilisation is to differentiate the 
sexes, mentally and physically. It is on this differ- 
entiation that the ardour and the cosmetic power of 
Romantic Love depend. Hence the hopelessness 
of the Virago Woman's Rights Cause, especially in 
America, where the women are more thoroughly 
feminine than elsewhere. It is said that when the 
first female presidential candidate announced a lec- 
ture in a western town, not a single auditor appeared 
on the scene. American women, evidently, are in 
no immediate danger of becoming masculine and 
ceasing to inspire Love. 

Women, however, must be educated and thor- 

American Beauty 449 

oughly, for it has been abundantly shown in the 
preceding pages that only an educated mind can feel 
true Romantic Love. But their education should be 
feminine. They need no algebra, Greek, and chem- 
istry. What they need is first of all a thorough 
knowledge of Physiology and Hygiene, so that they 
may be able to take care of the Health and Beauty 
of their children. Then they should be well versed 
in literature, so as to be able to shine in conversation. 
Their artistic eye should be trained, to enable them 
to teach their children to go through the world with 
their eyes open. Most of us are half blind ; we 
cannot describe accurately a single person or thing 
we see. Music should be taught to all women, as 
an aid in making home pleasant and refined, and as 
an antidote to care. Natural history is another use- 
ful feminine study which enlarges the sympathies by 
showing, for example, that birds love and marry 
almost as we do, wherefore it is barbarous to wear 
their stuffed bodies on one's hat. 

Education, Intermarriage, Hygiene, and Romantic 
Love will ultimately remove the last traces of the 
ape and the savage from the human countenance 
and figure. Climate will perhaps always continue to 
modify different races sufficiently to afford the ad- 
vantages of cross-fertilisation or intermarriage. The 
remarkable fineness of the American complexion, for 
instance, has been ascribed to climatic influences, 
and with justice it seems, for, according to School- 
craft, the skinof the native Indians is notonlysmoother, 
but more delicate and regularly furrowed than that 
of Europeans. The notion, however, that the climate 
is tending to make the American like the Indian in 

VOL. II. 2 G 

45 o Romantic Love and Personal Beauty 

feature and form is nonsensical. The typical " Yan- 
kee " owes his high cheek-bones and lankness to his 
indigestible food ; his thin colourless lips to his 
Puritan ancestry and lack of aesthetic culture. 

Even if climate did possess the power to modify 
the forms of our features, it would not be allowed to 
have its own way where these modifications con- 
flicted with the laws of Beauty. Science is daily 
making us more and more independent of crude and 
cruel Natural Selection, and of the advantages of 
physical conformity to our surroundings. Hence 
Sexual Selection has freer scope to modify the 
human race into harmony with aesthetic demands. 
Perhaps the time will come when the average man 
will have as refined a taste and as deep feelings as 
a few favoured individuals have at present ; that 
epoch will be known as the age of Romantic Love 
and Personal Beauty. 


ABOUT, E. : fashionable disease, ii. 


Absence: effect on Love, i. 409 

Addison : familiarity, i. 295, 413 

Esthetic sense : developed from utili- 
tarian associations, ii. 116 ; train- 
ing the, 121 ; highest product of 
civilisation, 233, 346 

/Esthetic suicide, ii. 200, 203 

Affection: impersonal, i. 17-26 ; for 
dismal scenery, 20 

Affections, personal : love for ani- 
mals, i. 26 ; maternal love, 30 ; 
paternal, 33 ; filial, 36 ; brotherly 
and sisterly, 37 ; friendship, 39 ; 
romantic love, 42 ; differentiation 
of, 289 

Age : which preferred by Cupid, ii. 
62 ; beauty of old, 112 ; and de- 
crepitude, 112 ; ears in old, 268 ; 
eyebrows, 339 ; hair, 364, 370 

Air : fresh, ii. 84 ; necessary to 
Beauty, i. 298 ; ii. 87, 214, 260, 
294, 295, 369, 405 

Albinos, ii. 329, 382 

Alcock, Dr. : colour of tropical man, 
ii. 309 

Alfieri : first love, i. 328, 344 

Alison : on taste, ii. 302 

Allen, Grant : origin of aesthetic 
sense, ii. 116 

Amazons, i. 305 

Ambidexterity, ii. 231, 290 

American beauty, i. 284 ; ii. 58 ; 
South American, 87 ; quadroons, 
91 ; rapid development of, 98 ; 
feet, 157 ; frank gaze, 350, 426, 
431, 438-450 ; complexion, 449 

American Love : courtship, i. 189 ; 
flirtation, 196, 203 ; Gallantry, 
254 ; and Beauty, 284 ; at eigh- 
teen, 309 ; replaces German and 
French courtship, ii. 38, 47-59 
Amicis, E. de : Spanish beauty, ii. 408 
Amiel, H. F. : on Germans, ii. 


Animals : love for, i. 26 ; ignored 
in Christian ethics, 28 ; love 
among, 53 ; jealousy, 63, 205 ; 
kissing, 365, 367 ; as tests of 
Beauty, ii. 106 ; arctic, why white, 

Apes : caressing, i. 361 ; kissing, 
362, 365 ; ugliness of, ii. no ; 
feet, 145, 152 ; gait, 150 ; legs, 
171 ; abdomen, 194 ; arms, 222 ; 
hands, 227 ; jaws, 233 ; nude 
patches, 361 ; hair, 368 
Apollo, ii. 364 
Arabian beauty, ii. 407 
Aryan Love, ancient, i. 115 
Asceticism and ugliness, ii. 80 
Augustine. St. : love and jealousy, 

i. 205 
Austrian beauty, ii. 88, 407 

BACH, A. B. : chest-exercise, ii. 217 

Bachelors, {.311 

Bacon: friendship, i. 19, 42 ; amor- 
ous hyperbole, 260 ; celibacy and 
genius, 316 ; love and genius, 
332 ; employment versus love, 
411 ; stature and intellect, 415 

Bain, Prof., i. 361 ; ii. 124, 132 

Baldness, ii. 367 

Ballet-dancing, ii. 171 



Ballrooms : unhealthy, ii. 161, 221 ; 

for birds, 162 
Balzac : prolonging Love, i. 349 ; 

how his love was won, 404 ; hand 

of great men, ii. 226 
" Bangs," ii. 199, 373 
Banting, ii. 192 
Bathing, ii. 317, 410, 419, 435 
Beard, G. M. : eyeball, ii. 341 ; 

American beauty, 439, 447 ; jaws, 


Beard, the, ii. 361, 386 

Beauty, in flowers, origin of, i. 12, 
13 ; dependent on Health and 
Cross-fertilisation, 16 

Beauty, Personal : the aesthetic over- 
tone of Love, i. 51 ; admiration 
of, by animals, 70 ; by savages, 
96; among Hebrews, 115; Hin- 
doos, 119; Greeks, 133; Romans, 
142 ; mediaeval, 173 ; feminine 
versus masculine strength, 185 ; 
arouses jealousy, 213 ; when only 
skin-deep, 249 ; and intellect, 
249 ; refines Love, 283-288 ; 
feminine, in masculine eyes, 283 ; 
masculine, in feminine eyes, 284 ; 
neglected after marriage, 296 ; 
lost prematurely, 298 ; ' ' skin- 
deep," 304 ; elimination of ugly 
and masculine women, 305 ; fatal 
to bachelors, 311 ; physical, a 
source of Love, ii. 62 ; facial, 63 ; 
dependent on Health, 74 ; inde- 
pendent of utility, 75 ; Greek, 77 ; 
increased through Hygiene, 82, 
113 ; effect of crossing on, 85 ; 
Jews, 89 ; quadroons, 91 ; in- 
creased through Love, 92, 95 ; as a 
fine art, 103, 246; tests of, negative, 
107 ; positive, 118 ; human less 
frequent than animal, 108 ; lost 
in degradation, in ; and age, 
112 ; expression versus form, 136; 
proportion, 144 ; feet, 146, 155 ; 
value of exercise, 157, 224 ; 
lower limbs, 171 ; Hygiene and 
civilisation, 173, 209 ; lacing 
fatal to, 188, 190 ; corpulence, 
191; rare, 198; chest, 208, 213; 
increased by deep-breathing, 217; 

neglect of, a sin, 219 ; neck 
and shoulder, 219 ; finger-nails, 
228 ; jaw, 233 ; characteristic, 
236 ; dimples, 239 ; lips, 240 ; 
cheeks, 255 ; colour and blushes, 
259 ; ears, 266 ; noses, 285 ; 
Greek, 285 ; arm and hand, 
291 ; cosmetic value of gastro- 
nomy, 293 ; of fragrant air, 295 ; 
of sunlight, 315, 320 ; skin, 304, 
313, 362 ; eyes, 323, 337 seq., 
407 ; beards, 362 ; moustaches, 
365 ; sexual selection preserves 
hair, 368 ; sensuous, of eyes, 348 ; 
of hair, 369, 370; versus Fashion, 
198, 375'; Brunette versus Blonde, 
375 ; national traits, 389 ; race- 
mixture and Love, 394 ; and 
mental culture, 95, 413 ; stature, 
414 ; beautiful and pretty, 415 

Beauty-sleep, ii. 84, 85 

Beauty-spots, ii. 303 

Beddoe, Dr. : brunettes and blondes, 
ii. 379 ; races of Britain, 427 

Beer, ii. 193, 421, 423 

Beethoven : Love - affairs, i. 336, 

340. 348 

Bell, Sir Charles : the lips, i. 364 ; 
Greek beauty, ii. 136 ; woman's 
gait, 176 ; facial expression, 242 ; 
beards, 364 

Belladonna, ii. 387 

Berlioz : love-affairs, i. 318, 330 

Birds : affections of, i. 56 ; inter- 
marriages, nuptial mass meetings, 
59 ; courtship, 60 ; love-dances, 
62, 83 ; jealousy, 63 ; coyness, 
65 ; choice of a mate, 68 ; source 
of colours, 70 ; love -calls, 82 ; 
female seeks male, 82 ; display of 
ornaments, motives of, 84 ; 
aesthetic taste of, 86 ; murdered 
for vulgar women, 241 ; billing, 

Blackie, Prof. : Goethe's love-affairs, 
i. 340 

Blaikie, W. : American physique, 


Blind, why love is, i. 264, 325 
Blonde versus Brunette, ii. 375, 428 
Blushes, ii. 259 ; eyes of Albinos, 329 



Bodenstedt : Oriental women, i. 
297 ; Georgian women, ii. 97 

Bones, ii. 234 

Bothmer, Countess von : French 
Love, ii. 6, 9 ; German women, 
30 ; English flirtation, 46 

Brain, the, ii. 298, 416 

Brandes, Georg : feminine Love at 
thirty, i. 309, 316 

Breath, offensive, ii. 255 

Breathing, healthy, ii. 187 ; deep, 
magic effects of, 214, 295 

Brinton and Napheys, ii. 185, 253, 
271, 290, 356 

Brotherly and sisterly love, i. 37 

Browne, Lennox : corset ruins 
grace, ii. 189 ; consumption, 217 

Brunette versus Blonde, ii. 65, 
377-389. 402, 414, 416, 423, 428 

Bryant, i. 406 

Biichner, L. , i. 7, 55 

Bulkley, Dr. : care of skin, ii. 317 ; 
removing hairs, 370 

Bunyan : kissing, i. 375 

Burke : delicacy, ii. 127 ; smooth- 
ness, 129 ; neck and breasts, 208 ; 
love and stature, 416 

Burns : Love and cosmic attraction, 
i. 9 ; amorous hyperbole, 261 ; 
first love, 328 ; ardour of his love, 
334 ; fickleness, 339 ; undercur- 
rents, 342 ; a lover's dream, 354 ; 
kissing, 371 

Burton, i. 6, 415 

Bustle, the, ii. 178, 371 

Byron, Lord : affection for moun- 
tains, i. 20 ; epitaph on dog, 27 ; 
woman's Love, 195 ; waltzing, 
208 ; the coquette, 229 ; Romantic 
Love, 261; love-affairs, 324; 
first love, 328 ; a poet's love, 
337 ; Swift, 337 ; kissing, 379 ; 
refusals, 386 ; how to win love, 
388, 403 ; sarcasm on marriage, 
414; money and "love," 421; 
Italian Love, ii. 15 ; Love in- 
spired by inferior beauty, 65 ; 
black eyes, 378 ; Italian beauty, 

CALDERWOOD : on affection, i. 18 

Calisthenics, ii. 214 

Campbell, Sir G. ; Aryan cheek- 
bones, ii. 257 

Camper's angle, ii. 297 

Canada : Love-matches and Beauty, 
i. 284 ; ii. 175, 396 

Capture of women, i. 91 

Caresses, i. 361 

Carew, i. 409 

Celibacy : mediaeval notions of, i. 
148 ; bachelors, 311 ; and genius, 

Cervantes, i. 323 ; ii. 24 

Chamfort, i. 360 

Chaperonage: in Greece, i. 124, 282 ; 
Rome, 139 ; mediaeval, 166 ; 
modern, 191, 203, 278, 290, 299, 
307 ; in France, 310 ; ii. 2 seq. ; 
England, 5, 46 ; Italy, 14 ; Spain, 
20 ; Germany, 33 ; America, 48, 
50 ; evils of, 351 

Characteristic, the, ii. 235 

Cheeks, ii. 255 ; colour and blushes, 

259- 364 

Chemical affinities, i. 4-10 
Chest, the, ii. 63, 208, 214 
Chesterfield: birth of "flirtation," 

i. 200 ; flattery, 392 
Children : head, ii. 298 ; eyes, 349 
Childs, Mrs. : Love and marriage, 

i. 195 

Chin, ii. 238 

China : Love in, i. 189 ; jealousy, 
207, 213 ; aristocracy of intellect, 
336 ; standard of Beauty, ii. 102 ; 
mutilation of the feet, 142 ; danc- 
ing, 163 ; cheeks, 255 ; eyes, 

337, 353. 356 

Chiromancy, ii. 228 

Chivalry : militant and comic, i. 157; 
poetic, 162 

Choice, sexual. See Individual Pre- 

Chopin : musician for lovers, i. 272 

Christianity and Love, i. 155 ; sym- 
pathy, 239 ; and Beauty, ii. 94 

Circassian women, ii. 88, 263 

City air, ii. 295 ; city life, injurious 
to health, 174 

Civilisation : and Beauty, ii. 258 ; 
and noise, 273 



Clarke, E. H. : American Health 
and Beauty, ii. 444 ; sex and 
education, 448 

Clavel, Dr. : English Beauty, ii. 433 

Cleanliness, i. 154 ; ii. 160, 435 

Climate, ii. 449 

Clough and Beauty, i. 382, 403, 
404, 448 

" Colds," ii. 446 

Coleridge : fruitless Love, i. 194; best 
marriages, 304; virtue and passion, 
349 ; compliments, 393 ; love and 
absence, 409 

Collier, Miss M. : Italian Love and 
Hygiene, ii. 401 

Collier, R. L. : English and Ameri- 
can courtship, ii. 45 

Colour : a normal product, propor- 
tionate to vitality, i. 70 ; Typical 
and Sexual, 71 ; Protective and 
Warning, 77 ; means of recog- 
nition of species, 79 ; complemen- 
tary, 276 ; ii. 130 ; in cheeks, 
259 ; ears, 270 ; skin, 304, 362; 
of man's skin, original, 310 ; eyes, 

324. 345 

Complementary qualities : colours, 
i. 275 ; guide Love, ii. ii, 64 

Complexion : white versus black, ii. 
304 ; Scandinavian and Spanish, 
315 ; cosmetic hints, 315 ; freckles, 
319 ; brunette versus blonde, 
380, 423 ; English, 434, 436 ; 
injured by hot air, 446 

Compliments, i. 391 

Confidence, value of, to lovers, i. 
382, 387 

Conjugal love : among animals, i. 
55 ; savages, 291 ; Hebrews, 
no ; Greeks, 121 ; Romans, 
139 ; troubadours, 165 ; self- 
sacrifice, 258 ; in France, 260 ; 
differs from Romantic, 288-304 ; 
modern, 292 ; essence of, 294 ; 
feminine deeper than masculine, 
298 ; and friendship, 412 

Constable, i. 267 

Consumption, nurseries of, ii. 217, 

Coquetry : in birds, 65 ; and flirta- 
tion, i. 196 ; historic excuse for, 

199 ; essence of, 228 ; masculine, 
229 ; and high collars, 387 

Corpulence, ii. 63, 190 ; how to 
reduce, 193 ; in old England, 

Corset : fatal to Beauty, ii. 184-193 ; 
causes corpulence, 190, 195; ruins 
chest, 219 

Cosmetic hints (see also Hygiene 
and Exercise) : how to refine the 
lips, ii. 252 ; ears, 270 ; odours, 
292 ; complexion, 315, 322 ; elec- 
tricity, 322 ; eyelashes, 355 ; eyes, 
357 ; hair, 367 ; scalp, 369 ; 
colour of eyes, 389 ; fresh air, 

Cosmic attraction, i. 4-10 

Costume, study of, ii. 373 

Court-plaster, ii. 303 - 

Courts of Love, i. 166 

Courtship : among animals, i. 59 ; 
facilitated by love-calls, 81 ; dis- 
play of ornaments, 84 ; among 
savages, 90 ; Hebrews, 112 ; 
Greeks, 124 ; Plato on, 125 ; 
advice to mediaeval girls, 171 ; 
definition and value of, 189 ; 
playing at, 197 ; modern, 201, 
203, 278; mediaeval, 383; French, 
ii. 5 ; Italian, 16 ; Spanish, 22, 
23 ; German, 27 ; American and 
English, 38, 44, 47, 56 ; the 
object of dancing, 161 ; needed 
in France, 396 ; Germany, 425 

Cousins : Love and kissing, i. 377 ; 
as chaperons, ii. 52 

Coyness : an overtone of Love, i. 
49 ; among animals, i. 64 ; among 
primitive maidens, 103 ; Hindoos, 
1 20 ; Greeks, 124 ; mediaeval, 
161 ; modern, 183-204 ; a fem- 
inine weapon, 185 ; disadvantages 
of, 190 ; lessens woman's Love, 
192 ; displaced by flirtation, 197 ; 
of fate, 273 ; after marriage, 296 ; 
varies, 405 ; how to overcome, 

. 407 ; needed in Germany, ii. 33 

Crimes, against Health and Beauty, 
ii. 219, 249 

Criminal types, ii. 96 

Crinoline craze, the, ii. 179 



Cross - fertilisation : advantages to 
Health and Beauty, i. 13 ; ii. 85 

Crossing, ii. 66 ; a source of Beauty, 

Crowe and Cavalcaselle, ii. 15 

" Cunning to be strange," i. 185 

Cupid's arrows, i. 135 

Curing Love, art of : i. 247, 314, 
408-424 ; absence, 409 ; travel, 
410; employment, 411; con- 
templation of married misery, 
411 ; of feminine inferiority, 415 ; 
focussing her faults, 419 ; reason 
versus passion, 421 ; Love versus 
Love, 422 

Curvature, ii. 123, 146, 172, 183, 
188, 208, 213, 219, 239, 337, 338 

DANCING: love-dances of birds, i. 
62, 83 ; and grace, ii. 160 ; and 
courtship, 161 ; birds, 162 ; 
Greeks and Romans, 163 ; why 
men no longer care for, 165 ; 
evolution of dance-music, 166 ; 
dance of Love, 169 ; ballet, 170 

Dante, i. 3, 175-178, 268, 317, 323, 
345 ; ii. 252, 353 

Darwin : on flowers and insects, i. 
ii ; benefactor of animals, 30 ; 
animal jealousy, 63 ; coyness, 64 ; 
sexual selection, 70-81 ; love 
charms and calls, 81 ; birds dis- 
playing their ornaments, 85 ; 
English Beauty, 233 ; female ten- 
derness, 241 ; masculine females, 
305 ; expression of Love, 359 ; 
amorous desire for contact, 361 ; 
origin of kissing, 367 ; feminine 
inferiority, 416 ; taste, 'ii. 102 ; 
symmetry in nature, 119 ; bird 
dances and courtship, 162 ; Hot- 
tentot bustle, or steatopyg, 179 ; 
jaws and hands, 232 ; lip mutila- 
tions, 244 ; expression of emo- 
tions, 247 ; Siamese notions of 
Beauty, 256 ; blushing, 261 ; 
Albinos, 382 ; movements of ears, 
267, 273 ; point of, 269 ; muti- 
lations, 271 ; the nose, 278 ; 
sense of smell, 293 ; Indian 
heads, 300 ; movements of the 

scalp, 303 ; complexion, 307 ; 
eyebrows, 339 ; loss of man's 
hair, 358 

Darwinism, new proof for, ii. 200 

Decrepitude, ii. 112 

Deformity : fatal to Love, ii. 63 ; 
elimination of, 94 

Degradation : a cause of ugliness 
ii. in 

Delicacy, ii. 127, 234, 239 

Depilatories, ii. 367 

De Quincy : inferiority of feminine 
imagination, i. 417 

Diagnosis of Love, i. 407 

Diderot : effects of Love, i. 388 

Dimples, ii. 226, 238 

Disease : kills Love, ii. 62 ; a cause 
of ugliness, 112, 124 ; result- 
ing from tight shoes, 144 ; from 
lacing, 186, 189 ; hollow eyes, 
337 ; and Fashion, 397, 447 

Display of ornaments, by animals, i. 


Don Juans, among birds, i. 57 

Draughts, stupid fear of, ii. 84 

Drayton, i. 267 

Dress, improprieties of, ii. 186 ; 
woman's, for woman, 199 ; in 
France, 397 

Dryden : on Love, i. 142, 267 ; 
Love versus Love, 423 

Dtihring, Dr. : German money- 
marriages, ii. 28 

Diirer, ii. 350 

EARS: a useless ornament, ii. 266;'; 

physiognomic theories, 272 
Eckstein : antiquity of Love, i. ii 
Education of Girls, i. 251 ; the right 

kind, 313, 418 ; effect of, on 

Beauty, ii. 96, 448, 449 
Egypt : Love in, i. 108 ; horror of 

beards, 363 
Electricity, as a cosmetic, ii. 322, 

37, 389 

Eliot, George: on first Love, i. 222 
Elopements, i. 98, 301 
Elson, L. C. : Troubadours and 

Minnesingers, i. 167 
Emerson : poetry and science, i. 

14 ; lovers' sympathy, 50 ; on 



lovers, 216 ; amorous hyperbole, 
262, 264, 386 ; balm for rejected 
lovers, 408 ; ocular expression, ii. 
341 ; Health and Beauty, 435 
Emotional differentiation, i. 288 
Empedokles, i. 5, 288, 330 
Engagements, ii. 45, 46; broken, 57 
English Beauty, i. 233 ; feet, ii. 
153, 157 ; open-air games, 175 ; 
mouths and chins, 249 ; nose, 
287 ; beards, 364 ; Brunettes 
gaining on Blondes, 379 ; physique, 

393- 396, 427-443 

English Love : courtship, i. 189 ; 
flirtation, 196, 203, 309, 314 ; 
kissing, 374, 380 ; ii. 37-47 ; 
Goldsmith on, 55 

Epicures : why handsome, ii. 294 

Erasmus : kissing in England, i. 374 

Erotomania, i. 356 

Evolution of Love, i. i, 179, 277, 
288, 290 ; of Beauty, ii. 100 ; of 
taste, 101 ; great toe, 152 

Exaggeration : characteristic of bad 
taste, i. 98 

Exclusiveness, amorous. See Mono- 

Exercise : effects on Beauty, i. 298 ; 
ii. 78, 174 ; reduces fatness but 
increases muscle, 193, 224 ; in 
France, 395, 413, 421, 427 

Exogamy, i. 91 

Expression : improves form of fea- 
tures, i. 250 ; facial, of Love, 359 ; 
of lips, 364 ; of Beauty, ii. 101, 
134-140 ; mouth, 234 ; facial, 
242, 313 ; of vice, 848 ; of lust, 
248 ; ears, 273 ; eyes, 332, 339- 
356 ; dog's tail, 367 ; Italian, 403 

Eyes, i. 264, 420 ; smiling, ii. 243 ; 
the most beautiful feature, 323 ; 
colour of, 324 ; lustre, 331, 341 ; 
form, 335 ; lashes and brows, 
338, 386, 353-356 ; expression of, 
339 ; movements of iris, 346 ; of 
eyeball, 348 ; of lids, 352 ; of 
brows, 356 ; "making eyes," 
367 ; dark versus light, 386 ; 
Spanish, 407, 409 

FACE, the, ii. 236, 296, 365 

Factories: unhealthy, ii. 218; 
whistles, 274 

Fashion : the Handmaid of Ugli- 
ness, ii. 103 ; a disease, 141 ; 
mutilates the feet, 141, 154 ; 
frustrates advantages of dancing, 
161 ; prescribes absurd hours, 
165 ; its essence vulgar exaggera- 
tion, 178 ; crinoline craze, 179 ; 
wasp-waist mania, 184 ; lacing, 
1 86 ; Fashion Fetish analysed, 
195 ; and Darwinism, 200 ; re- 
peats itself, 201 ; ludicrous fea- 
tures, 203 ; masculine, 204, 207 ; 
disgusting pictures, 208 ; deforms 
the breasts, 211; finger-nails, 
229 ; gloves, 231 ; right-handed- 
ness, 231 ; teeth, 243 ; powders 
and paints, 260, 313, 314 ; ears, 
271; noses, 278,288; versus Taste, 
279 ; forehead, 296, 299, 301 ; 
court - plaster, 303 ; eyebrows, 
339 ; hollow eyes, 354 ; mutilates 
eyes, 356 ; head-dresses, 371 ; 
tyranny of ugliness, 374 ; in 
France, 395; and bad manners, 398 

Fat, cosmetic value of, i. 193, 212 

Feet, the : size, ii. 140 ; fashionable 
ugliness, 141 ; tests of Beauty, 
145 ; not enlarged by graceful 
walking, 158 

Feminine Beauty : in masculine eyes, 
i. 283 ; prematurely lost, 298 ; 
ii. 76 ; rarer than masculine, 
77 ; greater than masculine, 125 ; 
bosom, 126, 208, 219, 223; face, 
237 ; nose, 286 ; forehead, 199, 
296, 374 ; wrinkles, 301 ; skin, 
362 ; beard, 363, 415 

Feminine Inferiority, i. 415-419 ; 
ii. 15 

Feminine Love : less deep than mas- 
culine, i. 193 ; ii. 13 ; desire to 
please, i. 255 ; dynamic, not 
aesthetic, 285, 404 ; ii. 62 ; at 
thirty, i. 309 ; expression of, 360 ; 
lessens delicacy, 407 ; Fichte on, 
ii. 31, 220 

Feminine virtues, i. 157 ; mediaeval 
culture, 169 ; cruelty, 241 ; de- 
votion, 257 



Femininity, standard of, ii. 41 
Fichte : feminine Love, ii. 31 
Fickleness of genius, i. 337 
Figuier, ii. 313, 391, 395, 399, 

Figure : a good, inspires Love, i. 

247 ; Oriental, ii. 445 ; plump, 


Filial Love, i. 36 

Finger-nails, ii. 228 

Fletcher, i. 267 

Flirtation : and coquetry, i. 196 ; de- 
finition of, 198 ; versus coyness, 
198 ; in France, ii. 14 ; in Spain, 
22 ; Germany, 33 ; England, 46 ; 
with the eyes, 355, 367 

Flower love and beauty, i. 10-17 

Flower, Prof.: walking, ii. 151; toes, 
153 ; nose-rings, 288 

Forehead, the, ii. 199, 236 ; Beauty 
and brain, 296 ; fashionable de- 
formity, 299, 374 

Fragrance, a tonic, ii. 295 

France : the source of vulgar Fash- 
ions, ii. 141 

Franklin, B. : early marriages, i. 
303 ; advantages of large families, 


Freckles, not caused by sunshine, 
ii. 319, 381, 419 

French Beauty : rare as Love-mar- 
riages, ii. ii ; feet, 157; ugly 
fashions, 200 ; brunettes and 
blondes, 379 ; general, 391-399 ; 
in America, 396 ; compared with 
English, 434 

French Love : Chivalry, i. 159 ; 
Troubadours, 164 ; no flirtation, 
198, 203 ; grandchildren sacri- 
ficed, 260 ; lower classes, 282 ; 
feminine, at thirty, 309, 314 ; 
killed by ridicule, 389 ; ii. 1-14, 

123. 394 

French, T. R. : nose-breathing, ii. 

Freytag, G. : mediaeval German 
marriages, ii. 26 

Friendship, i. 39-42 ; among ani- 
mals, 54 ; female, in Greece, 130, 
288 ; advantages over conjugal 
love, 412 

Fringe, ii. 199, 373 

GAIT, graceful, ii. 149, 159 ; de- 
fects in woman's, 176, 178, 180 ; 
in Spain, 410, 414, 434 

Gallantry : an overtone of Love, i. 
49 ; among animals, 62 ; among 
savages, 106 ; birth of, in Rome, 
147 ; crazy mediaeval, 161, 253 ; 
modern, 252 ; conjugal, 296 ; 
extravagant forms of, 355 ; fem- 
inine, 390 ; flattery in actions, 
393 ; Italian, ii. 15 ; Spanish, 
22 ; German, 29 ; American, 53; 
true, 200 ; why on the wane, 373 

Gallon : on Coyness, i. 200 ; callous 
feelings, 239 ; morals and large 
families, 303 ; heredity of genius, 
322 ; woman's senses less delicate 
than man's, 417 ; ancestral influ- 
ences, ii. 67 ; criminal types, 96 ; 
stature and marriage, 415; change 
in English physiognomy, 430 

Gastronomy : cosmetic value of, ii. 
294 ; England, 437 ; America, 


Gautier, Th. : woman has no sense 
of beauty, ii. 199 

Genius : emotional, i. 3, 144, 177 ; 
and Health, 286 ; and marriage, 
316 ; and Love, 323, 349 ; 
modern, abundant, 326 ; in Love, 
327 ; amorous precocity, 327 ; 
ardour, 332 ; versus rank and 
money, 336 ; fickleness, 337 ; 
multiplicity, 341 ; and Monopoly, 
343 ; fictitiousness, 344 

Georgian women, ii. 97 

German Beauty: i. 232 ; Bavarian 
corpulence, ii. 194 ; Brunettes 
gaining on Blondes, 379 ; physi- 
ognomy, 404 ; general, 416-426 

German Love : chivalry, i. 159 ; 
Minnesingers, 166-168 ; in Folk- 
songs, 169 ; word for courtship, 
189, 203 ; in novels, 230, 314 ; 
gallantry, 384 ; compared with 
French, ii. 3, 25-37 

Girls : of the Period, i. 191 ; plain, 
chances of getting married, 247 ; 
pretty, apt to be spoiled, 249, 



321 ; wrong education, 251, 418; 
cages versus nets, 296 ; hints on 
men, 300 ; American and English, 
301 ; best education for, 313 ; 
easily duped, 359 ; in France, 
ii. 3 ; Germany, 30 ; know when 
they are ugly, 68 ; should skate, 
176 ; how to acquire a fine figure, 
194, 225 

Gladstone : Greek hair, ii. 375, 378 ; 
stature, 414 

Godkin, E. L. : true character of 
milliners, ii. 198 

Goethe : Elective Affinities, i. 7 ; 
affection for nature, 24 ; ancient 
love, 1 86 ; first Love, 219 ; in- 
tellect and Love, 252 ; love-affairs, 
324, 331, 340, 342 ; unhappy 
marriages, 413 ; transitoriness of 
Love, ii. 35 ; aversion to noise, 

Goldsmith : on Love, i. 187, 265 ; his 
first love, 339 ; English Love, ii. 


Grace : where found, ii. 69, 127 ; 
of gait, 149 ; acquired by danc- 
ing, 1 60 ; destroyed by corsets, 
189 ; movements of the head, 
220 ; French, 393 ; Italian, 403 ; 
Spanish, 410, 414 

Gradation : ii. 120, 147, 172, 208, 
219, 226, 314, 336 

Grandchildren : sacrificed to money- 
marriages, i. 257, 260, 392, 416 

Gratiolet, ii. 347 

Greek Beauty : i. 133 ; sources of, 
ii. 77 ; animals as ideals, 109 ; no 
expression, 136, 137 ; feet, 148 ; 
gymnastics, 193 ; hands, 229 ; 
chin, 240 ; lips, 242 ; ears, 268, 
272 ; beards, 364 ; arrangement 
of hair, 374 ; colour of hair, 375 ; 
stature, 414 

Greek Love, i. 120, 186, 253, 288, 

Griffin, Sir L. : French women, ii. 
391 ; American women, 439 

Grose : noses, ii. 279 

Grote, G. : Platonic love, i. 128 ; 
Greek Beauty, 133 ; Amazons, 

Gymnastics : among Greeks, ii. 193 
Gypsy, Spanish, ii. 407 

HAECKEL, Prof., ii. 268, 418 

Hair : how to wear, ii. 199, 429 ; on 
the arm, 223 ; cause of man's 
nudity, 358 ; how to remove, 
367 ; preserved by Sexual Selec- 
tion, 368 ; aesthetic value of, 371 ; 
blonde and brunette, 375, 383 ; 
red, 385 

Hamerton, P. G. : Love and age, i. 
222 ; feminine sympathy, 251 ; 
embers of passion, 422 ; French 
Love, ii. 4, 9, 10, 12 

Hammond, Dr.W. : Delirium of Per- 
secution, i. 353 ; erotomania, 

Hand, ii. 221, 226, 232 

Handel, i. 319 

Harrison, J. P. : length of first and 
second toes, ii. 153 

Hartmann, E. von : pleasure and 
pain, i. 269 ; masculine and femi- 
nine Love, ii. 31 

Hats, tall, ii. 207 ; hideous French, 
200, 372, 398 

Haweis, Mrs. : Fashion versus 
Beauty, ii. 371 ; turban, 373 ; 
hair-powder, 386 

Hawthorne, N. : a love-letter, i. 
400 ; English Beauty, 430, 431 ; 
American physique, 442 

Hawthorne, Julian : German Beauty, 
ii. 424 

Haydn, i. 318, 331 

Hazlitt, i. 413 

Head, the, deformities of, ii. 103 ; 
and hair, 368 

Health : correlated with Beauty in 
flowers, i. 12, 16 ; in animals, 74; 
men and women, 285 ; source of 
Love, ii. 62 ; source of Beauty, 
74-85, 106, 436 ; and deli- 
cacy, 129; exercise, 174; lacing, 
1 86 ; sins against, 249 ; and 
colour, 134, 304, 312; and lustre, 
33 1 ' 343 I eyelids, 337 ; and 
sunshine, 381 ; in Italy, 401 ; 
England, 436 ; America, 443 

Hebra, Prof. : freckles, ii. 319 



Hebrews: Love among ancient, i. 
no; sense of beauty, 115 ; 
absence of jealousy, 207 ; beauty 
and ugliness of, ii. 89 ; noses, 
281, 283 

Hegel : colour of the skin, ii. 304 

Heine : flower and butterfly love, i. 
1 6 ; the word love, 17 ; joy and 
torture, 51 ; persiflage of coyness, 
190, 192 ; jealousy, 208, 212 ; on 
first Love, 219 ; his marriage, 
252 ; poet for lovers, 272, 324 ; 
his first love, 329 ; his true love, 
334 ; aesthetic love, 338 ; multi- 
plicity, 341 ; wedding music, 415 ; 
woman's character, 415 ; curing 
Love with Love, 423 ; French 
Love, ii. 3 ; an emotional educa- 
tor, 34 ; Italian Beauty, 405 

Helmholtz : overtones, i. 47 

Herder: Love, i. 113; eyes of 
great men, ii. 351 

Heredity : of genius, i. 322 

Hetairai, i. 127 

Higginson, T. W. : sexual likeness, 
i. 279 ; American physique, 441 

Hindoo Love maxims, i. 117 

History of Love, i. 108 

Holland, F. W. : morals and large 
families, i. 303 

Holmes, O. W. : feminine barbarity, 
i. 243 ; refined lips, ii. 249 

Homer : Helen's Beauty, ii. 80, 


Honeymoon, i. 263, 302 

Honvicz, i. 26, 33, 384 

Hottentots : notions of Beauty, ii. 

Howells, W. D. : monogamy, i. 
214; feminine self-abnegation, 
413 ; Italian courtship, ii. 16-18 ; 
broken engagements, 57 ; playful 
flattery, 58 

Hueffer, F. : Troubadours, i. 164 

Hume : uncertainty augments pas- 
sion, i. 199 ; mixed emotions, 275 

Humphrey, Dr.: walking, ii. 151 

Hungarian Beauty, ii. 88 

Huxley : female education, i. 418 ; 
ape's foot, ii. 150 

Hygiene, modern : a source of 

Beauty, ii. 82; of the feet, 157; 
legs, 175 ; chest, 214, 216 ; fatal 
consequences of neglect, 217 ; 
eyes, 357, 425 ; hair, 369 ; in 
England, 436 

Hyperbole : emotional, an overtone 
of Love, i. 51 ; in ancient Aryan 
Love, 119 ; modern, 260-266 ; 
after marriage, 295 ; pathologic 
analogies, 352, 355 ; contact, 362 ; 
and genius, 389 ; in America, ii. 

INDIANS, American : wooing, i. 277 ; 
standard of Beauty, ii. 101 ; mus- 
cular power, 172 ; deformed 
skulls, 300 

Indifference, feigned : value to 
lovers, i. 386 

Individual Preference : an overtone 
of Love, i. 48 ; among animals, 
67 ; savages, 91, 95 ; Hebrews, 
112, 126 ; Greeks, 125 ; Romans, 
140 ; mediaeval times, 152, 180 ; 
modern, 277-283, 301 ; in France, 
ii. 6 ; Italy, 17 ; Spain, 22 ; 
Germany, 27 ; England, 38, 437 ; 
America, 57 ; Schopenhauer on, 

Individualism versus Fashion, ii. 


Individuality, i. 278 ; and nation- 
ality, ii. 57, 138, 352, 394 

Individuals : sacrificed to species, ii. 
60, 70 

Insanity and Love : analogies, i. 
350 ; erotomania, 356 

Intellect and Beauty, i. 99, 249, 
250, 348 ; ii. 95, 97, 99, 437 

Intellect and Love, i. 99, 119, 127, 
133, 196, 144, 246, 252, 309, 
3 2 5. 336, 347 I 32, 56, 63 

Intoxication, amorous, i. 262, 316 

Iris, ii. 326, 345, 347 

Irving, Washington : transient Love, 
i. 339 ; intellect and Beauty, ii. 
95 ; Spanish Beauty, 411 

Italian Beauty: ii. 15, 19; feet, 153, 
156 ; nose, 279 ; hair, 376, 384 ; 
complexion, 383 ; general, 399- 



Italian Love : chivalry, i. 163 ; no 
word for courtship, 189, 314 ; ii. 
14-19, 401 

JAGER, G. : personal perfumery,- ii. 

James, Henry : American women, 

i. 254 ; Daisy Miller, ii. 49 
Japan : jealousy, i. 207, 213 
Jaws, the, ii. 232 
Jealousy : an overtone of Love, i. 

49 ; among animals, 63 ; moral 

mission of, 99 ; occasional absence 

among savages, 100; Greek, 124; 

mediaeval, 165 ; modern, 205-214 ; 

retrospective and prospective, 211 ; 

aroused by Beauty, 213, 276 ; 

conjugal, 295 ; Oriental, 297 ; 

morbid, 355 
Jeffrey : on Taste, ii. 102 ; theory 

of Beauty, 114 
Jews. See Hebrews 
Johnson, Dr.: second Love, i. 217 ; 

marriage and Love, 413 
Jowett, Prof. : Sokrates, love and 

friendship, i. 412 

KANT : women ensnared by coun- 
terfeit lovers, i. 389 ; value of 
smiles, ii. 252 

Karr, A.: Woman's Love, i. 414 

Keats : amorous hyperbole, i. 262 ; 
paradox, 268 ; Beauty and Love, 
283 ; love-letters, 394-397 

Kissing, i. 228, 364 ; among ani- 
mals, 365 ; savages, 366 ; origin 
of, 367 ; ancient, 372 ; mediasval, 
374; modern, 376; love-kisses, 377; 
art of, 380 ; varieties of, ii. 241 ; 
on the ears, 270 ; cheeks, 259 

Knight : Beauty and utility, ii. 115, 


Knille : Italian Beauty, ii. 403 
Kollmann, Prof. : feminine Beauty, 
i. 126; walking, 171; muscular 
development, 175 ; gait, 176 ; 
breasts, 209 ; face, 235 ; nose, 
276 ; hair, 384 ; results of cross- 
ing, ii. 89 

Koran, the : on woman's soul, i. 

Krafft-Ebing : Insanity and Love, 
i. 276, 357 

LA BRUYERE : how to win love, i. 

390 ; on use of paint, ii. 314 
Lacing : fatal to Beauty, ii. 185 
Lamartine : genius and Love, i. 337; 

love-affairs, 404 
Lamb, Chas. : amorous paradoxes, 

i. 266 ; love-affairs, 339 
Language of Love : words, i. 358 ; 

facial expression, 359 ; caresses, 

361 ; kissing, 364 
La Rochefoucauld : Love and friend- 
ship, i. 42 ; and absence, 409 
Lathrop, G. P. : Love - making in 

Spain, ii. 21 ; Spanish Beauty, 410 
Laughter, ii. 253 
Lavater : chin, ii. 238 ; ocular lustre, 

33 1 
Lawson, F. P. : effect of education 

on Beauty, ii. 96 
Leanness, ii. 63, 190 ; how to cure, 


Lecky : on kindness to animals, i. 
29 ; family affections among 
Greeks, 121 ; asceticism and chas- 
tity, 149; feminine devotion, 257; 
southern type of Beauty, ii. 383 

Lenau : love-letters, i. 397 ; music 
and Love, 411 

Leo, Judah : on Love, i. 5, 6 

Lessing : every woman a shrew, i. 


Life : prolonged through hygienic 
care, ii. 82 

Lips, i. 364, 371 ; expression of 
scorn, 234 ; refined, 239 ; lip lan- 
guage, 240 ; effect on, of aesthetic 
culture, 249 

Liszt, i. 318 

London, ii. 275 

Longfellow, i. 422 

Love-charms (and calls) : among 
animals, i. 81 ; for women, 401 ; 
ii. 260 

Love-dramas, among flowers, i. 14 

Love-maxims : Hindoo, i. 17 

Love, Romantic : a modern senti- 
ment, i. 2, 288 ; superior to 
friendship, 42 ; to maternal love, 



43 ; secures to man the benefits 
of cross-fertilisation, 45 ; over- 
tones of, 46-51 ; a great moral, 
zesthetic and hygienic force, 46 , 1 56 ; 
among animals, 53 ; savages, 87 ; 
Egyptians, 108 ; Hebrews, in ; 
ancient Aryans, 115 ; more traces 
of modern in Indian poetry than 
in Greek and Roman, 118 ; 
among Greeks, 120 ; origin of, 
137 ; among Romans, 139 ; Medi- 
jeval, 148 ; wooing and waiting, 

162 ; dependent on refinement, 

163 ; maid versus married woman, 
169 ; birth of modern, 175 ; order 
of development proved, 179 ; at 
the altar, 181 ; in novels, 182 ; 
pleasure of pursuit, 185 ; value of 
procrastination, 186, 189; coyness 
lessens woman's, 192 ; masculine 
deeper than feminine, 193, 414 ; 
ii. 12 ; modern jealousy, i. 205 ; 
passion or admiration, 209 ; is 
transient, 217, 289 ; is first best ? 
218 ; Heine on first, 219 ; first is 
not best, 221 ; individual versus 
the species, 223 ; coquetry, 228 ; 
opposed by rank, 230 ; intensifies 
emotions, 235 ; stimulates social 
sympathy, 240 ; selfish aspect of, 
241 ; at first sight, 61, 245 ; in- 
spired by a fine figure, 247 ; by 
sympathy, 251 ; responsible for 
general growth of Gallantry, 254 ; 
refines men, 256 ; impels toward 
self-sacrifice, 256, 259 ; in France, 
260 ; emotional hyperbole, 260, 
280 ; intoxication of, 262 ; honey- 
moon, 263 ; mixed moods and 
paradoxes, 266 ; course of true, 
273 ; lunatic lover and poet, 275 ; 
and conjugal, 277 ; individual 
choice, 278 ; and culture, 282 ; 
idealised by Beauty, 283 - 288 ; 
responsible for Beauty, 284 ; 
differs from conjugal, 288 ; ele- 
ments of, in conjugal affection, 
295 ; makes men embarrassed, 
300 ; free choice does not always 
imply Love, 301 ; eliminates ugly 
and masculine women, 305 ; in- 

spired by Beauty, 311 ; a duty, 
314 ; must be mutual, 315 ; genius 
is amorous, 322 ; a creative im- 
pulse, 324 ; imagined is real, 325 ; 
arouses genius, 327 ; precocious, 
327 ; most intense in men of 
genius, 333 ; fickle, 337, 347 ; 
loving two at once, 341 ; ' ' sub- 
limed " by Beauty, 349 ; patho- 
logic analogies, 350 ; erotomania, 
356 ; language of, 358 ; facial 
expression of, 359 ; caresses, 361 ; 
kissing, 364 ; how to win, 380- 

408 ; feminine, and genius, 387 ; 
effects of, 387 ; compliments, 391 ; 
love-letters not necessarily slovenly, 
396 ; extracts from, 396-400 ; 
charms for women, 401 ; mascu- 
line, and vanity, 403 ; opposed to 
viragoes, 404 ; proposing, 405 ; 
signs and tests of, 407 ; how to 
cure, 408 ; effect of absence on, 

409 ; effects of marriage on, 412 ; 
poisoned by humiliation, 421 ; 
versus Love, 422 ; chances of re- 
covery, 424; national peculiarities, 
ii. i ; massacred in France, 2 ; 
Italian, 15, 19 ; Spanish, 19 ; 
German, 25 ; English, 37, 55 ; 
American, 47 ; a cause of Beauty, 
25, 58, 72 ; points out woman's 
sphere, 44 ; obedience to, a moral 
duty, 34 ; Schopenhauer's theory 
f> 59-73 ! sources of, 62 ; com- 
plementary, explanation of, 68 ; 
leads to happy marriages, 71 ; a 
source of Beauty, 92-95 ; dis- 
places cruel Natural Selection, 94, 
258 ; is inspired by grace, 129, 
149, 158 ; more concerned with 
form than with colour, 133 ; 
guided by subtle signs, 136 ; in- 
dividualisation and " beauty- 
spots," 138 ; neglects no detail of 
Beauty, 139 ; the object of danc- 
ing, 162 ; killed by fashionable 
deformity, 186 ; feminine and 
masculine, 220 ; maintains aesthe- 
tic proportion, 238 ; related to 
Health and Beauty, 243 ; beauti- 
fies the face, 95, 247 ; special 



expression of, 248 ; beautifies the 
lips, 251 ; the cheeks, 258 ; and 
fresh air, 260 ; and blushes, 266 ; 
inspired by a musical voice, 276 ; 
beautifies the nose, 283 ; elimi- 
nates high feminine foreheads, 
296, 299 ; method of amorous 
selection, 312 ; awakens the sense 
of beauty, 313 ; banishes rouge, 
314 ; inspired by eyes, 323, 352 ; 
beautifies the eyes, 330 ; eyebrows, 
339- 357 I large pupils, 347 ; 
musciilus amatorius, 351 ; killed 
by sunken eyes, 354 ; preserves the 
hair, 368 ; favours brunettes, 65, 
377, 428 ; eyelashes, 386 ; and 
Beauty, 394 ; favours small 
women, 414 ; versus reason, 417; 
and Beauty in England, 436 ; 
sexual differentiation, 448 ; in 
America, 448 ; age of, 450 
Lovers : selfish bores, i. 216, 236 ; 
quarrels, 271 ; musician and 
poet for, 272 ; falsetto, 360 ; ii. 277 
Love-sickness : real, i. 356 
Love-stories : none in Greek litera- 
ture, i. 122 

Lubbock, Sir J. : on flowers and in- 
sects, i. 13 ; absence of certain 
emotions in savages, 88 ; kissing, 

Lungs: hygiene of, ii. 215 
Lustre, ii. 130 ; in eyes, 331, 341 
Luther: and marriage, i. 156 
Lynn-Linton, Mrs. : Girl of the 
Period, i. 299 

MACAULAY : Petrarch's love, i. 346 

Madonna, Sistine, ii. 350 ; blond, 

Magnus, Dr. Hugo : colour of the 
eye, ii. 330 ; lustre, 332 ; ex- 
pression, 341 ; portraits, 349 ; 
individuality, 351 

Manicure secrets, ii. 230 

Manners : essence of good, ii. 372 ; 
Spanish 430 

Mantegazza : on courtship, i. 189 ; 

t2 caresses, 363 ; Esquimaux nose, 
ii. 278 ; Italian noses, 278, 290 ; 
wrinkles, 302 ; Italian Beauty, 400 

Manu, laws of : on woman, i. 116 

Mariolatry : influence on woman's 
position, i. 156 

Marlowe : amorous hyperbole, i. 
266 ; half-kisses, 380 

Marriage : among animals, i. 57, 
59 ; Egyptian trial, 109, 280 ; 
modern ideal of, no ; in Greece, 
125 ; in Rome, 149; and chivalry, 
160, 165 ; Love versus expediency, 
181 ; maiden versus wife, 184 ; 
through accident, 223 ; men be- 
coming cautious, 251 ; Love not 
a motive in France, 260 ; of men 
of genius, 264, 316, 320 ; money 
versus Beauty, 284 ; ' ' the sunset 
of Love," 289 ; conditions of 
happy, 292-294 ; nets and cages, 
296; of love, versus "reason," 

299 ; ii. 417 ; hints, i. 302 ; 
chances for ugly women, 307 ; 
age for, advancing, 308 ; misery 
of, 411-415 ; in France, ii. 6 ; 
Germany, 26 ; America, 58 ; 
based on Love, 60 ; and dancing, 
165 ; and noses, 276 ; and com- 
plexion, 315 ; Albinos, 382 ; and 
stature, 415 

Masculine Beauty : in feminine eyes, 
i. 284 ; more common than fem- 
inine, ii. 77, 135, 213, 219, 223 ; 
face, 237 ; nose, 286 ; forehead, 
296 ; wrinkles, 301 ; beard, 363, 
365, 415 ; in Germany, 421 

Masculine Love : deeper than femi- 
nine, i. 193, 414; ii. 13; coquetry, 
i. 229 ; Gallantry, 254 ; beauti- 
fying impulse, 287 ; insincerity, 

300 ; comic expression of, 360 ; 
won via Vanity, 403 ; increases 
delicacy, 407 ; versus feminine, 
ii. 31 

Masculine vanity, i. 403 

Masculine women : eliminated as old 
maids, i, 305, 404 

Massage, ii. 224 

Maternal Love, i. 30 ; among ani- 
mals, 54, 293 

Mediasval Love, i. 148 ; celibacy, 
versus marriage, 148 ; woman's 
lowest degradation, 150 ; nega- 



tion of feminine choice, 152 ; 
Christianity and love, 155 ; chiv- 
alry, militant and comic, 157 ; 
poetic, 162 ; female culture, 169 ; 
Personal Beauty, 173 ; Spenser 
on Love, 174 ; Dante and Shak- 
spere, 175 

Mediaeval Ugliness : causes of, ii. 

Meditation beautifies the face, ii. 


Mental Culture : a source of Beauty, 
ii. 95 ; France, 395 ; Italy, 403 ; 
Spain, 412, 413 ; Germany, 417; 
England, 437 ; America, 448 

Middleton, i. 267 

Mill, J. S. : female self-denial, i. 
259 ; companionship in mar- 
riage, 294 ; woman's sphere, 

Milliners' cunning, ii. 197 

Milton, i. 172, 318 

Minnesingers, i. 166 

Mitchell, Dr. W. : American phy- 
sique, ii. 442 

Mitchell, P. C. : monkeys' kisses, 

i. 365 

Mixed Moods and Paradoxes of 
Love, i. 51, 266-277, 295 

Mixture of races (see also Crossing) : 
and Love, ii. 394 ; in France, 
394 ; Italy, 399 ; Spain, 406 ; 
Germany, 416; England, 407, 427, 

Modesty : a source of Coyness, i. 
184 ; and blushes, 263 

Monogamy : favours the develop- 
ment of Love, i. 103 ; in Egypt, 

Monopoly : an overtone of Love, 
i. 48 ; among savages, 101 ; in 
ancient Aryan Love, 119; modern, 
214-226 ; and genius, 342 ; three 
are a crowd, 354 ; in Lenau's 
love-letters, 399 ; masculine and 
feminine Love, ii. 31, 388 

Montagu, Lady : on woman, i. 414 

Montaigne : on marriage, i. 414 ; 
Italian Beauty, ii. 15 

Moore, T. : genius and marriage, 
i. 317, 321 ; first love, 328 

Moral impressions : confounded with 

aesthetic, ii. 346 
Mormons, i. 101 
Mountains : feelings inspired by, i. 


Mouth : muscles of, ii. 240 ; self- 
made, 252 

Muscles : development of, ii. 62 ; 
use and disuse, 100 ; the plastic 
material of Beauty, 193 ; of an 
athlete, 224 ; facial, 246; mouth, 

Music : of male birds, does it charm 
the females? i. 81 ; dance-music, 
166; Chopin's funeral march, 271; 
fans love, 411 ; ii. 105, 121, 231, 
250, 348 

NATIONALITY: and Beauty, i. 411 ; 
ii. 389 ; and Love, i 

Natural Selection : a cause of Beauty, 
i. 70 seq.; replaced by Love, ii. 
94, 258 ; blushes, 261 ; com- 
plexion, 308 ; eyebrows, 339 ; 
loss of hair, 359, 368 

Neck, ii. 219 

Negroes : African, strangers to Love, 
i. 89 ; American, can they love? 
106 ; ugliness of, ii. 87 ; standard 
of Beauty, 102, 107 ; feet, 147 ; 
legs, 172, 227 ; teeth, 243 ; lips, 
245 ; cause of blackness, 309 ; 
complexion, inferiority of, 313 ; 
eyes, 324, 327, 329, 354 ; hair, 

New York : a silly fashion in, ii. 
203 ; noise in, 275, 295 ; effem- 
inate men, 447 

Nordau, Max : love in Germany, 
i. 282 

Norton, C. E. : on Dante, i. 175 

Nose, the : shape and size, ii. 277 ; 
evolution of, 279 ; Greek and 
Hebrew, 283 ; fashion and cos- 
metic surgery, 287 ; important 
functions of, 291 

Nose-breathing : importance of, ii. 
215, 291 

Novels : Love in, i. 17 

Novelty : and first Love, i. 225 

Nudity : cause of man's, ii. 358 



ODOURS : cosmetic value of, ii. 292 
Old Maids, i. 305 

O'Rell, Max : French chaperonage, 
ii. 7 ; English degraded women, 


Origin of Love, i. 137 

Ornamentation : non - aesthetic, ii. 

Ovid : on tricks of Gallantry, i. i ; 
rarity of Beauty in Rome, 142 ; 
art of making love, 144 ; Gal- 
lantry, 148 ; conception of Love, 
189 ; enduring a rival, 208 ; esti- 
mate of, 323 ; loving two at once, 
341 ; how to cure love, 409, 411, 

PARADOXES of Love, i. 266-277, 


Parasols, ii. 321 

Pascal : self-conscious lovers, i. 353 
Paternal love, i. 33 ; animals, 54, 

293, 172 

Pepys : Spanish wooing, ii. 21 
Perfume : personal, ii. 292 ; cosmetic 

value of, 297 

Pessimism, erotic, ii. 60, 72 
Petrarch : as a love-poet, i. 345 
Photographs : why inferior to por- 
traits, ii. 135 ; why so often bad, 


Physiognomy : comparative, ii. 107 ; 
ears, 272 ; colour of the eyes, 345 ; 
variety in, and Love, 394 ; lan- 
guage of passion, i. 246 

Pity and Love, i. 241 

Planch6 : wasp-waists, ii. 185 

Plato : on Courtship, i. 125 ; ii. 49 ; 
"Platonic" Love, i. 128; origin 
of Love, 137 ; pre-matrimonial 
acquaintance, 204 ; mixed mood 
of love, 268 ; irrational love, 350 ; 
feminine inferiority, 416 ; Love 
and Beauty, ii. 93 

Pleasure and pain, i. 269 

Ploss : love-charms, i. 402 ; Ger- 
manic marriages, ii. 26 

Plumpness : inspires Love, ii. 63 

Polish Beauty, ii. 426 

Polygamy : among animals, i. 58 ; 
conducive to Jealousy, 101 ; among 

Hebrews, in ; in India, 116 ; 
neutralises conjugal love, 291 

Portraits, ii. 135, 349 ; typical, 441 

Pretty: definition of, ii. 415 

Pride : in paternal love, i. 35 ; in Ro- 
mantic Love, 50 ; and vanity, 
226-233 I m conjugal love, 295 ; 
masculine vanity, 344 ; wounded, 
cures Love, 421 

Proportion, ii. 119; facial, 296; 
stature, 298 

Proposing, i. 113, 228, 244, 387, 
405, 406 

Prudery, i. 201 ; ii. 199 

Purchase of wives, i. 93 

Puritans: sins of, against Health, ii. 

QUADROONS : beauty of American, 
ii. 91 ; graceful gait, 155 

RAILWAY whistles, ii. 274 

Raleigh: deep love, i. 359, 413 

Rank : an enemy of Love, i. 230 ; ii. 

Raphael : on Beauty, ii. 400 

Realism : emotional, desirable in 
novels, i. no 

Reclam, Prof.: dust in lungs, ii. 291; 
night air, 84, 422 

Richardson, W. B. : the ideal city, 
ii. 83 

Right-handedness, ii. 231 

Roberts, Charles : brunettes and 
blondes, ii. 427 

Roberts, J. B. : nasal deformities, ii. 

Rochefoucauld, La: women, love, 
and friendship, i. 42 ; pleasure of 
love, 315 

Roman Beauty, i. 142 ; hair, ii. 

Roman Love, i. 139-148 

Rousseau : on woman's Love, i. 193 ; 
his las* love, 331, 403 

Ruckert: kissing, i. 378 

Ruskin : poetry and science, i. 14 ; 
love of dismal scenery, 21 ; amor- 
ous paradoxes, 268 ; woman's 
work, ii. 42, 43 ; health and 
beauty, 74 ; and utility, 75 ; hap- 



piness essential to beauty, 82 ; 
intellect beautifies the features, 96 ; 
taste of savages, 105 ; beauty and 
utility, 108 ; degradation and 
ugliness, in ; wild scenery, 117 ; 
symmetry, 118 ; curvature, 123; 
colour, 130, 133 ; moderation, 
184 ; expression in the mouth, 
234 ; virtue and Beauty, 253 ; 
Greek features, 284 ; turban, 
beauty of, 373 ; southern Beauty, 

Russian old maids, i. 310 

SAPPHO : as a Love-poet, i. 130 
Savages : development of maternal 
love, i. 32 ; parental love, irregu- 
lar, 33 ; filial love weak, 36 ; 
strangers to Romantic Love, 87 ; 
ii. 69 ; inferior to birds, i. 87 ; 
courtship, 90 ; regard for beauty, 
96 ; Jealousy and Polygamy, 99, 
206 ; Gallantry, 252 ; masculine 
women, 279 ; notions of Beauty, 
286 ; ii. 102 ; conjugal attach- 
ment, i. 292 ; kissing, 367 ; sense 
delicacy, 371 ; inferior to us in 
Health, ii. 76 ; taste, 101, 233 ; 
tests of Beauty, 107, 356 ; ugliness 
of, no; dancing, 162; muscular 
development, 172 ; noses, 279 ; 
paint, 313 

Scalp : movements of, ii. 302 
Scandinavian complexion, ii. 315, 


Scherer : on mediaeval German Love, 
i. 169 

Scherr, J.: on witchcraft trials, i. 
151 ; Wieland in love, 342 ; 
Petrarch, 346 ; mediaeval court- 
ship, 383 ; mediaeval Spanish 
women, ii. 20 

Schiller : Minnesingers, i. 167 

Schopenhauer : on the Will, i. 5 ; 
aesthetic enjoyment, 2q ; final 
cause of colour in animals, 80 ; 
love at first sight, 245 ; self-sacri- 
fice, 259 ; torments, 271 ; celi- 
bacy and genius, 316 ; genius 
and woman's love, 387 ; unhappy 
marriages, 414 ; theory of Love, 

i>- 59-73 I animal Beauty, 108 ; 
masculine and feminine beauty, 
126 ; small feet, 145 ; the un- 
Eesthetic sex, 196 ; noise and 
culture, 276 ; noses and marriage, 
277, 288 ; Germans, 418 

Schumann, R., i. 261 ; love-affairs, 
343 ; on German Beauty, ii. 423 

Schweiger - Lerchenfeld : Italian 
women, ii. 16 ; Spanish love- 
making, ii. 22 

Schwenninger cure for corpulence, 
ii. 191 

Scotch Beauty, ii. 440 

Scott, Sir W. : on Dryden and Love, 
i. 144 ; and marriage, 318, 348 ; 
masculine vanity, 403 

Seeley, Prof.: Goethe on Love, ii. 


Selden : marriage, i. 415 

Self-sacrifice : an overtone of Love, i. 
49, 211, 252 ; conjugal, 258, 302 ; 
in feminine Love, ii. 31 ; Schopen- 
hauer on, 59, 71, 72 

Sellar, Prof. : Ovid, i. 323 

Seneca: Beauty, i. 413 

Sensuality and Romantic Love, i. 

Service for a wife, i. 94 

Sex : the unaesthetic, ii. 196 ; and 
education, ii. 448 

Sexual differentiation, i. 278 ; ii. 
363, 414, 448 

Sexual Selection (see also Love and 
Individual Preference) : among 
animals, i. 70; primitive men, 96 ; 
effect on chest, ii. 208 ; loss of 
hair, 223, 359 ; blushes, 261 ; 
ears, 267 ; noses, 283 ; com- 
plexion, 307 ; eyes, 323, 325 ; 
masculine and feminine, 363 ; 
preserves hair on head, 368 ; 
action uncertain, 369 ; versus 
Natural Selection, 450 

Shakspere : treatment of Love, i. 3, 
178 ; invests inanimate objects 
with human feelings, 4 ; on 
Beauty, 52 ; coyness and modesty, 
185 ; woman's Love, 193 ; amor- 
ous hyperbole, 261 ; course of 
true love, 273 ; what inspires love 

2 H 



in women, 285 ; marriage of, 318 ; 
amorous character of, 323 ; blind 
love, 325 ; lunatic and lover, 350 ; 
kissing, 378 ; winning love, 381 ; 
refusals, 386 ; flattery, 391 ; un- 
sought love, 406 ; tests of Love, 
408 ; love never fatal, 408 ; reason 
as Love's physician, 421 ; heredi- 
tary Beauty, ii. 93 ; feet, 139 ; the 
beautiful and the characteristic, 
235 ; poet of Love, 252 ; blushes, 
261 ; expression in the eyes, 340, 
353 ; love inspired by eyes, 352 ; 
Blondes and Brunettes, 375, 377 

Shelley : paradox of Love, i. 268 ; 
loving and being loved, 315 ; 
amorous disposition of, 324, 348 

Shoes : tight, objections to, ii. 143 ; 
improvements in, 159 

Shoulders, the, ii. 219 

Simcox, G. A. : on Gallantry, i. 147 ; 
mediaeval ugliness, ii. 81 ; noses, 

Skating : effects on Beauty, ii. 175 

Skin. See Complexion 

Sleep : and noise, ii. 84, 274 ; re- 
freshing, 215 

Smoothness, ii. 129, 208, 223, 270, 

361, 36S 

Soap : should be used on the face, ii. 
302, 319 ; good and bad, 317 

Solomon's Song, i. 113 

Sources of Love, ii. 62 

Southey: woman's faith, i. 414 

Southwell, i. 267 

Spanish Beauty: feet, ii. 157 ; grace, 
177, 410, 434 ; chest deformed 
by Fashion, 211 ; lips, 250; man- 
tillas, 200, 398 ; complexion, 383 ; 
general, 405-416 ; refinement, 

Spanish Love : chivalry, i. 159 ; 
falling in love, 245, 314 ; extra- 
vagant Gallantry, 355 ; ardour, 
ii. 16, 19-25 

Spencer, Herbert: on primitive pa- 
ternal love, i. 33 ; filial love, 36 ; 
analysis of Love, 50, 52 ; money- 
marriages, 181; woman's sphere, 
313 ; origin of kissing, 367 ; 
irregular mixture of ancestral quali- 

ties in children, ii. 66 ; indi- 
viduals versus the species, 70 ; 
female savages uglier than male, 
77 ; intellectual and physical 
beauty, 90 ; evolution of Beauty, 
101 ; muscular power of savages, 
172 ; laziness of savages, 174 ; 
masculine Fashion, 205 
Spenser : Love and friendship, i. 


Stael, Mme. de: on Beauty and in- 
tellect, i. 52 ; Love versus parental 
dictation, ii. 14 

Stature and Beauty, ii. 414 

Stays : for deformed women, ii. 195 

Steatopyga, ii. 179 

Steele : kissing, i. 364 ; love-letters, 

Stenches and noises, ii. 275 

Stendhal : Love and age, i. 221 ; 
Love in France, 282 ; humiliation 
poisons Love, 421 ; ii. 2 

St. Jerome : on the education of girls, 

i- iS4 

Stockings: best kind, ii. 160 
Suckling : lovers' pallor, i. 360 
Suicide : from Love, i. 195 
Sunshine : good for the complexion, 
ii. 306 ; does not cause freckles, 
320 ; and Health, 381, 401, 405 
Surgery, cosmetic, ii. 271, 288 
Swift : marriage, i. 296 ; love-affairs, 


Swiss, the, ii. 422 
Symmetry, natural tendency to, in 

flowers, i. 16, 118, 289, 346 
Symonds : on Italian Love, i. 163 ; 

formal code of Love, 171 ; Pe- 

trach, 346 ; Shelley, 348 
Sympathy: and affection, i. 18 ; an 

overtone of Love, 50, 233-252 ; 

development of, 237 ; in conjugal 

love, 294 

TAINE, H. : English Beauty and 
Love, ii. 432 seq. 

Taste : aesthetic theories of, ii. 101 ; 
disputing about, 120, 233, 246, 
256 ; versus Fashion, 279 ; sense 
of, 293 ; non-aesthetic standard, 

' Index 


Teeth: ii. 232, 237, 243 ; care of, 255 

Tennyson : kissing, i. 377 

Tests of Beauty : negative, ii. 106 ; 
positive, 118 

Thackeray: advice to lovers, i. 203 ; 
Love, 268 ; to women, 403 ; sim- 
pering Madonnas, ii. 81 ; dark 
heroines, 377 ; French physique, 

Thaxter, Mrs. : women and birds, i. 


Thomson, i. 350 
Toe, great, evolution of, ii. 152 
Topinard : early decrepitude of 

savages, ii. 76 ; life prolonged in 

France, 83 ; crossing, 87, 90 ; 

nose, 278 ; deformed skulls, 300 ; 

dark races, 382 ; French nation, 

Tourgenieff : on a dog's love, i. 27 ; 

first love, 327 . 
Trollope, A. : American Gallantry, 

" S3 

Troubadours, i. 164, 355, 357 
Trousers, ii. 205 
Turks, ii. 88 
Tylor, E. B. : the ape's gait, ii. 150; 

arms, 222 ; negro's finger-nails, 

228 ; blushing, 262 ; ears, 272 ; 

nose, 278 ; skulls, 300 
Tyranny of ugly women, ii. 198, 


UGLINESS : follows ill - health in 
animals, i. 74 ; in women, 298 ; 
no bar to marriage, 307 ; medi- 
aeval, ii. 80 ; due to simian re- 
semblance, 1 08 ; savage features, 
no ; degradation, in ; decrepi- 
tude and disease, 112; tyranny of, 
198 ; due to indolence, 214 ; a 
sin, 219; "beauty-spots," 303 

Use and disuse, effect of, on organs, 
ii. 100 

Utility and Beauty, ii. 108, 116 

VEILS, ii. 321 

Vice : destroys Beauty, ii. 248, 345 
Viragoes, i. 280, 305 
Virchow, Prof.: Brunettes and 
Blondes, ii. 379 

Virgil : Love-episode, i. 142 

Vogt, Carl : sexual divergence, i. 
279 ; negro's feet, ii. 147 ; females 
and animals, 154 ; thighs, 171 

Voice, a musical, ii. 276 

Voltaire : on ancient and modern 
friendship, i. 42 ; standard of 

' taste, ii. 101 

WAGNER, R. : leading motives, 
literary application of, i. 183 ; 
analogies between Love and 
music, 226 ; feminine devotion, 
256 ; marriage, 318 ; a musical 
kiss, 379 ; ii. 105, 241 

Waist, ii. 183 

Waitz : Magyars, ii. 88 ; Chinese 
complexion, 306, 311 ; decrease 
in number of blondes, 378 

Walker, A., i. 413 ; woman's gait, 
ii. 178 ; French Beauty, 391 

Walking, ii. 149, 160 

Wallace, A. R. : on choice exerted 
by animals, i. 69 ; Natural versus 
Sexual Selection, 70-81 ; beauty 
correlated with health in animals, 
74 ; sources of colour in animals, 
77 ; chest of Amazon Indians, ii. 
213 ; hair on arm, 223 

Waltz : the dance of Love, ii. 169 

Warner, Chas. D. : women and birds, 
i. 243 

Wasp-waist mania, the, ii. 184, 371 

Wealth, vulgar display of, ii. 197 

White, R. G. : blonde type, ii. 376; 
Viennese Beauty, 426 

Wieland : love-affair, i. 342 

Wife : capture, i. 91 ; purchase, 
93 ; service for, 94 ; capture and 
coyness, 183 ; selling, ii. 39 

Wilde, Oscar, ii. 206 

Winckelmann : Greek Beauty, ii. 79, 


curvature, 125 ; breasts, 
Greek chest, 213 ; hand, 
chin, 239 ; dimples, 240 ; 

lips, 242 ; ears, 268 ; nose, 277 ; 
eyes, 336 ; hair, 374, 375, 384 ; 
dark complexion, 380, 382 ; 
Italian Beauty, 405 
Winning Love, art of: i. i, 66, 
120, 185, 203, 208, 380-408 ; 



brass buttons, 380 ; confidence 
and boldness, 382 ; pleasant as- 
sociations, 383 ; perseverance, 
385 ; feigned indifference, 386 ; 
compliments, 391 ; Love-letters, 
394 ; for women, 401 ; propos- 
ing, 405 ; how to meet coyness, 
407 ; spicing flattery with bur- 
lesque, ii. 58 

Witchcraft, trials for, i. 151 

Woe, ecstasy of, i. 260 

Woman : weak in impersonal emo- 
tions, i. 25 ; strong in conjugal 
and maternal love, 30 ; inferior to 
man in Romantic Love, 30, 193 ; 
prefers manly to handsome men, 
97 ; position in Egypt, 108 ; 
among Hebrews, in ; in India, 
1 1 6 ; ancient Greece, 123 ; Rome, 
139; mediaeval degradation, 150; 
proverbs about, 155 ; oasis of 
culture, 169 ; position in France, 
172 ; cruelty to birds, 241 ; in- 
telligent, 250 ; in public life, 258, 
281 ; loses Beauty prematurely, 
298 ; employment problem, 312 ; 
ii. 40 ; uniform worship, i. 380 ; 

discourages deep Love, 387, 388 ; 
inferior to man, 415 ; Huxley's 
ideal, 418 ; in mediaeval Spain, 
ii. 20 ; indifferent to loss of 
Health, and the consequences, 
76 ; superior in Beauty to man, 
126 ; deplorable conservatism, 
165 ; penalty of indolence, 194 ; 
has no sense of beauty, 195, 
199, 212, 220, 371 ; needs no 
stays, 195; deficient in taste, 196; 
duped by sly milliners, 197 ; object 
of dress, 199 ; needs aesthetic in- 
struction, 201 ; riding hat, 206 ; 
fashion preferred to good man- 
ners, 373 

Wooing. See courtship 

Woody, S. E. : electrolysis for 
removing hairs, ii. 371 

Wrinkles, ii. 228, 301 

YANKEE, ii. 450 
Young, i. 318 

ZIMMERMANN, O. : Ecstasy of woe, 

i. 269 
Zola, ii. 252 


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